HAPTER 1 Accounting Information Systems: An Overview
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Questions to be addressed in this chapter include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the meaning of  syst...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>A system is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of interrelated components </li></ul></ul>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Most systems are composed of smaller subsystems . . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . And v...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Every organization has goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subsystems should be design...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Goal conflict  occurs when the activity of a subsystem is not consistent with anoth...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>The  systems concept  encourages integration (i.e., minimizing the duplication of r...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Information  is different from data. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that hav...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>However, when you get more information than you can effectively assimilate, you suf...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>-  Cost of producing information </li></u...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>-  Cost of producing information </li></u...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>-  Cost of producing information </li></u...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li>...
<ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </...
<ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </...
<ul><li>External users primarily use information that is either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANDATORY INFORMATION—Required by a...
<ul><li>In providing mandatory or essential information, the focus should be on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing costs </...
<ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </...
<ul><li>Internal users primarily use discretionary information. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary focus in producing this info...
<ul><li>An AIS is a system that collects, records, stores, and processes data to produce information for decision makers. ...
<ul><li>The functions of an AIS are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and store data about events, resources, and agents. ...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Accounting is an infor...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Other accounting cours...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY A...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY A...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY A...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY A...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
<ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology AIS design is affected ...
WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology Information technology ...
WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology While culture affects t...
<ul><li>The objective of most organizations is to provide value to their customers. </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to...
ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Well, Mr. Pharmaceutical Salesman, your proposal looks good, but your prices are about ...
ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN That’s true, but we’re comfortable with that because of the value-added that we bring t...
ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN What is that “value-added,” and how do you convert it into dollars?
ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Blah—blah—blah– customer service– blah—blah--blah
<ul><li>While “adding value” is a commonly used buzzword, in its genuine sense, it means making the value of the finished ...
<ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain.  These include: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain.  These include: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CH...
<ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></u...
<ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></u...
<ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></u...
<ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></u...
<ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain.  These include: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE ...
<ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources <...
<ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources <...
<ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources <...
<ul><li>Information technology can significantly impact the efficiency and effectiveness with which the preceding activiti...
<ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound ...
<ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound ...
<ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound ...
<ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound ...
<ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions <...
<ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions <...
<ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions <...
<ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions ...
<ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions ...
<ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions ...
<ul><li>In general, the higher a manager is in the organization, the more likely he/she is to be engaging in: </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Corporations have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited opportunities to invest in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>A product differentiation strategy involves setting your product apart from those of your competitors, i.e., build...
<ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>A low-cost strategy involves offering a cheaper mousetrap than your competitors.  The low cost is made possible by...
<ul><li>Sometimes a company can do both, but they normally have to choose. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
<ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vari...
<ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vari...
<ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vari...
<ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vari...
<ul><li>Choosing a strategic position is important because it helps a company focus its efforts as opposed to trying to be...
<ul><li>The growth of the Internet has profoundly affected the way value chain activities are performed: </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>The AIS should help a company adopt and maintain its strategic position. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that data ...
<ul><li>The authors believe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting and information systems should be closely integrated. </li><...
SUMMARY <ul><li>What we’ve learned so far: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of  system ,  data , and  information </li></...
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Ais Romney 2006 Slides 01 Overview

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Ais Romney 2006 Slides 01 Overview

  1. 1. HAPTER 1 Accounting Information Systems: An Overview
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Questions to be addressed in this chapter include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the meaning of system , data , and information ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is an accounting information system (AIS)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is the AIS an important topic to study? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the role of the AIS in the value chain? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the AIS provide information for decision making? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the basic strategies and strategic positions an organization can pursue? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>A system is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of interrelated components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve a goal </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Most systems are composed of smaller subsystems . . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . And vice versa! </li></ul>
  5. 5. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Every organization has goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subsystems should be designed to maximize achievement of the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even to the detriment of the subsystem itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: The production department (a subsystem) of a company might have to forego its goal of staying within its budget in order to meet the organization’s goal of delivering product on time. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Goal conflict occurs when the activity of a subsystem is not consistent with another subsystem or with the larger system. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal congruence occurs when the subsystem’s goals are in line with the organization’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The larger and more complicated a system, the more difficult it is to achieve goal congruence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>The systems concept encourages integration (i.e., minimizing the duplication of recording, storing, reporting and processing). </li></ul><ul><li>Data are facts that are collected, recorded, stored, and processed by an information system. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations collect data about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events that occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources that are affected by those events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents who participate in the events </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Information is different from data. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that have been organized and processed to provide meaning to a user. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, more information and better information translates into better decisions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>However, when you get more information than you can effectively assimilate, you suffer from information overload . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Final exams week! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you’ve reached the overload point, the quality of decisions declines while the costs of producing the information increases. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost of producing information </li></ul><ul><li>Value of information </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of information may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Improved decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ability to plan and schedule activities </li></ul>
  11. 11. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost of producing information </li></ul><ul><li>Value of information </li></ul><ul><li>Costs may include time and resources spent: </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data </li></ul><ul><li>Processing data </li></ul><ul><li>Storing data </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing information to users </li></ul>
  12. 12. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Benefits of information </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost of producing information </li></ul><ul><li>Value of information </li></ul>Costs and benefits of information are often difficult to quantify, but you need to try when you’re making decisions about whether to provide information.
