Asian tiger Qaiser mayo


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Asian tiger Qaiser mayo

  1. 1. Pr esent ed by: Name :Qai ser Hussai n Cl ass:Account i ng & Fi nance Rol l number : Bs 13116 Pr esent ed t o: Pr of Nasi r Chat t a
  2. 2. Assignment How Became Pakistan as an Asian Tiger
  3. 3. INTRIDUCTION The Four Asian Tigers or Asian Dragons is a term used in reference to the highly developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan after 1970. These regions were the first newly industrialized countries, noted for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s. By the 21st century, all four regions have since graduated into advanced economies and high-income economies. Now people say that all four countries are rich countries. All four Asian Tigers have a lot of people who are very educated and good at their jobs. They also did different things, and tried to do them better than other countries. For example, Hong Kong and Singapore became very good at international finance, while South Korea and Taiwan became very good at information technology. However, attention has increasingly shifted to other Asian economies which are now experiencing faster economic transformation A country is known as tiger of its continent if its economy is strongest among all other countries of same continent. But to make a country a tiger of its continent, betterments/improvements in many fields are required. Pakistan is the next country having the same vision. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistan's economy are situated along the Indus River; diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. The economy has suffered in the past from decades of internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment and high defense spending. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit – driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion – could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term. But if we want to make Pakistan an Asian Tiger, we need to tie up all the broken ends and we will have to struggle each and every day, day and night to achieve our goal. Following Sectors still needs improvements if we want to make our country an Asian tiger.
  4. 4. EDUCATION : Education is the most important factor which plays a leading role in human resource development. It promotes productive and informed populace and creates opportunities for the socially and economically deprived sections of society.
  5. 5. AGE LITERACY RATE % Age b/w 55-64 30 % Age b/w 45-54 40 % Age b/w 25-34 50 % Age b/w 15 -24 60 % LITERACY RATE IN PAKISTAN In indicate the with every passing generation Literacy rate is increased By 10 %
  7. 7. UNIVERSITY WORLD RANKING During 1947-2003 not a single university of Pakistan could be ranked among the top 600 universities of the world…......!!! But today 5 to 6 Pakistani universities belong to the prestigious group of worlds best universities ….!!!!
  9. 9. Country World Ranking Educational Budget Cuba #1 18.7% Malaysia #10 8.1% Iran #58 4.9% India #81 4.1% Bangladesh #119 2.4% Pakistan #126 1.8% Indonesia #130 1.2% Lack of Govt in Education
  10. 10. Factors Cause For Pakistan’s Poor Performance In Education Low level of public investment  Lack of government funds to educational institutes  Administrative lacks of government institutions  “Choudhry” and “Wadera” culture of Pakistan  Low income level of people
  11. 11. Challenges  Weakened Governance  Fragmentation Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams Low level of literacy Out of school children Dropouts Public Private Partnership In-adequate financing Gender Equity Poor monitoring & evaluation Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary schools Inconvenient school location
  12. 12. Reforms Undertaken • Free education up to Matriculation. • Grant of scholarships • English language compulsory • Budgetary allocations for education increased • Encourage Private sector • Improved Examination System • Curriculum upgraded to ensure latest developments / ideas in science and technology • Format of the question papers for the Board examinations revised • Teachers’Training and Knowledge: • Technical / Vocational Education • Career Counselling at higher secondary level • Pre-service & in-service teacher training
  14. 14. IMPROT EXPORT OVER VIEW Last five years Inflation has increased Currently 25% 5 years averaged Growth 6-7 cotton products Rice Toys, bicycles and other sporting goods, etc.
