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Injuries to ACL, PCL, and MCL
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Injuries to ACL, PCL, and MCL

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  • 1. Injuries and Treatments to the ACL, PCL, and MCL
    Sulema S. Suarez
    BIO141-0903A-16
    Phase 3 Individual Project
    7/23/2009
  • 2. Anatomy of the Knee
    Femur
    Patella
    Distal femoral condyle
    Tibial collateral ligament
    Anterior cruciate ligament
    Medial meniscus
    Fibular collateral ligament
    Lateral meniscus
    Posterior cruciate ligament
    Tibia
    Fibula
  • 3. Posterior Cruciate Ligament
    Mechanism of injury
    Can tear if shinbone is hit just below the knee
    Most common is auto accidents and contact sports
    Bending or extending knee past normal position
    Getting hit on side of knee while leg is twisted
    Other structures of the knee are usually damaged with the PCL (Mayo Clinic, 2009)
  • 4. Treatments for PCL
    Mild to moderate
    P.R.I.C.E.
    Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation
    Physical therapy
    Moderate to severe
    Joint aspiration
    Removes fluid from joint using a syringe
    Surgery
    If severe, and is accompanied with damage to other structures, joint may need to be reconstructed (Mayo Clinic, 2009)
  • 5. Medial Cruciate Ligament
    Mechanism of injury
    Can be injured when struck on the outside of the knee joint
    Stretches the ligament and can cause injuries on different scales
    Grade I MCL Tear
    Incomplete tear
    Grade II MCL Tear
    Larger tear but still considered incomplete tear
    Grade III MCL Tear
    Complete tear
  • 6. Treatment for MCL Injuries
    Treatment
    Grade I MCL Tear
    Rest and icing the injury
    Anti-inflammatory medications
    1-2 weeks recovery time
    Grade II MCL Tear
    Hinged knee brace
    3-4 weeks recovery time
    Grade III MCL Tear
    Knee immobilizer
    Crutches
    Knee brace (after knee is able to bend)
    Regain strength in quadriceps
    3-4 months recovery time
    Surgery is generally not preferred for MCL injuries (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)
  • 7. ACL Injuries
    Mechanism of injury
    Ligament tears when you slow down suddenly, cut, or pivot while foot is firmly planted
    Causes twisting and overextending of the knee (Mayo Clinic, 2009)
  • 8. Surgery for ACL
    Surgery is performed at least one month after injury
    Can be preformed as same day surgery
    Surgery lasts one and a half to two hours
    Regional or general anesthesia may be used
    ACL must be completely removed and replaced with a segment of a larger ligament
    Patellar ligament
    Hamstring tendons
    Allograft (donor tissue)
    About one third of the ligament is used to secure the femur to the tibia (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)
  • 9. Rehabilitation after surgery
    Will need to use crutches and a knee brace for one to three weeks
    A CPM (continuous passive motion)machine may be used in the days following surgery
    Swelling should be controlled
    Joint should be flexed
    Muscles around the knee should be strengthened to improve stability of the joint
    Normal activities can be resumed after tow to four months
    High demand activities can be resumed after six to seven months (Cluett, M.D., Jonathan, 2008)
  • 10. References
    Cluett, M.D., Jonathan. January 1, 2008. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery.
    Retrieved July 23, 2009, from:
    http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/aclrepain/a/acl_3.htm
    Mayo Clinic. Copyright 1998-2009. Knee Pain. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from:
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/knee-pain/ds00555/dsection=symptoms
    Touch of Life Technologies. Copyright 2009. VH Dissector. Retrieved July 24, 2009