Green smoothie report (finalised work) pdf

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Green smoothie report (finalised work) pdf

  1. 1. By Ka In Katy Lau Griffith University MSc Nutrition & Dietetics Public Health Placement Project
  2. 2. Nutrition Tips Green smoothies are becoming increasingly popular with many people consuming them every day or several times a week as part of a healthy lifestyle. These popular drinks are generally made by blending raw dark green leafy vegetables with herbs and fruits to give an amazing fresh taste. Leafy green vegetables are the fantastic source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that are essential for good health. Additionally, they can be a good source of fibre which assists bowel regularity, lowers cholesterol levels and assists in maintaining a healthy weight. This brochure looks at the nutritional properties of several raw leaves available in GC Permaculture: Malabar Spinach, Scotch Kale, Sweet Potato Leaves, Amaranth, Moringa and Kang Kong. It is recommended that green smoothies can be used as a way of increasing fruit and vegetable intake and should be consumed as part of a healthy balanced diet. According to the new released 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines (see picture below), balance is the most important part of good nutrition. In order to achieve and maintain a healthy weight, we are advised to consume a wide variety of nutritious foods from the Five Food Groups everyday; drink plenty of water; limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt, added sugars and alcohol; and also be physically active. It is important to note that green leafy vegetables do not contain any Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D. Hence to compensate the needs, the best dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal sources e.g. meat, poultry, fish, shellfish and eggs, as well as dairy products, but dairy contains relatively less vitamin B12. For vegan sources, vitamin B12 can be obtained from fortified cereal, fortified soy milk and fortified meat analogues (food made from wheat gluten or soybeans to resemble meat, poultry, or fish). For Vitamin D, it is a nutrient known as “sunshine vitamin”, which means sun exposure can result in adequate Vitamin D production to our body. For its dietary sources, Vitamin D can be obtained from cod liver oil, saltwater fishes such as salmon, tuna and sardines, and dairy food.
  3. 3. Malabar Spinach Malabar Spinach is also known as Ceylon Spinach. It is a popular rampant vine which is widely grown in moist soil. There are red and green stemmed varieties. Outstanding Nutrients Malabar Spinach supplies the highest amount of folate among the 6 greens in this brochure. It contains 114µg folate per 100g, which means a cup of it can deliver 13% RDI (Recommended Dietary Intake) of the folate an adult needs daily. Folate is essential for normal maturation of red blood cells, it also plays an important role in early foetal development, preventing neural tube defects, so this is especially valuable for pregnant women. Besides, dietary folate can help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as it lowers the homocysteine level. Homocysteine is an amino acid in blood, too much of it is related to develop atherosclerosis (fatty deposits in blood vessels) by damaging the inner lining of arteries and promoting blood clots. Malabar Spinach contains 25% more calcium than common English Spinach. Calcium is vital for strong bones and teeth, it helps blood clotting, nerve transmission and heart beat of your body. Interesting Facts Common everyday spinach actually contains relatively high levels of oxalate that binds with calcium and iron of which you consumed from food, to block their absorption into your gut. To a more severe case, oxalate overload can contribute to kidney stones. However, there is no evidence that Malabar Spinach containing oxalate, in which common spinach does. But, it is still advised to consume this plant in moderation only. NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 3 cups) Proximates Water g 92.5 Energy kJ 96.3 Protein g 2.98 Total lipid (fat) g 0.78 Carbohydrate g 2.71 Fiber, total dietary g 2.1 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 124 Iron, Fe mg 1.48 Magnesium, Mg mg 48 Phosphorus, P mg 36 Potassium, K mg 256 Sodium, Na mg 55 Zinc, Zn mg 0.3 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 5.9 Thiamin mg 0.106 Riboflavin mg 0.129 Niacin mg 0.787 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.086 Folate, DFE µg 114 Vitamin A, RAE µg 58 Vitamin A, IU IU 1158 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  4. 4. Taste The fleshy leaves are rich with mucilage, so you might taste a bit overwhelming when consuming too much. It is also suitable for cooking, however, long cooking time may develop a bitter flavour. Alternative Recipe Calamari with lemon, garlic and Malabar Spinach Serve: 6 people Cooking time: approx. 1 hour Ingredients: 1 kg calamari 1 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil 3 lemon rinds, finely grated, or 60ml lemon juice, plus lemon cheeks to serve 3 garlic cloves 125ml olive oil 500g Malabar spinach 2 baby fennel bulbs, thinly sliced For dusting: plain flour, can be seasoned Method: 1. Remove the ink sac of the calamari, clean and halve, leaving wings and skin on. Then slice and refrigerate it until required. 