  15. 15. Major Exports of Pakistan Over 80% of Pakistani exports are cotton products. Cotton apparel & household furnishings US$2.6 billion (70.6% of Pakistani to U.S. exports, up 18.6% from 2005) Cotton cloth & fabrics (threads, cordage) $351 million (9.6%, down 5.6%) Other textiles apparel & household furnishings $138.3 million (3.8%, down 11.6%) Textile floor coverings including rugs $122.1 million (3.3%, down 2.1%) Non-textile apparel & household furnishings $81.4 million (2.2%, up 7.2%)
  16. 16. Ethanol a viable substitute for oil in motor vehicles Coal as Substitute for Gas Biodiesel commercialization in Pakistan Canola Oil, a better substitute for Palm Oil Substitutes for Exports no possible substitute for exports in Pakistan SUBSTITUTE FOR IMPORT & EXPORT
  17. 17. FACTOR AFFECTING OUR EXPORT Stiff international competition in Textile products from China, India, Vietnam and Bangladesh in our major markets of the US and the EU; Industrial Zones (QIZs) in Jordan and Egypt fall in unit prices in the textile sector the setting up of U.S. sponsored Qualified CAFTA (Central American Free Trade Area) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area),
  19. 19. IMPROVE EXPORT KEYS . Specific Transaction Guarantees: Whole Turnover Guarantees, Open Account Sales Only: Group-Wide Guarantees: Facilities Upgrade: Counter trade/Barter: Bid Bonding: Performance Guarantees: Inventory Replenishment: Agency Sales: Future Receivables: EDI Post-Shipment: Advisory: Short Term Financing Export Finance Scheme Long Term Financing LongTerm Financing-Export Oriented Projects. Locally Manufactured Machinery
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION : Agricultural sector is the backbone of our economy. But the growth of agriculture in Pakistan is facing a lot of problems. Due to various causes, per acre yield is very low in Pakistan as compare to other developed countries. Agriculture is central to economic growth and development in Pakistan. Being the dominant sector it contributes 21.4 percent to GDP, employs 45 percent of the country’s labour force and contributes in the growth of other sectors of the economy The agriculture growth this year stood at 3.3 percent as compared to 3.5 percent during the last year.
  22. 22. PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Problems of agricultural sector are categorized as below: TECHNO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 1) Limited Cultivable Area The total area of Pakistan is about 79.6 million hectares, out of which only 23.7 million hectares (28%) area is used for agricultural purposes. About 8 million hectares area is idle and un-utilized. There is vast sub-division and fragmentation of land holdings, as a result modern technology cannot be applied in agriculture sector.
  23. 23. 2 Water Logging and Salinity Water logging and salinity are twin problems of agricultural sector due to salinity, deposits of salt in land have appeared on the surface of land and they have adversely affected the performance of agricultural sector. Water logging and salinity affect about 0.10 million acre of land in every year. It is not only waste of land but also reduction in productivity. 3) Slow Growth of Allied Products Allied products refer to those productions, which are not agricultural but indirectly, help the farmer to improve his living standard. Pakistan is in-sufficient in the production of fruits, milk, poultry, fisheries, livestock and forestry. As a result not only our food quality is poor but also industries such as furniture, textiles and dairy cannot be developed.
  24. 24. 4) Low Per Hectare Yield The most important problem of agriculture is its low yield per hectare for almost every major crop. 45.0% of labour force is engaged in this sector in Pakistan while it is less than 5% in developed countries. But, other countries of world are getting higher yield per hectare due to use of modern technology and trained labour. 5) Inadequate Infrastructure Rural infrastructure like, roads, storage facilities, transport, electricity, education, sanitation and health facilities etc. is inadequate to meet the requirement of growth of agriculture. Total length of farm-to-market road is not only shorter but their condition is also poor. Many villages have no metal- led road at all. Electricity is available to only 3/4 rural populations.
  25. 25. 6) Uneconomic Land Holdings Due to increasing population and division of land under the law of inheritance, landholdings are subdivided over and over again. The result is that very large number of farmers has less than 2 hectares of area. Moreover holdings are scattered. It is difficult to use modern machinery on small pieces of land. 7) Old Methods of Production No doubt, mechanization of agriculture is increasing in Pakistan, but in most of the areas, the old implements are still being used for agricultural production. Old and orthodox techniques of production cannot increase the production according to international levels.
  26. 26. 8) Inadequate Supply of Agricultural Inputs The supply of modern inputs like high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, mechanized machinery etc. not only costly but also inadequate and irregular in Pakistan. Numbers of fertilizer producing units are just 10 in Pakistan. 9) Lack of Irrigation Facilities Shortage of irrigation facilities causes a serious limitation in the expansion of crop area in Pakistan. The lower water supplies, loses from water course in the fields are the serious problems of farm sector. Actual surface water availability is 91.8 million acre feet. 10) Inadequate Agricultural Research The average crop yield in Pakistan is very low as compared to the production levels of the advanced countries of the world. In order to raise the potential of agricultural production, there should be continuous improvement in the research for agricultural growth. Total agricultural universities and colleges are only 16 in Pakistan.
  27. 27. 11) Problem of Land Reforms Land reforms have been implemented against the will of people. There is an urgent need to conduct a proper land reform for improving agricultural growth. Due to this problem agricultural production cannot increase to desired level. 12) Defective Land Tenure System Defective land tenure system is also responsible for low yield per acre in agricultural sector. Landlords and feudal-lords live in posh urban areas while tenants and peasants have no or less incentive for their hard work. So, the productivity in agricultural sector remains low.
