Greenhouse effect

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Greenhouse effect

  1. 1. Making aDifferenceOne Wattat a TimeGLOBAL WARMINGANDGREENHOUSE EFFECT
  2. 2. Introduction• Is the world getting warmer?• If so, are the actions of mankindto blame for earth’s temperatureincreases?• What can/should be done aboutthese issues?
  3. 3. History of Earth’s Climate• Earth formed ~4.6 billion yearsago• Originally very hot• Sun’s energy output only 70%of present• Liquid water present ~4.3 billionyears
  4. 4. History of Earth’sClimate• Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago• Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion yearsago– Produced oxygen and removed carbondioxide and methane (greenhouse gases)– Earth went through periods of cooling(“Snowball Earth”) and warming• Earth began cycles of glacial andinterglacial periods ~3 million years ago
  5. 5. SunEarth’s TemperatureSolarEnergyRadiationCooling
  6. 6. SunEarth’s TemperatureSolarEnergyRadiationCooling
  7. 7. Greenhouse EffectSun
  8. 8. Earth’s Atmospheric GasesNitrogen (N2)Oxygen (O2)Water (H2O)Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Methane (CH4)Non-GreenhouseGases99%GreenhouseGases1%
  9. 9. Future Carbon Dioxide Levels• Increasing CO2 emissions, especially inChina and developing countries• Likely to double within 150 years:–Increased coal usage–Increased natural gas usage–Decreased petroleum usage (increasedcost and decreasing supply)
  10. 10. Of all U.S. greenhouse gasemissions come fromhouseholds:• Vehicles• Home Heating• ElectricityHouseHolds are BigContriButors to ClimateCHange
  11. 11. OZONEDEPLETION• Due to global warming andgreenhouse effect ,our earth issuffering a lot. Holes are found inthe ozone layer which can bringdrastic changes to our habitat .CFCs ,gases likeMETHANE,CARBON DIOXIDE etc.are responsible for this.
  12. 12. SO HOW CANEACH OF USCONTRIBUTE TOSAVE OUREARTH?
  13. 13. REDUCING THECONSUMPTION OF FOSSILFUELSBecause greenhouse gas emissionsare tied very closely to ourenergy consumption, using lessfossil fuel based energy putsfewer greenhouse gases into theatmosphere.This will help in slowing downglobal warming.
  14. 14. Kitchen LightFixtureThree 60 Watt Bulbs
  15. 15. How much energy are those bulbs using?1 2 3 4 5 6 7Wattageof the bulbs# ofbulbsWattsUsed(Wattagex numberof bulbs)Hours usedper dayWatts Used(#3) x TotalHours/day(#4)Wattshours /year(#5 x 365days)Kilowatthours /year(1000Wh =1kWh)(divide #6by 1000)(Incandescentbulbs)60 W3bulbs(60 x 3)180 W10 hours aday(180 x 10)1800Wh/day(1800 x 365)640,800Wh/ year(640,800/1000)640.8kWh peryear(CFL bulbs)18 W3bulbs18 x354 W10 hours aday54 x 10540Wh/day540x365197,100Wh/day197,1001000197.1kWh/yr
  16. 16. We can make some simplesubstitutionsReplacing just 1 incandescent light bulb with 1 compactflorescent bulb saves about 150 pounds of carbondioxide per year!If every American household replaced just 5 high-useincandescent bulbs with compact florescent lights wedcollectively save more than $8 billion each year in energycosts and we would prevent the greenhouse gasesequivalent to the emissions from nearly 10 million cars.
  17. 17. Small changes really add upReplace your oldrefrigerator with a newEnergy Star:Annual savings:$90; 700 pounds CO2Set your thermostat down afew degrees in the winterAnnual savings:$135; 1400 pounds CO2Wash clothes in coldwater onlyAnnual savings:$70; 500 pounds CO2Drive JUST 10 fewer miles per weekAnnual savings:$80; 520 pounds CO2Reduce your garbageby 10% throughgreater recycling orreduced packagingAnnual savings:1200 pounds CO2Caulk and weather-striparound doors and windowsAnnual savings:$80; 650 pounds CO2
  18. 18. Glowing Up Your World• Turning off lights saves energy andmoney. The more energy used, themore rivers are dammed or morefossil fuel is burned, causing airpollution and increased levels ofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  19. 19. Glowing Up Our World• Throwing awaycontainers of anykind wastes energyand resources andadds to our wasteproblem. Many towns
  20. 20. Blowing Up Your WorldFresh vegetables cook more quicklyand are usually more nutritious thanfrozen or canned foods. Canned andfrozen vegetables are often over-processed, contain additives,contribute to air pollution (transportand packaging) and add to our wasteproblem.Glowing Up Our World
  21. 21. Glowing Up Our World•Making paper and plastic bags usesenergy and resources. The bags add toour litter and waste problems, andplastic is not biodegradable.Recycling is not the best answerbecause collecting and recyclingmaterials requires energy. Instead,carry a reusable cloth bag or a
  22. 22. GLOWING UP OURWORLD•JUTE BAGS CAN BEBETTERREPLACEMENTINSTEAD OF USINGPLASTIC BAGSWHICH ARE TOXICAND DO NOT
  23. 23. Biodegradable plastic• Biodegradable plastics are plastics that are capable of beingdecomposed by bacteria or other living organisms.Two basic classes of biodegradable plastics exist : Bio plastics, whosecomponents are derived from renewable raw materials and plastics madefrom petrochemicals with bio degradable additives which enhancebiodegradation.Some examples of biodegradable plastics are:1. Aliphatic polyesters2. Naturally Produced: Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAs)like the poly-3-hydroxy butyrate(PHB),polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) andpolyhydroxyhexanoate (PHH)3. Renewable Resource: Polylacticacid (PLA)4.Synthetic: Polybutylene succinate (PBS),• Polyanhydrides• Polyvinyl alcohol
  24. 24. Blowing Up OurWorld•Paper comes from trees.The more of it we use,the more trees that arecut down .
  25. 25. USE OF TECHNOLOGYUsing computers, tablets and latesttechnology reduces the use of paper .Hence we can save a lot of trees bydoing so. It should be eco friendly.

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