  13. 13. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul>It reduces uncertainty by helping you predict what will happen or confirm what already has happened.
  14. 14. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul>It’s dependable, i.e., free from error or bias and faithfully portrays events and activities.
  15. 15. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul>It doesn’t leave out anything that’s important.
  16. 16. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul>You get it in time to make your decision.
  17. 17. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandability </li></ul></ul>It’s presented in a manner you can comprehend and use.
  18. 18. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifiability </li></ul></ul>A consensus notion—the nature of the information is such that different people would tend to produce the same result.
  19. 19. SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION <ul><li>Characteristics that make information useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifiability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul>You can get to it when you need it and in a format you can use.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  21. 21. <ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  22. 22. <ul><li>External users primarily use information that is either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANDATORY INFORMATION—Required by a governmental entity, such as Form 10-K’s required by the SEC; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESSENTIAL INFORMATION—Required to conduct business with external parties, such as purchase orders. </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  23. 23. <ul><li>In providing mandatory or essential information, the focus should be on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting regulatory requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting minimum standards of reliability and usefulness </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  24. 24. <ul><li>Information is provided to both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Users </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  25. 25. <ul><li>Internal users primarily use discretionary information. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary focus in producing this information is ensuring that benefits exceed costs, i.e., the information has positive value. </li></ul>SYSTEMS, DATA, AND INFORMATION
  26. 26. <ul><li>An AIS is a system that collects, records, stores, and processes data to produce information for decision makers. </li></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use advanced technology; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a simple paper-and-pencil system; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be something in between. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology is simply a tool to create, maintain, or improve a system. </li></ul>WHAT IS AN AIS?
  27. 27. <ul><li>The functions of an AIS are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and store data about events, resources, and agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform that data into information that management can use to make decisions about events, resources, and agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate controls to ensure that the entity’s resources (including data) are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available when needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate and reliable </li></ul></ul></ul>WHAT IS AN AIS?
  28. 28. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Accounting is an information-providing activity, so accountants need to understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the system that provides that information is designed, implemented and used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How financial information is reported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How information is used to make decisions </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Other accounting courses focus on how the information is provided and used. </li></ul><ul><li>An AIS course places greater emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the data is collected and transformed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the availability, reliability, and accuracy of the data is ensured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIS courses are not number-crunching courses </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Auditors need to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information produced by the AIS. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Tax accountants must understand the client’s AIS adequately to be confident that it is providing complete and accurate information for tax planning and compliance work. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>In private industry and not-for-profits , systems work is considered the most important activity performed by accountants. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>In management consulting , the design, selection, and implementation of accounting systems is a rapid growth area. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The AIS course complements other systems courses. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Other systems courses focus on design and implementation of information systems, databases, expert systems, and telecommunications. </li></ul><ul><li>AIS courses focus on accountability and control. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The AIS course complements other systems courses. </li></ul><ul><li>AIS topics are tested on the new CPA exam. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? <ul><li>Makes up about 25% of the Business Environment & Concepts section of the CPA exam. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>It’s fundamental to accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills are critical to career success. </li></ul><ul><li>The AIS course complements other systems courses. </li></ul><ul><li>AIS topics are tested on the new CPA exam. </li></ul><ul><li>AIS topics impact corporate strategy and culture. </li></ul>WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS?