  28. 28. 13) Subsistence Farming Our farmer is attached with subsistence farming; a huge of portion of production is consumed at farmer’s own house to support large family. Hence, less portion of the production is available for market supply. It causes low income of the farmers. Farming is not conducted at commercial level in Pakistan. 14) Low Cropping Intensity Cropping intensity means the number of crops grown on a piece of land in one year. At the present stage of our development, there is low level of cropping intensity as compared to advanced countries. Cultivable area under double or multiple cropping is inadequate in Pakistan 15) Improper Crop Rotation Proper turning round of crops is essential to re-establish the fertility of the land. The constant cultivation of one crop or two; exhausts the fertility of the soil. Proper rotation of crops is necessary in order to restore the fertility. .
  29. 29. NATURAL PROBLEMS Various Plant Diseases cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, wheat and rice Natural Calamities Labour is in the hand of mankind but its result is in the hands of ALLAH in agriculture sector 20% reduction in productivity due to unnecessary rain Under Utilization of Land
  30. 30. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Consumption Oriented Farmer’s Litigation Joint Family System Illiteracy and Ill-health 57.7 only Political Instability
  31. 31. FINANCIAL PROLEMS Lack of Credit . About 50.8% poor borrow from landlords in Pakistan Poor Financial Position of Farmers 57.4% poor are working for feudal-lords without wages Instability in Market Prices Shortage of Agricultural Finance 50.8% poor borrow from landlords at very high rate of interest. .
  32. 32. Water Logging and Salinity Control destroys about one million acre of land every year in Punjab and Sindh Construction of Dames Supply of Agriculture Credit Causes 20% reduction in total production Provision of HYV Seed MEASURES TO REMOVE THESE PROBLEMS
  33. 33. Prices of Agricultural Productivities SOLUTIONS
  34. 34. Being an agrarian country, agricultural sector of Pakistan’s economy is still backward. Use of modern techniques, provision of credit facilities, basic infrastructure and agriculture research facilities are needed to remove all the problems of agriculture sector. Conclusion
  35. 35. Energy play an important role in the economic development of a country. In Pakistan supply of energy is 46.8 million tons & per capita availability is 0.28 million tons per year while consumption per year is 48.3 million tons. ENERGY SECTOR
  36. 36. Household Industrial Agricultural Commercial Government 42.4%7%6.2% 12.1% 26.5%
  37. 37. 1. WAPDA: It generates 11399 MW energy, in which 57% is hydel & 43% of thermal energy includes. 2. IPP: It only generates 6374 MW energy. 3. Nuclear Power Plants: There are two nuclear power plants in Pakistan which generate 462 MW energy. 4. KESC: It generates 1955 MW energy.
  38. 38. Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Oil … Thermal Source Hydel Source Nuclear Source KANUPP CHASHMA Worsak Mangla
  39. 39. Gas Oil Electricity Coal LPG 43.7%10.4% 15.3% 1.5% 29.0%
  40. 40. Biogas Solar energy Wind energy Waterfall…
  41. 41. “Industry refers to that sector of economy which is related with manufacturing and production of different products” Definition
  42. 42.  Industrial Sector is of great importance for economic development of country.  Industrial Sector is of great importance for economic development of country. It is historical fact that countries with strong industrial sector have showed more economic growth and development industrial sector have shows improvement in national income and promoted living standard of population.
  43. 43. Textile industry Sports industry Telecom industry Cement industry Surgical industry Sugar industry Defense industry Auto mobile industry Fashion industry Fertilizer industry Oil & Gas Industries Chemical industry
  44. 44. Historically, Pakistan’s textile industry and clothing sector has always been a major contributor to the foreign exchange earner and still contributes
  45. 45.  4th largest grower of cotton after USA, China and India  3rd largest consumer of cotton  3rd largest exporter of cotton textiles  2nd largest supplier of cotton yarn with 26% share of the international market
  46. 46. Textiles products Handicrafts Power loom products Scarf Wool fabrics Blanket Winter shawls Hand embroidered shawls
  47. 47. Over 1.3 million farmers, out of total of 5 million are involved in cultivation of this crop. Industrial Sector is the second largest individual sector of the economy accounting for 24% of the GDP
  48. 48. Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
  49. 49. 2.DAP 3.NP 4.CAN 5.SSP 6.Others 1. Urea
  50. 50. GDP Contribution 14% Employments 4.7 million Fauji Fertilizer Ltd Engro Chemical Ltd Sitara Chemicals Ltd
  51. 51. Cement industry is one of most prominent and energetic organization having operations and interactions with cement industry
  52. 52. 5th position leaving Germany behind Pakistan is ranked 5th in the world’s cement exports 2008-09 (20.28 mt) Pakistan exports increased by 47% in last fiscal year. Exported $700m in past year
  53. 53.  23 cement companies  4 foreign companies  3 controlled by the armed force  19 companies are listed on the stock exchange. GDP:- 3.5% Contribution
  54. 54. At the time of independence in 1947, there were only two sugar factories in Pakistan. At present there are 106 sugar mills operating in Pakistan. It is the 2nd Largest industry in Pakistan after Textile Industry
  55. 55. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION (26kg) total of 106 sugar mills in the country Pakistan ranks 15th in the World for sugarcane production GDP contribution (0.7%) Employment (1million) Sugarcane acreage in Pakistan is 5th in the World and it is grown on over 1 million hectares
  56. 56. Alcohol (used by pharmaceutical industry) Ethanol (used as a fuel)
  57. 57. “Sports' are all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels”
  58. 58. Football Cricket bats Hockey sticks Boxing gloves Volley balls Swimming suits Golf balls Badminton rackets Basketballs
  59. 59.  The export of sports goods, increased by 7.85% from US$39.180m →US$42.257m last year  Sialkot export 70% of total world demand for hand-stitched inflatable soccer balls (footballs).  40 million balls annually worth US$210 million.
