Cellular respiration

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Cellular respiration

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration
  2. 2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP)
  3. 3. ATP ADP + P
  4. 4. Glycolysis Phase 1
  5. 5. “glucose breaks” Occurs in cytoplasmEnergy Investment Phase.
  6. 6. PHOSPHORYLATION –ATP invested foractivation. (Thisdestabilizes the glucosemolecule slightly.)Destabilizedform of glucose.
  7. 7. Destabilizedform of glucose.Rearrangement of atoms.Fructose-6-phosphate forms.It is an isomer of glucose-6-phosphate. PHOSPHORYLATION – More ATP is invested, resulting in Fructose 1,6 diphosphate.
  8. 8. Fructose 1,6 diphosphate is broken down into TWO 3 carbon molecules. Remember: There are TWO product molecules for this and each succeeding step. Net result: Two glyceraldehyde phosphate molecules.C C
  9. 9. Energy Yielding Phase
  10. 10. Glyceraldehyde phosphateis oxidized as NAD picksup high energy electronsand hydrogen.2 NADH are formed.These are high energymolecules.
  11. 11. ATP Production
  12. 12. Phosphate transferred toanother carbon.
  13. 13. Water produced. ATP produced. 2 pyruvate molecules result.Depending on the organism,and oxygen conditions, the 2pyruvate molecules go throughone of the following: alcoholfermentation, lactic acidfermentation (both anaerobicrespiration) or aerobicrespiration.
  14. 14. Summary of GlycolysisStarts with: 1 glucose molecule (C6H12O6) 2 ATP Ends with: 2 pyruvate molecules 2 NADH 4 ATP (Gross), 2 ATP (NET) 2 H2OThis process stores a small amount ofenergy in the bonds of ATP. Wheredid the energy come from?Bond energy in GLUCOSE!
  15. 15. ATP production 4 ATP generated - 2 ATP invested 2 ATP net
  16. 16. The Fate of Pyruvate Phase 2
  17. 17. Depending on the type oforganism, and / or oxygenconditions, pyruvate will bebroken down via one of thefollowing pathways.
  18. 18. Anaerobic Pathways
  19. 19. Occurs if oxygen is ABSENT.
  20. 20. Pyruvate Occurs in yeast and some bacteria. NET ATP production: 2 ATP (from glycolysis) NADH from glycolysis is recycled so that NAD can be reused in glycolysis.
  21. 21. Occurs in muscles during poweractivities such as powerlifting andsprinting.NET ATP production: 2 (from glycolysis)CONSIDER THIS: WHY DO HUMANS NOT PRODUCEALCHOHOL IN THEIR MUSCLES WHEN OXYGEN IS ABSENT?
  22. 22. Transition Reactions and Krebs Cycle
  23. 23. If oxygen is present
  24. 24. REMEMBER: There areTWO pyruvate molecules * NADH carries enoughfrom the original glucose energy to make 3 ATPmolecule. Everything you molecules in the electronsee on this page happens transport chain.TWICE.TRANSITION REACTIONS: 1. Pyruvate is transported into mitochondria by a carrier molecule. 2. Require a “multienzyme complex” which 1. Removes CO2 2. NAD accepts hydrogen and high energy electrons. NADH forms.* 3. CoA joins acetyl group to make it active.
  25. 25. 2C 6C4C Acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate (4C) to produce citrate (6C).
  26. 26. 6CCitrate is isomerized toisocitrate. 6C
  27. 27. Isocitrate loses CO2. 6C NAD picks up hydrogen, electrons and energy from isocitrate. Which has more energy: isocitrate or ketoglutarate. . .5C
  28. 28. 1. CO2 is removed. 5C 2. NADH forms. 3. CoA is bonded with a high energy bond.4C
  29. 29. 4C 4CATP forms.
  30. 30. 4C FADH2 forms. Every FADH2 molecule is used to produce 2 ATP molecules in the electron transport chain. 4C
  31. 31. 4C 4C
  32. 32. 4C Another NADH molecule forms and oxaloacetate reforms.4C
  33. 33. The cycle begins again . . . 2C 6C4C
  34. 34. Summary of Transition Reactions and Krebs CycleEach pyruvate molecule entering themitochondria goes through thetransition reactions and Krebs cycleand results in:2 CO24 NADH1 FADH21 ATPFrom one glucose molecule:2 CO2 X 2 = 4 CO24 NADH X 2 = 8 NADH1 FADH2 X 2 = 2 FADH21 ATP X 2 = 2 ATP
  35. 35. The Electron Transport Chain Phase 3
  36. 36. NADH and FADH2 transfer their electrons to carriers in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Each NADH generates 3 ATP. Each FADH2 generates 2 ATP.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXop37NVOAY&feature=related
  37. 37. For every NADH that enters the chain, 3 ATP are formed. For every FADH2 that enters the chain, 2 ATP are formed.FADH2 FAD Water is the final electron acceptor. The electrons, hydrogen and oxygen combine to form one water molecule.
  38. 38. Where is all the ATP generated?
  39. 39. x3 x3 x2 x3 x2 x3x3 x3 x2
  40. 40. Glycolysis - 2 ATP + 4 ATP 2 NADH x 3 = + 6 ATPTransition Reactions and Krebs Cycle -2 ATP* +2 ATP 8 NADH x 3 = +24 ATP 2 FADH2 x 2 = +4 ATP 36 ATP

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