2. Squeeze ink from ink sacs into a small bowl, add extra-virgin olive oil and 1 tsp lemon juice, season to taste and whisk to combine. 3. Finely diced garlic and add with a little sea salt, set aside. 4. Heat 2 tbsp olive oil in a frying pan over high heat. Dust half the calamari in the flour, shake off excess, then fry until golden (5-6 min) and drain on absorbent paper. 5. Season calamari with lemon rind, sea salt flakes and freshly ground black pepper. 6. Meanwhile, heat 2 tbsp olive oil in a saucepan over high heat, add spinach leaves and stems and fennel, stir occasionally until just wilted (2-3 min), add garlic mixture and remaining lemon juice, then keep warm. 7. Drizzle ink dressing onto plates, top with spinach mixture and calamari and serve with lemon cheeks.
  5. 5. Scotch Kale Kale is a form of cabbage with leaves that do not form a head. It is in the same botanical family of broccoli, cauliflower and brussels sprouts. In fact, Kale is an annual plant, it flourishes well in rich organic soil, and prefers cool climate and light frost conditions. Kales can be classified by leaf type, such as Curly leaved Scotch Kale, Red Winter Kale and Cavolo Nero Kale. In this brochure, Scotch Kale will be focused on. Outstanding Nutrients Scotch Kale has a superfood status, it is the best Vitamin C booster among the 6 greens, as its Vitamin C content of a cup volume is same as 1 medium sized orange, or one and a half kiwifruit. One cup of it will provide about 193% of Vitamin C RDI. Vitamin C serves as an anti-inflammatory which strengthens our immune system and helps in wound healing. It also aids the collagen production which is very important for joint health. It also has antioxidant properties, acting to neutralize free radicals, which can damage cell walls and accelerate ageing. Moreover, this amazing curly leaves is a particularly good source of calcium and iron, which is highly recommended for vegetarians that are unable to consume these minerals from animal food. Calcium is well-known for bone and teeth health, while iron is for making red blood cells which helps transport oxygen in the blood, as well as improves immune function and brain cognitive performance. It is important to note that plants contain non-haem iron, so Vitamin C is required to assist absorption, however, it is not an issue in this case as Scotch Kale also has a high Vitamin C content. In addition, Scotch Kale contains very low oxalate level, so it would not affect the absorption of calcium and iron. NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 2 cups) Proximates Water g 87 Energy kJ 176 Protein g 2.8 Total lipid (fat) g 0.6 Carbohydrate g 8.32 Fiber, total dietary g 1.7 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 205 Iron, Fe mg 3 Magnesium, Mg mg 88 Phosphorus, P mg 62 Potassium, K mg 450 Sodium, Na mg 70 Zinc, Zn mg 0.37 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 130 Thiamin mg 0.07 Riboflavin mg 0.06 Niacin mg 1.3 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.227 Folate, DFE µg 28 Vitamin A, RAE µg 155 Vitamin A, IU IU 3100 Amino Acids Tryptophan mg 34 Threonine mg 125 Isoleucine mg 168 Leucine mg 196 Lysine mg 168 Methionine+Cystine mg 64 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine mg 242 Valine mg 153 Histidine mg 59 Phyto-nutrients Beta-carotene µg 9226 Lutein-zeaxanthin µg 39550 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  6. 6. Interesting Facts Scotch Kale also contains high level of beta-carotene, lutein and zea-xanthin. All these phytonutrients are compounds that naturally occur in plant foods and are thought to play a key role in human health by potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease, whereas beta-carotene can be converted to Vitamin A to supply the needs of a body. Scotch Kale is not considered to hold a complete set of protein as two of the amino acids, methionine and cystine, are unable to meet the right proportion to give a complete protein. These 2 amino acids actually encourage healthy hair follicles, skin and nails growth. However, a variety of foods eaten throughout the day should meet requirements for complete protein. Taste Scotch Kale should be eaten as soon as possible after being harvested, as the longer it is kept, the stronger and more bitter it tastes. It is also good for cooking, like many hearty greens, cooked kale has a more robust texture, it keeps its structure and won’t cook down as much like spinach. Alternative Recipe Crispy Kale “Chips”, a novel dish for afternoon snacks Serve: 4 people Cooking time: 45 min Ingredients: 1 head Scotch Kale, washed and thoroughly dried 2 tbsp olive oil Sea salt, for sprinkling Method: 1. Preheat the oven to 135°C. 2. Remove the ribs from the scotch kale and cut into 1 1/2-inch pieces. 3. Lay on a baking sheet and toss with olive oil and salt. Bake for approx. 20 min until crispy, turn the leaves halfway through, then serve as finger food. P.S. The key to this recipe is making sure the kale leaves are dry because if there is any water on the leaves, it will wilt.
