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Ais Romney 2006 Slides 18 Introduction To Systems Development

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Ais Romney 2006 Slides 18 Introduction To Systems Development

Ais Romney 2006 Slides 18 Introduction To Systems Development

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  • 1. HAPTER 18 Introduction to Systems Development and Systems Analysis
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Questions to be addressed in this chapter include:
      • What are the phases in the systems development life cycle?
      • Who are the individuals involved in systems development?
      • What techniques are used to plan the development of a system?
      • How do you determine whether a particular system is feasible?
      • How do people respond to systems changes, and how can dysfunctional behavior be minimized?
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • As the environment, technology, and competition change, an information system must continually undergo changes
    • These changes range from minor adjustments to major overhauls.
    • Occasionally the old system is scrapped and replaced.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION
    • Companies change their systems for a variety of reasons:
      • To respond to changes in user needs or business needs
      • To take advantage of or respond to technology changes
      • To accommodate improvements in their business process
      • To gain a competitive advantage and/or lower costs
      • To increase productivity
      • To accommodate growth
      • To accommodate downsizing or distribute decision making
      • To replace a system that is aged and unstable
  • 5. INTRODUCTION
    • Developing quality, error-free software is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming.
    • Projects tend to deliver less than expected and consume more time and money.
    • A KPMG survey found that 35% of all major information systems projects were classified as runaways—hopelessly incomplete and over budget.
      • Major cause of runaways: Skimping on systems development processes.
    • Omitting basic systems development steps becomes tempting but may lead to disaster as developers create well-structured systems that fail to meet user needs or solve business problems.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION
    • This chapter discusses five topics:
      • Systems development life cycle
      • Planning activities during the systems development life cycle
      • Feasibility analysis
      • Behavioral aspects of change
      • Systems analysis
  • 7. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • Whether systems changes are major or minor, most companies go through a systems development life cycle.
    • In this section, we discuss the steps in the cycle and the people involved.
  • 8. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 9. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 10. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • As organizations grow and change, they may need more or better information.
    • Systems analysis is the first step. It includes:
      • Initial investigation
    • Involves gathering the information needed to buy or develop a new system and determining whether it is a priority.
  • 11. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • As organizations grow and change, they may need more or better information.
    • Systems analysis is the first step. It includes:
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
    • If the system is a priority, survey the existing system to define the nature and scope of the project and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the system.
  • 12. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • As organizations grow and change, they may need more or better information.
    • Systems analysis is the first step. It includes:
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
    • Involves an in-depth study of the proposed system to determine whether it’s feasible.
  • 13. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • As organizations grow and change, they may need more or better information.
    • Systems analysis is the first step. It includes:
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Determination of information needs and system requirements
    • Involves finding out and documenting what users and management need.
    • This is the most important aspect of systems analysis.
  • 14. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • As organizations grow and change, they may need more or better information.
    • Systems analysis is the first step. It includes:
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Determination of information needs and system requirements
      • Delivery of systems requirements
    • Involves preparation of a report summarizing the systems analysis work.
    • This report is submitted to the information systems steering committee.
  • 15. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 16. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • In the conceptual design phase, the company decides how to meet user needs.
    • Tasks in this phase include :
      • Identify and evaluate design alternatives
    • Possibilities include:
      • Buying software
      • Developing in-house
      • Outsourcing
  • 17. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • In the conceptual design phase, the company decides how to meet user needs.
    • Tasks in this phase include :
      • Identify and evaluate design alternatives
      • Develop design specifications
    • Involves writing up details of what the system is to accomplish and how it is to be controlled and developed.
  • 18. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • In the conceptual design phase, the company decides how to meet user needs.
    • Tasks in this phase include :
      • Identify and evaluate design alternatives
      • Develop design specifications
      • Deliver conceptual design requirements
    • These requirements will be forwarded to the information systems steering committee.
  • 19. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 20. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • In the physical design phase, the broad, user-oriented requirements of the conceptual design are translated into detailed specifications that can be used by programmers to code the programs.