  37. 37. WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology AIS design is affected by information technology, the organization’s strategy, and the organization’s culture.
  38. 38. WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology Information technology affects the company’s choice of business strategy. To perform cost-benefit analyses on IT changes, you need to understand business strategy.
  39. 39. WHY STUDY ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? AIS Occupational Culture Strategy Information Technology While culture affects the design of the AIS, it’s also true that the AIS affects culture by altering the dispersion and availability of information.
  40. 40. <ul><li>The objective of most organizations is to provide value to their customers. </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to deliver value? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s peek in on a conversation at Joe’s pharmacy . . . </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  41. 41. ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Well, Mr. Pharmaceutical Salesman, your proposal looks good, but your prices are about 5% higher than your competitors.
  42. 42. ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN That’s true, but we’re comfortable with that because of the value-added that we bring to this arrangement.
  43. 43. ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN What is that “value-added,” and how do you convert it into dollars?
  44. 44. ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Blah—blah—blah– customer service– blah—blah--blah
  45. 45. <ul><li>While “adding value” is a commonly used buzzword, in its genuine sense, it means making the value of the finished component greater than the sum of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>It may mean: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making it faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making it more reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing better service or advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing something in limited supply (like O-negative blood or rare gems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing enhanced features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizing it </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  46. 46. <ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These activities are sometimes referred to as “line” and “staff” activities respectively. </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  47. 47. <ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These activities are sometimes referred to as “line” and “staff” activities respectively. </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  48. 48. <ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Receiving, storing, and distributing the materials that are inputs to the organization’s product or service. For a pharmaceutical company, this activity might involve handling incoming chemicals and elements that will be used to make their drugs.
  49. 49. <ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Transforming those inputs into products or services. For the pharmaceutical company, this step involves combining the raw chemicals and elements with the work of people and equipment to produce the finished drug product that will be sold to customers.
  50. 50. <ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound logistics </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Distributing products or services to customers. For the pharmaceutical company, this step involves packaging and shipping the goods to drug stores, doctors, and hospitals.
  51. 51. <ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and sales </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Helping customers to buy the organization’s products or services. A pharmacy rep may visit with drug stores, doctors, etc. to inform them about their products and take orders.
  52. 52. <ul><li>Primary activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Post-sale support provided to customers such as repair and maintenance function. A pharmaceutical firm will typically not be repairing it’s product (though the product may be periodically reformulated). The pharmaceutical company is more likely to be providing advisory services to pharmacists, etc.
  53. 53. <ul><li>Value is provided by performing a series of activities referred to as the value chain. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These activities are sometimes referred to as “line” and “staff” activities respectively. </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  54. 54. <ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Accountants, lawyers, and administration. Includes the company’s accounting information system.
  55. 55. <ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Involves recruiting and hiring new employees, training employees, paying employees, and handling employee benefits.
  56. 56. <ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Activities to improve the products or services (e.g., R&D, website development). For the pharmaceutical company, these activities would include research and development to create new drugs and modify existing ones.
  57. 57. <ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Buying the resources (e.g., materials, inventory, fixed assets) needed to carry out the entity’s primary activities. In the pharmaceutical company, the purchasing folks are trying to get the best combination of cost and quality in buying chemicals, supplies, and other assets the company needs to run its operations.
  58. 58. <ul><li>Information technology can significantly impact the efficiency and effectiveness with which the preceding activities are carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>An organization’s value chain can be connected with the value chains of its customers, suppliers, and distributors. </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  59. 59. <ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Smith Supply Co. Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service Customer Pharmacy Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service For example, the inbound logistics of Pharmaceuticals, Inc., links to the outbound logistics of its suppliers.
  60. 60. <ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Smith Supply Co. Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service Customer Pharmacy Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service And the outbound logistics of Pharmaceuticals, Inc., links to the inbound logistics of its customers.
  61. 61. <ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Smith Supply Co. Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service Customer Pharmacy Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service The linking of these separate value chains creates a larger system known as a supply chain .
  62. 62. <ul><li>Pharmaceuticals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outbound Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN Smith Supply Co. Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service Customer Pharmacy Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service The linking of these separate value chains creates a larger system known as a supply chain . Information technology can facilitate synergistic linkages that improve the performance of each company’s value chain.
