Injuries to ACL, PCL, and MCL


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Injuries to ACL, PCL, and MCL

  1. 1. Injuries and Treatments to the ACL, PCL, and MCL<br />Sulema S. Suarez<br />BIO141-0903A-16<br />Phase 3 Individual Project<br />7/23/2009<br />
  2. 2. Anatomy of the Knee<br />Femur<br />Patella<br />Distal femoral condyle<br />Tibial collateral ligament<br />Anterior cruciate ligament<br />Medial meniscus<br />Fibular collateral ligament<br />Lateral meniscus<br />Posterior cruciate ligament<br />Tibia<br />Fibula<br />
  3. 3. Posterior Cruciate Ligament<br />Mechanism of injury<br />Can tear if shinbone is hit just below the knee <br />Most common is auto accidents and contact sports<br /> Bending or extending knee past normal position<br />Getting hit on side of knee while leg is twisted<br />Other structures of the knee are usually damaged with the PCL (Mayo Clinic, 2009)<br />
  4. 4. Treatments for PCL<br />Mild to moderate<br />P.R.I.C.E.<br />Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation<br />Physical therapy<br />Moderate to severe<br />Joint aspiration<br />Removes fluid from joint using a syringe<br />Surgery<br />If severe, and is accompanied with damage to other structures, joint may need to be reconstructed (Mayo Clinic, 2009)<br />
  5. 5. Medial Cruciate Ligament<br />Mechanism of injury<br />Can be injured when struck on the outside of the knee joint <br />Stretches the ligament and can cause injuries on different scales<br />Grade I MCL Tear<br />Incomplete tear<br />Grade II MCL Tear<br />Larger tear but still considered incomplete tear<br />Grade III MCL Tear<br />Complete tear <br />
  6. 6. Treatment for MCL Injuries<br />Treatment<br />Grade I MCL Tear<br />Rest and icing the injury<br />Anti-inflammatory medications<br />1-2 weeks recovery time<br />Grade II MCL Tear<br />Hinged knee brace<br />3-4 weeks recovery time<br />Grade III MCL Tear<br />Knee immobilizer<br />Crutches<br />Knee brace (after knee is able to bend)<br />Regain strength in quadriceps<br />3-4 months recovery time<br />Surgery is generally not preferred for MCL injuries (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)<br />
  7. 7. ACL Injuries <br />Mechanism of injury<br />Ligament tears when you slow down suddenly, cut, or pivot while foot is firmly planted<br />Causes twisting and overextending of the knee (Mayo Clinic, 2009)<br />
  8. 8. Surgery for ACL<br />Surgery is performed at least one month after injury<br />Can be preformed as same day surgery<br />Surgery lasts one and a half to two hours<br />Regional or general anesthesia may be used<br />ACL must be completely removed and replaced with a segment of a larger ligament<br />Patellar ligament<br />Hamstring tendons<br />Allograft (donor tissue)<br />About one third of the ligament is used to secure the femur to the tibia (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)<br />
  9. 9. Rehabilitation after surgery<br />Will need to use crutches and a knee brace for one to three weeks<br />A CPM (continuous passive motion)machine may be used in the days following surgery<br />Swelling should be controlled<br />Joint should be flexed<br />Muscles around the knee should be strengthened to improve stability of the joint<br />Normal activities can be resumed after tow to four months<br />High demand activities can be resumed after six to seven months (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)<br />
  10. 10. References<br />Cluett, M.D., Jonathan. January 1, 2008. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery. <br /> Retrieved July 23, 2009, from:<br /><br />Mayo Clinic. Copyright 1998-2009. Knee Pain. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from:<br /><br />Touch of Life Technologies. Copyright 2009. VH Dissector. Retrieved July 24, 2009<br />