  7. 7. Sweet Potato Leaf Sweet potato plant is grown throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions, its crop requires just sufficient water for their cultivation. The tuberous root features elongated shape with tapering ends and has smooth outer skin whose colour ranges from red, purple, brown, and white, depending up on the variety. This plant is a well known starchy root vegetable that is great for your cardiovascular health. However, most people are not aware that the leaves of this plant are also edible, they are indeed more nutritious. Outstanding Nutrients Sweet potato leaves have exceptional 2.5 times more dietary fibre than the other 5 greens in this brochure. Per 100g, it contributes to 17-21% of AI (Adequate Intake – average daily nutrient intake level based on observation). Dietary fibre is essential for optimal health, best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation, increase the weight and size of your stool and soften it as to aid bowel movements, lower your risk of developing haemorrhoids and small pouches in your colon (diverticular disease), as well as help to maintain a healthy weight, reduce your risk of diabetes by decelerating the sugar absorption and controlling blood sugar levels, and cutting total cholesterol levels by lowering the low-density lipoprotein (“bad” cholesterol) levels. In addition, one cup of sweet potato leaves can supply 4-6% of RDI of thiamine (Vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and potassium, which is considered to be very high. These B-vitamins are needed for energy metabolism, building tissue and normalising nervous system activities. Potassium, is vital for maintaining proper fluid balance, nerve impulse, muscle function and cardiac heart beating rhythm. NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 3 cups) Proximates Water g 86.81 Energy kJ 176 Protein g 2.49 Total lipid (fat) g 0.51 Carbohydrate g 8.82 Fiber, total dietary g 5.3 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 78 Iron, Fe mg 0.97 Magnesium, Mg mg 70 Phosphorus, P mg 81 Potassium, K mg 508 Sodium, Na mg 6 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 11 Thiamin mg 0.156 Riboflavin mg 0.345 Niacin mg 1.13 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.19 Folate, DFE µg 1 Vitamin A, RAE µg 189 Vitamin A, IU IU 3778 Vitamin K µg 302.2 Amino Acids Tryptophan mg 35 Lysine mg 228 Methionine+Cystine mg 133 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  8. 8. Interesting Facts Sweet potato leaf is also one of the excellent greens sources for Vitamin K, one cup of it provides about 200% of RDI. Vitamin K has roles on bone health by promoting bone remodeling and help to aid the production of prothrombin, for blood coagulation. However, patients taking anti-coagulants such as warfarin are advised to consume this plant moderately, keeping consistency is the key, as bulk intake increases the Vitamin K concentration in blood, which is what the drugs are attempting to lower, leading unnecessary drug nutrient interaction. (Please consult your doctor, dietitian or pharmacist for more information) Taste Sweet potato leaves have a light minty and perslane (red stemmed trailing plant with green leaves) flavour, with a bit of astringent after taste. Instead of blending it raw in green smoothie, it is very common to put in hot dish, especially making stir fry, soup and stews. Alternative Recipe Asian style stir-fried sweet potato leaves in chilli Serve: 2-3 people Cooking time: 45 min Ingredients: 200g (approx. 5 cups) sweet potato leaves, better to use the baby one as they are tenderer 1 large red chilli, sliced 2 chilli padi (bird’s eye chilli), sliced 3 cloves garlic, finely chopped 1 tsp light soy sauce 1 tbsp olive oil 1/4 cup water 2 shallots, finely sliced 1/2 tbsp shrimp paste (optional) Method: 1. Trim the stem ends of the sweet potato leaves, cut to separate the sweet potato leaves and stems. Slice the stems to about 2-3cm lengths and set aside. 2. Heat oil in pan, fry the sliced shallots, large chilli, chilli padi and garlic till fragrant. 3. Increase to high heat, add the stems and stir fry for 1-2 min. 4. Add leaves, water, light soy sauce and shrimp paste. Stir fry till the leaves have just wilted and cooked. P.S. The large chilli is for colour while the small chilli padi is for spiciness.