    • Tasks include:
      • Design outputs, database, and inputs
      • Develop programs
      • Develop procedures
      • Design controls
      • Deliver developed system
        • Goes to information systems steering committee
  • 21. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 22. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • This is the capstone phase during which everything comes together.
    • Tasks include:
      • Develop an implementation and conversion plan
        • Needed because of the complexity and importance of this phase
      • Install any new hardware and software
      • Train personnel
        • New employees may need to be hired and trained or existing employees relocated.
      • Test the system and make any needed modifications.
      • Complete the documentation.
      • Convert from the old to the new system.
      • Deliver operational system.
        • Send the final report to the IS steering committee.
  • 23. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • The five stages in the systems development life cycle are:
      • Systems analysis
      • Conceptual Design
      • Physical Design
      • Implementation and Conversion
      • Operation and Maintenance
  • 24. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • Once the system is up and running, operations and monitoring continue.
    • Tasks include:
      • Fine-tune and do post-implementation review.
      • Operate the system.
      • Periodically review and modify the system.
      • Do ongoing maintenance.
      • Deliver improved system.
  • 25. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • Eventually a major modification or system replacement is necessary, and the systems development life cycle (SDLC) will start over.
    • In addition to the preceding five phases, three activities are performed throughout the life cycle:
      • Planning
      • Managing behavioral reactions to change
      • Assessing ongoing feasibility
    • These three activities will be discussed in this chapter.
    • Additionally, the first phase in the SDLC, systems analysis, will be discussed in more detail.
  • 26. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implementing an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 27. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 28. THE PLAYERS
    • Top management’s role in systems development is to:
      • Provide support and encouragement and a clear signal that user involvement is important.
      • Help align the systems with corporate strategies.
      • Establish system goals and objectives.
      • Review IS department performance and leadership.
      • Establish policies for project selection and organizational structure.
      • Participate in important systems decisions.
  • 29. THE PLAYERS
    • User management needs to:
      • Determine information requirements for departmental projects.
      • Assist systems analysts with project cost-benefit estimates.
      • Assign key staff members to development projects.
      • Allocate funds.
  • 30. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 31. THE PLAYERS
    • Accountants also play an important role in systems development:
      • As AIS users, they must determine their information needs and systems requirements and communicate them to system developers.
      • As members of project development teams or steering committees, they help management in the development process.
      • They are also active in:
        • Designing system controls and monitoring and testing these controls.
        • Ensuring the system is easy to audit.
      • Controls and “auditability” need to be built in early to minimize costs and inefficiencies later.
  • 32. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 33. THE PLAYERS
    • The information systems steering committee is an executive-level committee whose duty is to plan and oversee the IS function.
      • Consists of high level management, such as:
        • Controller
        • IS Manager
        • User department managers
      • Sets policies to govern the AIS and assure top-management participation, guidance, and control.
      • Attempts to encourage goal congruence and reduce goal conflict.
  • 34. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 35. THE PLAYERS
    • The project development team includes systems specialists, managers, accountants, auditors, and users whose responsibility is to guide development
    • Their job:
      • Plan each project.
      • Monitor to ensure timely and cost-effective completion.
      • Ensure the human element is considered.
      • Communicate project status to top management and steering committee.
      • Communicate and meet with users to:
        • Consider ideas
        • Discuss progress
        • Eliminate surprises
      • The team approach produces more effective results and better user acceptance.
  • 36. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 37. THE PLAYERS
    • Systems analysts study existing systems, design new ones, and prepare specifications that are used by programmers.
      • They interact with technical personnel and users to bridge the gap.
      • They are responsible for ensuring the system meets user needs.
  • 38. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 39. THE PLAYERS
    • Computer programmers write the computer programs, using the specs developed by the systems analysts.
    • They also modify and maintaining existing programs.
  • 40. THE PLAYERS
    • Many people are involved in developing and successfully implement an AIS, including:
      • Top management
      • Accountants
      • The information systems steering committee
      • The project development team
      • Systems analysts
      • Computer programmers
      • External players
  • 41. THE PLAYERS
    • External players include:
      • Customers
      • Vendors
      • Auditors
      • Governmental entities
    • Their needs must also be met in systems development.