  60. 60. Companies of various sizes 2,400 Employments more than 200,000 Exporting goods worth US$450 million Large exporters (more than 250 employees) Medium exporters (100–250 employees) Small exporters (10–100 employees). Commercial exporters (1–9 employees).
  61. 61. Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate Main Categories  Telephone  Mobiles  Internet
  62. 62. In 2008 Pakistan was the world’ s third fastest growing telecommunications market Fixed-line subscriptions declined from a peak of 5.2 million in 2005-06 to 3.4 million in 2009-10 Pakistan traffic volume grew by 253 percent compared to last year during the same period
  63. 63. 5% of its Gross Domestic Product has created 220,000 high-paying jobs in Pakistan Pakistan is now a leader in mobile usage in south Asia
  64. 64. Telenor Zong PTCL Ufone Warid Mobilink
  65. 65.  The glass industry in Pakistan, though developed, still has space for improvement.  There are about 37 glassworks in the organized sector, with the production capacity ranging between 10 tonnes and 200 tonnes per day.
  66. 66. The major ceramics industry are Karam Ceramics, Swat Ceramics, Master Tiles, Shabbir Tiles and Emco Industries. Punjab 73% Sindh 5% Baluchistan 3% NWFP 19% GDP Contribution
  67. 67. Glass industry in Pakistan comprises sixteen manufacturers in the organized sector which produces over 90 per cent of the indigenous production within the country. (PAGMA) Pakistan exported glass products worth Rs 60 million to Rs 120 million per annum during 2005-2010, imports of various glass from Rs 975 million to Rs 1,782 million, during last five years 83%. increase
  68. 68.  The leather made ups and finishing industries symbolize an important division in Pakistan,  Earning approximately more than 8 million $ as a foreign exchange earnings to the country. JavaScript Web application
  69. 69. Leather Garments Leather Goods Footwear Leather Shoe Uppers Tanning Leather Gloves
  70. 70. Production Capacity Production Tanned Leather 90 million ft2 60 million ft2 Leather Garments 7 million pieces 5 million pieces Leather Gloves 10 million pairs 5 million pairs Leather Footwear 200 million pairs 100 million pairs •The difference in production capacity and present capacity is due to various reasons. Source: Pakistan Tanners Association
  71. 71.  Italy, Spain, Portugal, South Korea, Germany,  France, UK, USA and UAE. More than 2300 leather processing units Provide employment to about 500,000 people
  72. 72. PAKISTAN SURGICAL INDUSTRIES (PVT) LIMITED was established in 1974 and now has become one of the leading manufacturers of Surgical.
  73. 73. Surgical Instruments JavaScript Dental Instruments Web application Beauty Instruments Web application
  74. 74. Indicator Value To GDP(%) 0.42% To Direct Employment (Numbers) 400-500,000 To Indirect Employment (Numbers) 600-,750000 To Exports (%) 1.21%
  75. 75. Produces over 150m pieces/year worth Rs 22 billion 2300 companies are working in this sector Over 99% production is done in Sialkot Out of the total production over 95% is exported
  76. 76. The business of producing and selling self-powered vehicles, including passenger cars, trucks, farm equipment, and other commercial vehicles
  77. 77. Light Vehicles Cars Jeeps Tractors Trucks Motor Cycles Buses
  78. 78. 2007 2.8% 2012 5.8% Expected
  79. 79. Automotive engineering is a driving force of large scale manufacturing, contributing US$ 3.6 billion to the national economy and engaging over 192,000 people in direct employment.