  63. 63. <ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>Repetitive and routine </li></ul><ul><li>Can be delegated to lower-level employees </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Deciding whether to write an auto insurance policy for a customer with a clean driving history. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semistructured decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>Incomplete rules </li></ul><ul><li>Require subjective assessments </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Deciding whether to sell auto insurance to a customer with a tainted driving history. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>There is variation in the degree of structure used to make decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semistructured decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>Non-recurring and non-routine </li></ul><ul><li>Require a great deal of subjective assessment </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Deciding whether to begin selling a new type of insurance policy </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>Relate to performance of specific tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Often of a day-to-day nature </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Deciding whether to order inventory </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management control decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>Relate to utilizing resources to accomplish organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Budgeting </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>There is also variation in the scope of a decision’s effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational control decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management control decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN <ul><li>The “what do we want to be when we grow up” types of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Involves establishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies to achieve those objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Deciding whether to diversify the company into other product lines </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>In general, the higher a manager is in the organization, the more likely he/she is to be engaging in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less structured decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader scope (i.e., strategic planning) decisions </li></ul></ul>ROLE OF THE AIS IN THE VALUE CHAIN
  70. 70. <ul><li>Corporations have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited opportunities to invest in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited resources to invest in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequently, they must identify the improvements likely to yield the highest return. </li></ul><ul><li>This decision requires an understanding of the entity’s overall business strategy. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  71. 71. <ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost strategy </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  72. 72. <ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost strategy </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  73. 73. <ul><li>A product differentiation strategy involves setting your product apart from those of your competitors, i.e., building a “better” mousetrap by offering one that’s faster, has enhanced features, etc. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  74. 74. <ul><li>Michael Porter suggests that there are two basic business strategies companies can follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost strategy </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  75. 75. <ul><li>A low-cost strategy involves offering a cheaper mousetrap than your competitors. The low cost is made possible by operating more efficiently. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  76. 76. <ul><li>Sometimes a company can do both, but they normally have to choose. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  77. 77. <ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety-based strategic position </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY <ul><li>Offer a subset of the industry’s products or services. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: An insurance company that only offers life insurance as opposed to life, health, property-casualty, etc. </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs-based strategic position </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY <ul><li>Serve most or all of the needs of a particular group of customers in a target market. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: The original Farm Bureau-based insurance companies provided a portfolio of insurance and financial services tailored to the specific needs of farmers. </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access-based strategic position </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY <ul><li>Serve a subset of customers who differ from others in terms of factors such as geographic location or size.. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Satellite Internet services are intended primarily for customers in rural areas who cannot get DSL or cable services. </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Porter also argues that companies must choose a strategic position among three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access-based strategic position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These strategic positions are not mutually exclusive and can overlap. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  81. 81. <ul><li>Choosing a strategic position is important because it helps a company focus its efforts as opposed to trying to be everything to everybody. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: A radio station that tries to play all types of music will probably fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s critical to design the organization’s activities so they reinforce one another in achieving the selected strategic position. The result is synergy, which is difficult for competitors to imitate. </li></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  82. 82. <ul><li>The growth of the Internet has profoundly affected the way value chain activities are performed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound and outbound logistics can be streamlined for products that can be digitized, like books and music. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet allows companies to cut costs, which impacts strategy and strategic position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the Internet is available to everyone, intense price competition can result. The outcome may be that many companies shift from low-cost to product-differentiation strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet may impede access-based strategic positions. </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  83. 83. <ul><li>The AIS should help a company adopt and maintain its strategic position. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that data be collected about each activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the collection and integration of both financial and nonfinancial data. </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  84. 84. <ul><li>The authors believe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting and information systems should be closely integrated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The AIS should be the primary information system to provide users with information they need to perform their jobs. </li></ul></ul>THE AIS AND CORPORATE STRATEGY
  85. 85. SUMMARY <ul><li>What we’ve learned so far: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of system , data , and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What an AIS is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why it’s an important topic to stody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What its role is in the value chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How it provides information for decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the basic strategies and strategic positions an organization can pursue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How these interact with the AIS </li></ul></ul></ul>
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