  • 42. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Several activities must be performed at various times throughout the SDLC.
    • One of these activities is planning.
    • The organization should have plans for:
      • The long range
      • Each systems development project
      • Each phase of each systems development project
    • We’ll discuss these plans and a number of techniques to develop them.
  • 43. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • We’ve all experienced the disasters that occur when we fail to plan.
    • Suppose you bought a personal computer on impulse without thinking about what you wanted to do with it.
    • When you got it home, you realized it wasn’t compatible with your existing printer and scanner.
    • Furthermore, it wasn’t equipped for broadband internet access and you had been hoping to switch to broadband.
    • By the time you spend the money and buy the parts to equip the computer to do what you want it to do, you find that you could have bought a leading-edge computer for less money.
  • 44. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Systems development planning is an important step for the following key reasons:
      • Consistency with the organization’s strategic plan.
      • Efficiency achieved through coordination of the subsystems.
      • Cutting edge technology and techniques.
      • Lower costs due to lack of duplication, wasted effort, time overruns, and cost overruns.
      • Adaptability for future changes.
  • 45. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • When a system is poorly planned, a company must often return to a prior phase and correct errors and design flaws.
    • These returns are costly and result in delays, frustration, and low morale.
  • 46. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Two types of systems development plans are needed:
      • Individual project plans developed by the project teams.
      • A master plan developed by the IS steering committee.
  • 47. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Two types of systems development plans are needed:
      • Individual project plans developed by the project teams.
      • A master plan developed by the IS steering committee.
  • 48. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Individual project plans contain:
      • A cost-benefit analysis.
      • Developmental and operational requirements, including:
        • Human resources
        • Hardware
        • Software
        • Financial resources
      • A schedule of activities to develop and operate the new application
  • 49. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Two types of systems development plans are needed:
      • Individual project plans developed by the project teams.
      • A master plan developed by the IS steering committee.
  • 50. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • A master plan specifies:
      • What the system will consist of
      • How it will be developed
      • Who will develop it
      • How needed resources will be acquired
      • Where the AIS is headed
    • It also provides:
      • Status of projects in process
      • Prioritization of planned projects and criteria for establishing priorities
      • Timetables for development
  • 51. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Projects with highest priority are first to be developed.
      • These decisions are made by top management.
    • Planning horizon:
      • About a 3-year horizon
      • With updates at least 2-3 times/year—even more frequently in some companies.
    • The CIO should determine:
      • How soon technologies will be in wide use
      • Whether the company should adopt late or early
      • What business opportunities might arise from new technologies
  • 52. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Planning Techniques
      • Two techniques for scheduling and monitoring systems development activities are:
        • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
        • Gantt Charts
  • 53. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Planning Techniques
      • Two techniques for scheduling and monitor systems development activities are:
        • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
        • Gantt Charts
  • 54. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • A PERT diagram requires that all activities in a project be identified along with the activities that precede and follow them.
    • These activities are used to draw a PERT diagram, which consists of a network of:
      • Arrows—representing activities that require time and resources.
      • Nodes—representing completion and initiation of activities.
  • 55. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • The critical path in a PERT diagram is the path requiring the greatest amount of time.
    • If an activity on the critical path is delayed, the whole project is delayed.
    • Resources may be shifted to the critical path to reduce the delay.
  • 56.
    • SAMPLE PERT CHART
      • For building and selling a birdhouse.
      • Each block contains a task and a time estimate (may include best time, worst time, and average time)
      • May indicate who will be responsible for the task.
    Design Birdhouse (2) (Bill) Buy Wood & Nails (1) (Bill) Buy Paint (1) (Sara) Build Base (2) (Bill) Build Roof (1) (Bill) Nail Together (2) (Bill) Paint & Decorate (3) (Sara) Sell (2) (Sara)
  • 57. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • Planning Techniques
      • Two techniques for scheduling and monitor systems development activities are:
        • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
        • Gantt Charts
  • 58. PLANNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
    • A Gantt chart is a bar chart with project activities on the left and time across the top.