  9. 9. Amaranth Amaranth, also named as China Spinach, is an annual plant that self seeds readily. It has a long history and has been in use for many centuries by many different cultures. It belongs to spinach family and contains over 60 species with a variety of colours, that is, colour usually differs on plumes and veins. Since it shows a wide diversity, the most common types cultivated in Queensland are: Amaranth Green and Amaranth Red (see pictures above). Outstanding nutrients Amaranth includes the highest content of zinc among the 6 greens. Zinc is useful for visual cycle and night vision, it also contributes to proper functioning of immune system to aid wound healing, and hormone production, as well as responsible for bone building, because zinc is a component of hydroxyapatite, which is a salt and makes the bone matrix strong and hard. Aside from zinc, amaranth also predominantly has the highest content of calcium, potassium and vitamin K within the six. Per 100g, it achieves 21.5% of calcium RDI, and 16-22% of potassium and 1600-1900% vitamin K AI, for a normal adult. As mentioned earlier, calcium is an astonishing mineral essential for bone and teeth, while potassium is vital for maintaining body fluid balance and leading a correct discipline of nervous system in our body. Vitamin K, mainly helps for blood clotting, as advised in the Sweet Potato Leaf page, patients on anti-coagulants medication should consume this plant sensibly, in moderation. (Please consult your doctor, dietitian or pharmacist for more information) NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 4 cups) Proximates Water g 91.69 Energy kJ 96.3 Protein g 2.46 Total lipid (fat) g 0.33 Carbohydrate g 4.02 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 215 Iron, Fe mg 2.32 Magnesium, Mg mg 55 Phosphorus, P mg 50 Potassium, K mg 611 Sodium, Na mg 20 Zinc, Zn mg 0.9 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 43.3 Thiamin mg 0.027 Riboflavin mg 0.158 Niacin mg 0.658 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.192 Folate, DFE µg 85 Vitamin A, RAE µg 146 Vitamin A, IU IU 2917 Vitamin K µg 1140 Amino Acids Tryptophan mg 31 Threonine mg 99 Isoleucine mg 119 Leucine mg 195 Lysine mg 127 Methionine+Cystine mg 65 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine mg 213 Valine mg 137 Histidine mg 52 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  10. 10. Interesting Facts Amaranth leaf is one of the rare greens that contains a complete protein. It has a wide range of amino acids, holds all essential amino acids, in particular, it contains lysine, which is an essential amino acid that is usually lacking from most plants. Lysine plays a role in the synthesis of collagen and connective tissues in our body, plus it also involves in the regulation of calcium levels to direct the finest electrolyte balance. Despite the amazing benefits of amaranth leaves, the oxalate level of this plant is also worth considering. Like common spinach discussed previously, amaranth contains a high amount of oxalate too. However, moderate consumption is still generally safe to our health, except those with kidney disorders, are advised to limit the amount. To eliminate oxalate intake, it is thought bringing to light boil or cook can help, however, this is still a very controversial topic as some research showed that there is no significant difference between cooked and raw, as oxalate is heat stable. Taste Amaranth leaves have a mild, spinach-like taste, but with a stronger leafy flavour. It can also be lightly steamed or stir-fried. However, you should avoid overcooking, as this will cause to lose the rich nutritive contents. This kind of leaves is also common to add into curries in India Alternative Recipe Amaranth leaves and coconut milk curry Serve: 4-5 people Cooking time: 1 hour Ingredients: 300g Amaranth leaves, washed and chopped 3 tbsp olive oil 2 tsp mustard seeds 2 medium sized onions, chopped 2 two-inched ginger piece, chopped 5 medium green chillies, chopped 1 hand fold curry leaves 2 tsp pepper powder 2 cups thick coconut milk Salt, depends on personal taste Method: 1. Heat oil in a pan over moderate heat. 2. Fry the mustard seeds till they start to splutter. 3. Add the chopped onions, ginger, green chillies and curry leaves into pan. 4. Fry till onions turn translucent. 5. Add the chopped amaranth leaves, pepper powder and salt into the mixture. 6. Cover the pan with a lid and reduce to low heat. 7. Cook for 5 min till the amaranth leaves are tender. 8. Add coconut milk and cook for 2-3min, then ready to serve hot.
