“glucose breaks” Occurs in cytoplasmEnergy Investment Phase.
PHOSPHORYLATION –ATP invested foractivation. (Thisdestabilizes the glucosemolecule slightly.)Destabilizedform of glucose.
Destabilizedform of glucose.Rearrangement of atoms.Fructose-6-phosphate forms.It is an isomer of glucose-6-phosphate. PHOSPHORYLATION – More ATP is invested, resulting in Fructose 1,6 diphosphate.
Fructose 1,6 diphosphate is broken down into TWO 3 carbon molecules. Remember: There are TWO product molecules for this and each succeeding step. Net result: Two glyceraldehyde phosphate molecules.C C
Water produced. ATP produced. 2 pyruvate molecules result.Depending on the organism,and oxygen conditions, the 2pyruvate molecules go throughone of the following: alcoholfermentation, lactic acidfermentation (both anaerobicrespiration) or aerobicrespiration.
Summary of GlycolysisStarts with: 1 glucose molecule (C6H12O6) 2 ATP Ends with: 2 pyruvate molecules 2 NADH 4 ATP (Gross), 2 ATP (NET) 2 H2OThis process stores a small amount ofenergy in the bonds of ATP. Wheredid the energy come from?Bond energy in GLUCOSE!
ATP production 4 ATP generated - 2 ATP invested 2 ATP net
Pyruvate Occurs in yeast and some bacteria. NET ATP production: 2 ATP (from glycolysis) NADH from glycolysis is recycled so that NAD can be reused in glycolysis.
Occurs in muscles during poweractivities such as powerlifting andsprinting.NET ATP production: 2 (from glycolysis)CONSIDER THIS: WHY DO HUMANS NOT PRODUCEALCHOHOL IN THEIR MUSCLES WHEN OXYGEN IS ABSENT?
REMEMBER: There areTWO pyruvate molecules * NADH carries enoughfrom the original glucose energy to make 3 ATPmolecule. Everything you molecules in the electronsee on this page happens transport chain.TWICE.TRANSITION REACTIONS: 1. Pyruvate is transported into mitochondria by a carrier molecule. 2. Require a “multienzyme complex” which 1. Removes CO2 2. NAD accepts hydrogen and high energy electrons. NADH forms.* 3. CoA joins acetyl group to make it active.
2C 6C4C Acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate (4C) to produce citrate (6C).
Summary of Transition Reactions and Krebs CycleEach pyruvate molecule entering themitochondria goes through thetransition reactions and Krebs cycleand results in:2 CO24 NADH1 FADH21 ATPFrom one glucose molecule:2 CO2 X 2 = 4 CO24 NADH X 2 = 8 NADH1 FADH2 X 2 = 2 FADH21 ATP X 2 = 2 ATP
NADH and FADH2 transfer their electrons to carriers in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Each NADH generates 3 ATP. Each FADH2 generates 2 ATP.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXop37NVOAY&feature=related
For every NADH that enters the chain, 3 ATP are formed. For every FADH2 that enters the chain, 2 ATP are formed.FADH2 FAD Water is the final electron acceptor. The electrons, hydrogen and oxygen combine to form one water molecule.