    • For each activity, a bar of expected time is drawn.
    • As activities are completed, the bar is filled in.
    • The Gantt chart makes it easy to eyeball the chart and understand the current status of a project.
    • But the chart does not show the relationship between activities like the PERT chart does.
  • 59.
    • SAMPLE GANTT CHART
    Complete Testing In Development Milestone
  • 60. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • During the systems analysis phase, a feasibility study (aka, a business case ) is prepared and is updated during the remaining steps in the SDLC.
    • The extent of the feasibility study depends on the size and nature of the system.
    • Feasibility team should include:
      • Management
      • Accountants skilled in controls and auditing
      • Systems personnel
      • Users
  • 61. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • The feasibility study and its updates are used by the steering committee as the project proceeds to decide whether to:
      • Terminate the project
      • Proceed
      • Proceed if specific problems are resolved
  • 62. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Five aspects need to be considered during a feasibility study:
      • Technical feasibility
        • Is the technology there to do it?
      • Operational feasibility
        • Do we have people who can do it, and will it get used?
      • Legal feasibility
        • Does it comply with legal, regulatory, and contractual obligations?
      • Scheduling feasibility
        • Can it be done in time?
      • Economic feasibility
        • Will the benefits exceed the costs?
  • 63. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Calculating Economic Feasibility Costs and Benefits
      • Economic feasibility is probably the most important and frequently analyzed aspect.
      • This examination requires a careful investigation of costs and benefits.
      • It typically uses a capital budgeting model that considers:
        • Cost savings and other benefits
        • Initial outlay costs
        • Operating costs
        • Other costs
  • 64. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • When possible, benefits and costs should be estimated and included even if they are not easily quantifiable.
    • If some costs and benefits cannot be accurately estimated, they should at least be listed, along with the likelihood of their occurrence and their expected impact.
  • 65. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Benefits might include:
      • Cost savings.
      • Improved customer service, productivity, decision making, or data processing.
      • Better management control.
      • Increased job satisfaction and employee morale.
  • 66. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Costs might include:
      • Equipment costs
        • Initial outlay plus ongoing operating costs
      • Software costs
        • Costs of acquiring, maintaining, supporting, and operating
      • Human resource costs
        • Salaries, as well as costs of hiring, training, and relocating staff
      • Site preparation costs
      • Installation and conversion costs
      • Supplies
      • Overhead
      • Financial charges
    • The primary operating cost is maintaining the system.
        • Makes up 65-75% of the organization’s system efforts
  • 67. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Capital Budgeting
      • Most organizations use a capital budgeting return on investment technique to evaluate the economic merits of different system alternatives.
      • There are three commonly used techniques
        • Payback period
    • Calculates the number of years before the new savings from the project equal the initial cost of the investment.
    • Select projects with shorter payback periods.
  • 68. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Capital Budgeting
      • Most organizations use a capital budgeting return on investment technique to evaluate the economic merits of different system alternatives.
      • There are three commonly used techniques
        • Payback period
        • Net present value (NPV)
    • Calculates and sums the discounted future cash flows of the costs and benefits.
    • Select projects with higher positive NPV.
  • 69. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Capital Budgeting
      • Most organizations use a capital budgeting return on investment technique to evaluate the economic merits of different system alternatives.
      • There are three commonly used techniques
        • Payback period
        • Net present value (NPV)
        • Internal rate of return (IRR)
    • Calculates the effective interest rate that would result in a net present value of zero for the project.
    • Select projects with higher IRRs.
  • 70. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • The best system will fail without the support of the people it serves.
    • So the behavioral aspects of change are crucial.
    • You need to be aware of and sensitive to the types of behavioral problems that can result from change.
  • 71. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • Why Behavioral Problems Occur
      • Employees will tend to view change as good if they believe it will affect them positively and vice versa.
  • 72. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
    • Employees are more likely to accept change if they are:
      • Young;
      • Highly educated; or
      • Comfortable with technology.
  • 73. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
    • The rationale used to sell the system may need to vary with the job responsibilities of the employees involved.
  • 74. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
    • Fool me once, shame on me . . .