  80. 80. GDP Contribution of Different Sectors of Economy  Agriculture 20.47%  Crops 9.90%  Livestock 9.97%  Fishing 0.33%  Forestry 0.25%  Industry 23.93%  Manufacturing 17.53%  Mining 2.39%  Construction 2.19%  Electricity & Gas 1.80%  Services 55.60%  Wholesale & Trade 17.25%  Transport 11.80%  Finance & Insurance 3.59%  Ownership & Dwelling 2.22%  Public Administration & Defense 5.4%  Community & Social Professional Services 10.22%
  81. 81. Comparison of Industrial Sector with other Countries
  82. 82. Asian Countries  Pakistan 23.93%  India 26.3%  Bangladesh 28.5%  China 46.9%
  83. 83. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GDP Growth Pakistan India Bangladesh Sri Lanka
  84. 84. $0 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 Pakistan India Bangladesh Sri Lanka
  85. 85. Pakistan India Bangladesh Sri Lanka 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
  86. 86. Power shortage Lack of trained manpower Import trend Inefficiecny Changing political and economic policies Bad law and order situation resulting in lower investment Higher interest rate Labor Unrest Lack of products innovation resulting in concentration of industries in some specific sectors. Corruption in related government agencies and so many govt. agencies intervention
  87. 87. Gap between targets and achievements: Under-utilization capacity: Concentration of economic power: Elite-oriented consumption: Performance of public sector: Growth of regional imbalances:
  88. 88. Foreign Investment: Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Micro Credit :Privatization EPZs(Export Process Zone) Subtitute of powers(coal,gas,windmills)
  89. 89. Revival of Industrial policy Innovative technology Containment of skilled labor Theory of Comparitave advantage Participation in international galas Research & Development Govt projects
  90. 90. Problems of Pakistan Poverty Illiteracy Terrorism Food and water crisis Population growth Poor health facilities Internal and international migration Discrimination of Sex Democracy in shape of dictatorship Unloyal leaders Foreign debt Child labor Deviant behavior discourage the rules of law from government representatives Inflation Injustice Smuggling
  91. 91. Illiteracy Literacy rate: 49.9% educated populace ( Human development Report Pakistan) placed at 136th position for having just. The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Date Center of UNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education Solution Govt. should Increase education budget Establish more schools and appoint qualified and trained teachers Technical education must be given to all the classes. Promote primary education
  92. 92. Terrorism Pakistan plays a key and highly conflicted--role in the global war on terror. Today terrorism is threatening the very roots and fabric of Pakistan’s nationhood. More tragically, terrorism in Pakistan draws its justification from the very faith which provides the country its ideological bases. Reason The major causes of Terrorism in Pakistan are: 1- Political Instability 4- Religious Extremism 3- Standard of Living 2- Economic Conditions
  93. 93. War on Terrorism War against terrorism is another very important reason behind the economical problem. War is affecting the world’s economy and is causing problems like shortage of fuel, lack of funds, increase in health problem etc. War benefits none, someone is hurt badly and someone is destroyed completely. Solution The real solution is to kill the root of Terrorism and systematically change the attitude of those people’s who are involved in terrorism - Military operations against terrorists are also very necessary. Education, Justice, Pour politics can stop the Terrorism..???
  94. 94. CORRUPTION Corruption is the prime reason behind the economical unstableness. Corruption has spread into the world and has ruined the economy. Round about 7 billion daily corruption 823 billion in 2010 1100 billion in 2011 . Pakistan has been ranked at 42nd number among the most corrupt nations of the world.
  95. 95.  There are many reasons of unemployment like influx of machinery that has replaced manpower.  Unemployment is a major social problem caused by poor economical system  Lack of funds followed by unorganized system and lack of new projects are causing unemployment worldwide.  Increase in population UNENPLOYMENT
  96. 96. GDP real Growth rate 3.7% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 93 Unemployment rate 7% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 Population below poverty line 22.3% Budget: revenues: $29.51 billion expenditures: $44.19 billion (2012 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 9.9% GDP - per capita: $2,900 (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 175 Investment (gross fixed): 10.9% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 146 Taxes and other revenues: 12.8% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 201 GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20.1% industry: 25.5% services: 54.4% (2012 est.) Exports: $24.66 billion (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 71
  97. 97. Imports: $40.82 billion (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.4% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 179 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 45.1% ranks industry: 20.7% services: 34.2% (2010 est.) Labor force 60.36 million country comparison to the world: 10