  11. 11. Moringa Leaves Often referred to as the “miracle tree”, Moringa Oleifera is a highly valuable superfood, as it is far superior to many other vegetables in nutrient content. It is known by many common names, such as Horseradish tree, Drumstick tree, Ben tree, Marango etc. It is a native of the foothills of the Himalayas in North-western India. This small legume tree is fast growing and drought hardy, it can grow to 8 metres if allowed. Outstanding Nutrients This species is listed as having the highest protein ratio of any plant on earth. The leaves contain approximate 10% protein per 100g, which is 15-20% of our protein RDI. It owns all essential amino acids, so also known to have a complete protein. Moringa is the “king” among the six greens, per 100g, it has the highest content of vitamin A (42-54% RDI), thiamin (vitamin B1, 21% RDI), riboflavin (vitamin B2, 50% RDI), niacin (vitamin B3, 14% RDI), vitamin B6 (92% RDI), iron (28-50% RDI), magnesium(35-46% RDI) and phosphorus (11% RDI), for a normal adult. Vitamin A is vital for new cell growth, healthy skin, hair and tissues, and especially important for visual functions, preventing night blindness. The B-complex vitamins are associated with healthy energy level and overall wellbeing. They help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is then used to produce energy, and help the body metabolise fats and protein, as well as promoting healthy nerves and skin. For minerals, iron is an essential element for blood production, about 70% of our body’s iron is found in the red blood NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 4 cups) Proximates Water g 78.66 Energy kJ 268 Protein g 9.4 Total lipid (fat) g 1.4 Carbohydrate g 8.28 Fiber, total dietary g 2 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 185 Iron, Fe mg 4 Magnesium, Mg mg 147 Phosphorus, P mg 112 Potassium, K mg 337 Sodium, Na mg 9 Zinc, Zn mg 0.6 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 51.7 Thiamin mg 0.257 Riboflavin mg 0.66 Niacin mg 2.22 Vitamin B-6 mg 1.2 Folate, DFE µg 40 Vitamin A, RAE µg 378 Vitamin A, IU IU 7564 Amino Acids Tryptophan mg 144 Threonine mg 411 Isoleucine mg 451 Leucine mg 791 Lysine mg 537 Methionine+Cystine mg 263 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine mg 834 Valine mg 611 Histidine mg 196 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  12. 12. cells. Magnesium serves several important functions, such as contraction and relaxation of muscles, production of energy and protein. While phosphorus, protects and strengthens our cell membranes, assists hormones and other nutrients in their bodily processes, and needed for normal kidney functioning. Besides, Moringa is also high in calcium, though it is not the highest within the 6 greens. Interesting Facts The leaves are exceptionally energy dense, in which, it gives 268kJ per 100g (approximate 4 cups volume), the energy content of this quantity is similar to a 100g of lean loin chop veal, a 40g golfball size lean minced meatball, one 21g slice of mozzarella cheese and a plain 40g small cupcake. In comparison, it is important to note that this green has the highest energy value among the group, yet it is still considered as a high nutrient food when compared with its energy density. Taste Moringa has a mild mustard flavour, slightly spicy/nutty and has an astringent after taste when eaten raw. It is suitable to add in salads, sandwiches, soups, stir fries, sauces, dips, biscuits, breads, and any meat, poultry, fish, seafood or vegetarian main dish, various cooking methods do fine on this plant. Alternative Recipe Moringa Chicken Stew Serve: 2 people Cooking time: 1 hour Ingredients: 1/2 cup Moringa leaves 1 medium size unripe papaya (green), peeled, seeds removed, diced 1/2 pound chicken, cut into serving sizes 2 cups coconut milk 1 tsp ginger, minced 1 medium size onion, finely sliced 4 cloves garlic, chopped 2 tbsp canola oil 1/2 tsp garlic powder 2 cups chicken stock Salt and pepper to taste Methods: 1. Sauté onion, garlic and ginger in oil on a sauce pan over medium heat. 2. Add in chicken followed by the green papaya. 3. Pour in chicken stock and simmer for 15 min. 4. After 15 min , add in coconut milk and turn heat to low and simmer for another 5 min, 5. Add in garlic powder, salt and pepper, adjust according to taste. 6. Turn off heat and add in Moringa leaves. Serve hot together with steamed rice.