    • Let’s see if I even give you a second chance.
  • 75. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
      • Top management support
  • 76. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
      • Top management support
      • Communication
  • 77. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
      • Top management support
      • Communication
      • Biases and natural resistance to change
    • Employees may be too emotionally attached to their duties, i.e., “sacred cows.”
  • 78. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
      • Top management support
      • Communication
      • Biases and natural resistance to change
      • Disruptive nature of the change process
    • Disturbances often create negative feelings.
  • 79. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • To minimize adverse behavioral reactions, it helps to understand why resistance occurs:
      • Personal characteristics and background
      • Manner in which change is introduced
      • Experience with prior changes
      • Top management support
      • Communication
      • Biases and natural resistance to change
      • Disruptive nature of the change process
      • Fear
    • May include fear of:
      • The unknown
      • Failure
      • Technology
      • Losing respect or status
      • Losing their jobs
  • 80. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • How People Resist AIS Changes
      • Resistance to change often takes one of three forms:
        • Aggression
    • Behavior intended to destroy, cripple, or weaken the system’s effectiveness.
    • Examples: Increased error rates, disruptions, or deliberate sabotage.
  • 81. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • How People Resist AIS Changes
      • Resistance to change often takes one of three forms:
        • Aggression
        • Projection
    • Blaming the new system for any and every unpleasant occurrence, i.e., the system becomes a scapegoat.
    • To preserve the integrity of the system, these criticisms must be controlled or answered.
  • 82. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF CHANGE
    • How People Resist AIS Changes
      • Resistance to change often takes one of three forms:
        • Aggression
        • Projection
        • Avoidance
    • “ If I don’t use this thing, maybe it will go away!”
  • 83. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Reactions to change can be improved by observing the following guidelines:
      • Meet user’s needs with respect to the form, content, and volume of system output.
      • Keep communication lines open. Managers and users should be fully informed about:
        • What changes are being made
        • Why
        • How it will benefit them
        • Who to contact with questions
  • 84. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
      • Maintain a safe and open atmosphere.
        • If employees become hostile, it’s an uphill battle you probably won’t win.
      • Obtain management support.
      • Allay fears.
        • To the extent possible, reassure employees that no major job losses or responsibility shifts will occur.
        • If employees are terminated, severance pay and outplacement services should be provided.
  • 85. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
      • Solicit user participation.
        • It is ego enhancing, challenging, and intrinsically satisfying.
        • Users who participate will be more committed to using the system.
      • Provide honest feedback.
        • Explain which suggestions are and are not being used and why.
      • Make sure users understand the system.
        • Don’t underestimate training needs.
  • 86. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
      • Humanize the system.
        • Employees shouldn’t feel the computer is controlling them or has usurped their positions.
      • Describe new challenges and opportunities.
        • The system can provide greater job satisfaction and increased opportunities.
      • Reexamine performance evaluation.
        • Are performance standards and criteria realistic in light of the change?
      • Test the system’s integrity.
        • It’ important to minimize bad impressions
  • 87. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
      • Avoid emotionalism.
        • Emotional issues should be allowed to cool, handled in a non-confrontational manner, or sidestepped.
      • Present the system in the proper context.
        • Address the concerns of the people to whom you’re speaking, not the concerns of management or developers.
      • Control the user’s expectations
        • Don’t oversell, and be realistic.
      • Keep the system simple
        • Avoid complex systems that cause radical changes.
  • 88. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
    • Ignoring the preceding steps can leave to behavior issues that are difficult or impossible to reverse.
  • 89. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • When a new or improved system is needed, a written request for systems development is prepared. That request describes:
      • The current system’s problems
      • The reasons for the proposed changes
      • The goals and objectives of a proposed system
      • The anticipated benefits and costs
  • 90. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps:
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 91. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 92. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The initial investigation is conducted to:
      • Gain a clear picture of the problem or need.
    • Sometimes what is thought to be the cause of the problem is not the real source.
  • 93. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The initial investigation is conducted to:
      • Gain a clear picture of the problem or need.
      • Determine the viability of the project and expected costs and payoffs.
  • 94. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The initial investigation is conducted to:
      • Gain a clear picture of the problem or need.
      • Determine the viability of the project and expected costs and payoffs.
      • Evaluate the scope and nature of the new AIS.
    • A new AIS is useful when problems are a result of:
      • Lack of information
      • Inaccessibility of data
      • Inefficient data processing
    • A new AIS will not answer problems such as:
      • A manager who has too many subordinates
      • A manager who lacks organizational skills
      • Failure to enforce existing problems
  • 95. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The initial investigation is conducted to:
      • Gain a clear picture of the problem or need.
      • Determine the viability of the project and expected costs and payoffs.
      • Evaluate the scope and nature of the new AIS.
      • Recommend whether to proceed.
    • Either:
      • Initiate the project as proposed.
      • Modify it.
      • Abandon it.
  • 96. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • If the project is approved:
      • A proposal to conduct systems analysis is prepared.
      • The project is assigned a priority and added to the master plan.
      • The development team begins a survey of the existing AIS.
      • The proposal will be modified as more information becomes available.
  • 97. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 98. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • A systems survey involves an extensive study of the current AIS which could take weeks or months. Objectives are:
      • Gain a thorough understanding of:
        • Company operations, policies, and procedures
        • Data and information flow
        • AIS strengths and weaknesses
        • Available hardware, software, and personnel
      • Make preliminary assessments of current and future processing needs, and determine extent and nature of needed changes.
      • Develop working relationships with users and build support.
      • Collect data that identify user needs, conduct a feasibility analysis, and make recommendations to management.
  • 99. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Data can be gathered from:
      • Employees.
      • Documentation such as organization charts and procedure manuals.
      • External sources such as:
        • Consultants
        • Customers
        • Suppliers
        • Industry associations
        • Government agencies
  • 100. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Four common methods of gathering data are:
      • Interviews
      • Questionnaires
      • Observation
      • System Documentation
  • 101. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Four common methods of gathering data are:
      • Interviews
      • Questionnaires
      • Observation
      • System Documentation
  • 102. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Advantages of interviews:
      • Can answer “why” questions
      • Can allow for follow-up and clarification
      • Provides opportunity to build positive relationships with interviewees and support for new system
    • Disadvantages of interviews:
      • Time-consuming
      • Expensive
      • Personal biases or self-interest may produce inaccurate information
  • 103. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • When you do interviews:
      • Make an appointment.
      • Explain the purpose ahead of time.
      • Indicate the amount of time needed.
      • Be on time.
      • Be familiar with the interviewee’s responsibilities.
      • Make notes on points to cover.
      • Put the interviewee at ease and let him/her do the talking.
      • Pay attention to nonverbal cues.
      • Take notes and augment them with impressions after the interview.
      • Request permission to tape critical interviews.
  • 104. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Four common methods of gathering data are:
      • Interviews
      • Questionnaires
      • Observation
      • System Documentation
  • 105. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Questionnaires can be used when:
      • The amount of information to be gathered is small and well defined.
      • The information is to be obtained from many people or from those who are remotely located.
      • The information is intended to verify data from other sources.
  • 106. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Advantages of questionnaires:
      • Can be anonymous.
      • Not time-consuming to complete.
      • Inexpensive.
      • Allows the subject time to think about responses.
    • Disadvantages of questionnaires:
      • Does not allow in-depth questions or answers.
      • Does not allow follow-up or clarification.
      • Does not build relationships.
      • Difficult to develop.
      • May be ignored or completed superficially.
  • 107. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Four common methods of gathering data are:
      • Interviews
      • Questionnaires
      • Observation
      • System Documentation
  • 108. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Advantages of observations:
      • Can verify how the system actually works rather than how it should work.
      • Results in greater understanding of systems.
    • Disadvantages of observations:
      • Time-consuming.
      • Expensive.
      • Difficult to interpret.
      • People may alter behavior while being observed.
  • 109. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • When you do observations:
      • Identify what is to be observed and estimate the time required.
      • Obtain permission.
      • Explain what will be done and why.