  13. 13. Kangkong Kangkong, also known as water spinach or swamp cabbage, is a common plant often used in dishes in Southeast Asia, particularly Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam. It can be easily grown in frog ponds and wet soil area as it only needs a moist condition to thrive, hence it does not require too much effort and budget. Once established, it will come back annually to re-grow from the original places or by self-seeding. Outstanding Nutrients Kangkong is the modest plants among the 6 greens. It is high in calcium, iron and vitamin A. Per 100g, it contributes RDI 7.7% calcium, 10-21% iron and 35-45% vitamin A, to a normal healthy adult. Besides, its sodium content is also on the top of the list, one cup of Kangkong contains around 63mg sodium (7-14% of AI). Sodium, most common found in salt, is an important electrolyte which helps fluid maintenance in our body. However, despite sodium is an essential nutrient in a balanced diet, it also causes hypertension. So those who are suffering from kidney problems and oedema should strictly restrict the intake and other healthy individuals should consume this plant in moderation. In the amino acids analysis, Kangkong cannot be concluded to obtain a complete protein because its methionine content does not reach the proper portion. NUTRIENT PROFILE Nutrient Unit per 100g (approx. 2 cups) Proximates Water g 92.47 Energy kJ 80 Protein g 2.6 Total lipid (fat) g 0.2 Carbohydrate g 3.14 Fiber, total dietary g 2.1 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 77 Iron, Fe mg 1.67 Magnesium, Mg mg 71 Phosphorus, P mg 39 Potassium, K mg 312 Sodium, Na mg 113 Zinc, Zn mg 0.18 Vitamins Vitamin C mg 55 Thiamin mg 0.03 Riboflavin mg 0.1 Niacin mg 0.9 Vitamin B-6 mg 0.096 Folate, DFE µg 57 Vitamin A, RAE µg 315 Vitamin A, IU IU 6300 Amino Acids Threonine mg 140 Isoleucine mg 104 Leucine mg 146 Lysine mg 109 Methionine+Cystine mg 72 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine mg 207 Valine mg 135 Histidine mg 47 Sourced from USDA nutrition per 100g
  14. 14. Interesting Facts Kangkong is a plant that can potentially harbor Fasciolopsiasis, an intestinal fluke parasite. In particular, it is endemic in China, India, Malaysia, Southeast Asia and Taiwan. So when consuming this vegetable in these areas, for food safety reason, it is worth to wash properly before eating in raw, or immerse into boiling water for a few seconds before serve to kill the infective metacercariae. Nevertheless, this problem is rarely happened in Australia. Taste The taste of Kangkong is very mild and is excellent for using in a quiche, stir fry and fresh salads. In fact, the leaves by themselves do not have much flavour, so herbs, spices and other condiments are often used to bring a “real” taste. Besides, it has a similar texture with sweet potato leaves but taste is different. Alternative Recipe Filipino Kangkong Salad Serve: 1-2 people Cooking time: 20 min Ingredients: 250g Kangkong 2 small size tomatoes, sliced into rings 1 medium size red onions, sliced into rings 1 salted egg, sliced 1 medium size cucumber, sliced into rings For vinegar dressing: 1/2 cup vinegar 1 clove of garlic, finely minced 1/4 tsp sugar A pinch of salt 1/4 tsp black pepper, freshly grounded Methods: 1. Clean the Kangkong, remove the leaves then wash thoroughly. 2. Blanch the Kangkong (optional, you can eat it raw), set aside. 3. In a wide platter, arrange Kangkong, then top with sliced tomatoes, onions and cucumber. 4. In a small bowl, combine vinegar, minced garlic, sugar, salt and black pepper. 5. Serve Kangkong with vinegar dressing.