      • Don’t make value judgments.
      • Take notes and document impressions ASAP.
  • 110. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Four common methods of gathering data are:
      • Interviews
      • Questionnaires
      • Observation
      • System Documentation
  • 111. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Advantages of systems documentation:
      • Describes how the system should work.
      • Written form facilitates review and analysis.
    • Disadvantages of systems documentation:
      • Time consuming.
      • May be elusive.
    • When you examine systems documentation:
      • Keep in mind that the system doesn’t always work as it should per the documentation.
      • If documentation is unavailable, it may be worthwhile to develop it.
  • 112. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once the data is gathered, document findings and model the existing system.
      • Documentation consists of:
        • Questionnaire copies
        • Interview notes
        • Memos
  • 113. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Another form of documentation is a system model:
      • Physical models illustrate how a system functions by describing:
        • Flow of documents.
        • Computer processes performed and the people doing them.
        • Equipment used.
        • Any other physical elements.
      • Logical models illustrate what is being done regardless of how the flow is accomplished.
  • 114. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • When documentation is complete, analyze the existing system:
      • Evaluate the AIS’s strengths and weaknesses to develop ideas for designing and structuring the new AIS.
        • Try to retain strengths.
        • Correct weaknesses.
      • Sometimes, you need revolutionary, rather than evolutionary change.
        • Called re-engineering .
  • 115. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • At the end of this phase, prepare systems survey report:
      • Outlines and documents the data gathered.
      • Provides recommendations that result from the systems survey.
  • 116. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 117. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • After the systems survey, a more thorough feasibility analysis is conducted.
    • This analysis is updated regularly as the project proceeds and costs and benefits become clearer.
  • 118. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 119. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
    • Describes what is to be done and by whom.
  • 120. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
    • Describes name, size, format, source, and significance of necessary data elements.
  • 121. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
    • A preliminary structure showing how the data elements will be organized into logical records.
  • 122. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
      • Outputs
    • Layouts of system outputs and a description of their purpose, frequency, and distribution.
  • 123. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
      • Outputs
      • Inputs
    • A copy of system inputs and a description of their contents, source, and who is responsible for them.
  • 124. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
      • Outputs
      • Inputs
      • Constraints
    • A description of deadlines, schedules, security requirements, staffing limitations, and legal requirements.
  • 125. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
      • Outputs
      • Inputs
      • Constraints
      • Controls
    • Controls that are needed to ensure accuracy and reliability.
  • 126. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once a project clears the feasibility hurdle, the company identifies the information needs of AIS users and documents systems processes, including:
      • Processes
      • Data elements
      • Data structure
      • Outputs
      • Inputs
      • Documentation constraints
      • Controls
      • Reorganizations
    • Changes in staffing, job functions, etc., that would be necessary.
  • 127. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Issues:
      • There is much to be specified, even for a simple AIS.
      • It may be difficult to get employees to accurately articulate their needs.
      • Errors are best caught early, as the cost to correct them increases significantly the farther you are into the project.
  • 128. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems Objectives and Constraints
      • Many entities take a systems approach to determining information needs and systems requirements.
      • Problems and alternatives are viewed from the standpoint of the entire organization—as opposed to a single department.
  • 129. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
    • Able to help users make decisions.
  • 130. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
    • Benefits exceed costs.
  • 131. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
    • Data is processed accurately and reliably.
  • 132. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
    • You can access it when you need it.
  • 133. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
    • More critical information is provided first.
  • 134. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
    • Efficient and courteous.
  • 135. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
    • Can handle peak periods.
  • 136. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
      • Ease of use
  • 137. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
      • Ease of use
      • Flexibility
    • Can accommodate changes.
  • 138. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
      • Ease of use
      • Flexibility
      • Tractability
    • Easily understood.
    • Facilitates problem solving and future development.
  • 139. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
      • Ease of use
      • Flexibility
      • Tractability
      • Auditability
  • 140. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Systems objectives must be identified, so analysts and users can focus on those elements most vital to success of the AIS. These may include:
      • Usefulness
      • Economy
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Timeliness
      • Customer service
      • Capacity
      • Ease of use
      • Flexibility
      • Tractability
      • Auditability
      • Security
    • Available only to authorized users.
  • 141. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • There are often trade-offs between objectives.
    • Organizational constraints make it impossible to develop all parts of an AIS simultaneously.
      • You divide it into modules that are analyzed, developed, and installed independently.
      • When changes are made, only the affected modules need to be changed.
      • The modules should be properly integrated into a workable system.
  • 142. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Success often depends on the project team’s ability to cope with organizational constraints, including:
      • Requirements of governmental agencies.
      • Managerial policies and guidelines.
      • Lack of sufficient, qualified staff.
      • Capabilities and attitudes of users.
      • Available technology.
      • Limited financial resources.
  • 143. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Strategies for Determining Requirements:
      • One or more of the following four strategies are used to determine AIS requirements:
        • Ask users what they need
    • This is the simplest and fastest strategy.
    • But many people don’t realize or understand their true needs.
    • It’s sometimes better to ask them what decisions they make and what processes they are involved in.
    • Users also need to think beyond their current information needs.
  • 144. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Strategies for Determining Requirements:
      • One or more of the following four strategies are used to determine AIS requirements:
        • Ask users what they need
        • Analyze existing systems
    • Internal and external systems should be analyzed to avoid reinventing the wheel.
  • 145. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Strategies for Determining Requirements:
      • One or more of the following four strategies are used to determine AIS requirements:
        • Ask users what they need
        • Analyze existing systems
        • Examine existing system use
    • Certain modules:
      • May not be used as intended
      • May be augmented by manual tasks
      • May be avoided altogether
    • Helps determine whether the system really needs to be simply modified rather than replaced.
  • 146. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Strategies for Determining Requirements:
      • One or more of the following four strategies are used to determine AIS requirements:
        • Ask users what they need
        • Analyze existing systems
        • Examine existing system use
        • Create a prototype
    • Entails roughing out a system for users to critique.
    • When they see something on a screen, it’s easier to identify what they like and don’t like.
    • Goes through iterations of improving and reviewing with users until users agree on their needs.
  • 147. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Documentation and Approval of User Requirements:
      • Detailed requirements for the new AIS should be created and documented.
        • How to produce the required features is determined during the design phases of the SDLC.
        • The requirements list should be supported by sample input and output forms and charts that make it easier to conceptualize.
        • A nontechnical summary is often prepared for management.
  • 148. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • Once user requirements have been determined and documented, the project team:
      • Meets with users.
      • Explains the requirements.
      • Obtains their agreement and approval.
    • When an agreement is reached, user management should sign off on the requirements.
  • 149. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The project development team will conduct the systems analysis in five steps
      • Initial investigation
      • Systems survey
      • Feasibility study
      • Information needs and systems requirements
      • Systems analysis report
  • 150. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • The last step in systems analysis is the systems analysis report.
      • Summarizes and documents the activities.
      • Serves as a repository of data from which designers can draw.
      • Outlines:
        • Goals and objectives of the new system.
        • Scope of the project.
        • How the new system fits into the company’s master plan.
        • User processing requirements and information needs.
        • Feasibility analysis.
        • Recommendations for the new system.
  • 151. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • A go-no-go decision is usually made three times during systems analysis:
      • During the initial investigation to determine whether to go ahead with a systems survey.
      • At the end of the feasibility study to determine whether to proceed with the information requirements step.
      • At the completion of the analysis phase to decide whether to proceed to the next phase (conceptual design).
  • 152. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
    • When systems analysis is completed, the project can move on to:
      • Conceptual design phase
      • Physical design phase
      • Implementation and conversion
      • Operation and maintenance
  • 153. SUMMARY
    • You’ve learned about the five phases in the systems development life cycle, with a particular emphasis on systems analysis.
    • You’ve learned who the players are in the systems development process.
    • You’ve learned about various techniques that are used to plan the development of a system.
    • You’ve reviewed some techniques for determining system feasibility.
    • You’ve learned about behavioral responses to systems changes and how dysfunctional behavior can be minimized.