  15. 15. Overall Nutrient Analysis Table (sourced from USDA nutrition) This table gives a summary of the nutrient analysis of all the 6 green leafy vegetables, whereas the yellow shaded boxes indicate the highest nutrient value among the group, and the hyphenated sign “ – “ indicate USDA has no data on this nutrient. Noted that the RDI (Recommended Dietary Intake) and AI (Adequate Intake) values are based on a healthy adult aged 19-50, in which, M = Male, F = Female. Malabar Spinach Kale Scotch Sweet Potato Leaf Amaranth Moringa Kangkong Nutrient Unit RDI/AI Value per 100g Proximates Water g - 92.5 87 86.81 91.69 78.66 92.47 Energy kJ - 96.3 176 176 96.3 268 80 Protein g M:64 F: 46 2.98 2.8 2.49 2.46 9.4 2.6 Total lipid (fat) g - 0.78 0.6 0.51 0.33 1.4 0.2 Carbohydrate g - 2.71 8.32 8.82 4.02 8.28 3.14 Fiber, total dietary g M: 30 F:25 2.1 1.7 5.3 - 2 2.1 Minerals Calcium, Ca mg M&F: 1000 124 205 78 215 185 77 Iron, Fe mg M: 8 F: 18 1.48 3 0.97 2.32 4 1.67 Magnesium, Mg mg M: 420 F: 320 48 88 70 55 147 71 Phosphorus, P mg M&F: 1000 36 62 81 50 112 39 Potassium, K mg M: 3800 F: 2800 256 450 508 611 337 312 Sodium, Na mg M&F: 460-920 55 70 6 20 9 113 Zinc, Zn mg M: 14 F: 8 0.3 0.37 - 0.9 0.6 0.18 Vitamins Vitamin C mg M&F: 45 5.9 130 11 43.3 51.7 55 Thiamin mg M: 1.2 F: 1.1 0.106 0.07 0.156 0.027 0.257 0.03 Riboflavin mg M: 1.3 F: 1.1 0.129 0.06 0.345 0.158 0.66 0.1 Niacin mg M: 16 F: 14 0.787 1.3 1.13 0.658 2.22 0.9 Vitamin B-6 mg M&F: 1.3 0.086 0.227 0.19 0.192 1.2 0.096 Folate, DFE µg M&F: 400 114 28 1 85 40 57 Vitamin A, RAE µg M: 900 F: 700 58 155 189 146 378 315 Vitamin A, IU IU - 1158 3100 3778 2917 7564 6300 Vitamin K µg M: 70 F:60 - - 302.2 1140 - -
  16. 16. Green Smoothie Example Recipes Recipe 1: Malabar Spinach & Scotch Kale Smoothie Serving: 5 people Preparation time: 10 min Ingredients: 1 cup of Malabar Spinach (~44g) 1 cup of Scotch Kale (~67g) 1 1/2 cups of water 1 cup parsley (~60g) 2 chopped pears 1 frozen banana 1 cup of ice 1/2 avocado Methods: 1. Blend water, Malabar Spinach, Scotch Kale and parsley for 15 seconds to 1 minute. 2. Then add pears, banana, ice and avocado to blend. NUTRITION INFORMATION Per Serve RDI % General Weight, g 260.8 - Macronutrients Energy, kJ 407.1 - Total Fat, g 2.8 - Saturated Fat, g 0.4 - Trans Fat, g 0.0 - Cholesterol, mg 0.0 - Total Carbohydrate, g 19.1 - Dietary Fibre, g 4.3 15.8% Sugar, g 9.4 - Protein, g 1.9 3.4% Water, g 234.1 7.6% Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 1585.0 19.8% Vitamin B6, mg 0.2 17.6% Vitamin B12, µg 0.0 0.0% Vitamin C, mg 40.6 90.2% Vitamin D, µg 0.0 0.0% Vitamin E, mg 0.5 5.4% Vitamin K, µg 202.6 311.7% Thiamin, mg 0.1 4.9% Riboflavin, mg 0.1 7.5% Niacin, mg 1.0 6.6% Pantothenic Acid, mg 0.4 8.6% Folate, µg 55.4 13.8% Minerals Calcium, mg 66.9 6.7% Iron, mg 1.5 11.8% Magnesium, mg 40.6 11.0% Phosphorus, mg 39.8 4.0% Potassium, mg 409.3 12.4% Sodium, mg 27.9 4.0% Zinc, mg 0.4 3.8% Copper, mg 0.2 11.0% Manganese,mg 0.3 5.1% Selenium, µg 0.7 1.0% Sourced from USDA Nutrition, FoodWorks & NUTTAB 2010 RDI% is based on a healthy adult aged 19-50
  17. 17. Recipe 2: Moringa & Sweet Potato Leaves Smoothie Serving: 5 people Preparation time: 10 min Ingredients: 1 cup of Moringa (~21g) 1 cup of Sweet Potato Leaves (~35g) 1 1/2 cups of water 1 cup of mint leaves (~60g) 2 apples 1 cup of ice 1 cup of yoghurt (~175g) Methods: ** Same as Recipe 1. 1. Blend water, Moringa, Sweet Potato Leaves and mint leaves for 15 seconds to 1 minute. 2. Then add apples, ice and yoghurt to blend. P.S. Noted that you can always create your own combinations with different greens, as long as you add fruits and herbs to give a palatable flavour. NUTRITION INFORMATION Per Serve RDI % General Weight, g 243.2 - Macronutrients Energy, kJ 253.2 - Total Fat, g 0.8 - Saturated Fat, g 0.4 - Trans Fat, g 0.0 - Cholesterol, mg 2.0 - Total Carbohydrate, g 11.9 - Dietary Fibre, g 1.8 6.6% Sugar, g 8.5 - Protein, g 3.0 5.5% Water, g 224.5 7.2% Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 916.3 11.5% Vitamin B6, mg 0.1 9.3% Vitamin B12, µg 0.2 7.9% Vitamin C, mg 7.2 16.0% Vitamin D, µg 0.0 0.2% Vitamin E, mg 0.0 0.5% Vitamin K, µg 0.4 0.7% Thiamin, mg 0.1 5.0% Riboflavin, mg 0.2 13.5% Niacin, mg 0.4 2.5% Pantothenic Acid, mg 0.3 5.9% Folate, µg 23.6 5.9% Minerals Calcium, mg 103 10.3% Iron, mg 2 13.3% Magnesium, mg 27 7.4% Phosphorus, mg 74 7.4% Potassium, mg 239 7.2% Sodium, mg 33 4.8% Zinc, mg 1 4.7% Copper, mg 0 5.7% Manganese,mg 0 4.2% Selenium, µg 1 1.9% Sourced from USDA Nutrition, FoodWorks & NUTTAB 2010 RDI% is based on a healthy adult aged 19-50
  18. 18. References:  Bishop, T. (2007), Manual of Dietetic Practice, 4th Edition, Blackwell Publishing  Fekonia, E. (2010), Cultivating and Harvesting Tropical Vegetables  Food Network www.foodnetwork.com  FoodWorks Australian Nutrient Analysis Software  Hutzell, R. (2011), Falling in love with: Hearty green is a fall produce staple, Annapolis Capital  Kay, L. (2012), Green energy: kale delivers a host of essential nutrients, Dance Magazine, 86:1  Lyle, S. (2009), Discovering Vegetables, Herbs & Spices, CSIRO Publishing  Mayo Clinic www.mayoclinic.com  NUTTAB 2010 Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Database  Stewart, R. (2012), Griffith Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, 4th Edition  Sydney Foodconnect sydney.foodconnect.com.au  The Queensland Herb Society Inc. www.qldherbsociety.org.au  USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) American National Nutrient Database

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