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  1. 1. DOPAMINE<br /> JAHANGIR AHMAD<br />
  2. 2. HISTORY<br />The function of dopamine as a neurotransmitter was discovered in 1958 by ArvidCarlssonand Nils-ÅkeHillarpat the Laboratory for Chemical Pharmacology of the National Heart Institute of Sweden. It was named dopamine because it was a monoamine, and its synthetic precursor was 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine . ArvidCarlssonwas awarded the 2000 Nobel prize for physiology or medicine for showing that dopamine is not just a precursor of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) but a neurotransmitter, as well.<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br />Dopamine is an endogenous catecholamine that serve as both a neurotransmitter and a precursor of nor epinephrine synthesis.<br />When given as an exogenous drug dopamine activates a variety of receptors in dose dependent manner.<br />Regulates cardiac, vascular and endocrine function.<br />
  4. 4. Each ampoule contains 200 mg /5ml<br />
  5. 5. STRUCTURE<br />
  6. 6. SYNTHESIS<br />
  7. 7. RECEPTORS<br /><ul><li> Dopamine acts through D1 , D2 as well as adrenergic alpha and B1 receptors ( But not B2)
  8. 8. D1 and D2 receptors are the most abundant and widespread in areas receiving a dopaminergic innervation ( namely the striatum ,limbic system, thalamus and hypothalamus) as are D2 receptors, which also occur in the pituitry gland </li></li></ul><li>MECHANISM OF ACTION<br /><ul><li>At low dose (0.5 to 3 mic /kg /min ):-</li></ul> Selectively activates dopamine specific receptors in the renal and splanchnic circulation.<br /> Increase blood flow in these region.<br /> Low dose dopamine also directly affects renal tubular epithelial cells.<br /> It causes an increase in urinary Na excretion<br />
  9. 9. Contd….<br /><ul><li>Intermediate dose(3 to 10 mic /kg /min ):-</li></ul>It stimulates B1 receptors in the heart and peripheral circulation.<br /> Increases myocardial contractility, increases heart rate and peripheral vasodilatation<br /> It increases myocardial oxygen demand, so when ever dopamine is to be used oxygen must be supplemented<br /> Over all increase in cardiac output<br /> Contractile response to dopamine is modest when compared to dobutamine <br />
  10. 10. Contd…<br /><ul><li>At high dose (> 10 mic /kg / min ):-</li></ul> Dopamine produces a progressive activation of alpha receptors in the systemic and pulmonary circulation resulting in progressive pulmonary and systemic vasoconstriction<br /> This vassopressor effect by virtue of increasing ventricular afterload <br />
  11. 11. Contd..<br /> Dopamine not effective orally and does not cross blood brain barrier in sufficient amounts to cause CNS effects. <br />
  12. 12. PHARMACOKINETICS<br />Rapid metabolism of dopamine mandates its use as a continuous infusion. A portion of the positive inotropic effect of dopamine is due to stimulation of release of endogenous norpinephrine which may predispose to development of cardiac disarrythmias never theless, dopamine is less disarrythmogenic than epinephrine <br />It is used only intravenously . <br />
  13. 13. CLINICAL USES<br />Dopamine is often used in situation where both cardiac stimulation and peripheral vasoconstriction desired such ascardiogenic shock<br />Also used to correct the hypotension in the septic shock .But norepinephrine become the preferred vassopressor in this condition<br />Low dose is often used in an attempt to prevent or reverse acute renal failure <br />
  14. 14. Contd…<br />Drug initially administered at a rate of 2 to 5 mic / kg /min . During infusion ,pt require clinical assessments of myocardial function perfusion of vitals organs such as the brain , and the production of urine<br />Most pts should receive intensive care with monitoring of arterial and venous pressures and ECG<br />Reduction in urine flow ,tachycardia or the development of arrhythmias may be indications to slow or terminate the infusion<br />
  15. 15. DOPAMINE IN PULMONARY OEDEMA<br />The sympathomimetic amines dopamine is potent ionotropic agents<br />Used in pulmonary edema<br />Forcefully contracts the heart and thus decreases the pulmonary load <br />
  16. 16. DOPAMINE INFUSION IN WHICH FLUID ?<br />D-5-- No<br />RL -- No<br />NS -- yes <br />DNS-- No<br />HEMACCIL -- No<br />
  18. 18. DOPAMINE AND DOBUTAMINE COMBINED INFUSION<br />The divergent pharmacologic effects of dopamine and dobutamine make their use in combination potentially useful.Infusion of the combination of dopamine and dobutamine have been noted to produce a greater improvement in cardiac output, at lower doses, than can be achieved by either drug alone. <br />
  19. 19. Conti-<br />Low dose simultaneously increases: <br /> Glomerular filtration rate<br /> Renal blood flow<br /> Urine output<br />
  20. 20. DOSE AND ADMINISTRATION<br />Commercial preparation of dopamine are concentrated drug solution [Containing 40 mg /80 mg dopamine HCL /ml]<br />Provided in small volume vial / ampoule in 5 ml /10 ml<br />THE Preparation must be diluted to prevent intense vasoconstriction during drug infusion<br />Dopamine solution diluted 100-fold in isotonic saline to prepare the infusate<br />Always delivered into , large central veins <br />
  21. 21. DOSING REGIMEN<br />Weight based<br />There are two recommended doses:-<br /><ul><li> 3 to 10 mic /kg /min is for augmenting cardiac output thereby increasing BP
  22. 22. More than 10 mic /kg /min is recommended to increase the blood pressure directly</li></li></ul><li>INCOMPABILITIES<br />Like dobutamine, dopamine is inactivated by higher PH So ,alkaline fluids should not be infused along with dopamine<br />INFUSATE:-<br /><ul><li> Use 5 ml 2 vials containing 40 mg /ml dopamine HCL add to 500 ml isotonic saline [Final concentration= 40mic /drop ] </li></li></ul><li>PRECAUTIONS<br />Before dopamine is administered to pt in shock ,hypovolemia should be corrected by transfusion of whole blood , plasma or other appropriate fluid<br />
  23. 23. ADVERSE EFFECTS<br /><ul><li>Tachyarrhythmia's are the most common adverse effects of dopamine
  24. 24. Malignant tachyarrhythmia [ Multifocal ventricular ectopic , ventricular tachycardia ]
  25. 25. The most feared complication of dopamine infusion is limb necrosis
  26. 26. Extravasations of drug through a peripheral vein can be treated with local injection of phentolamine [5 to 10 mg in 15 ml saline ]</li></li></ul><li>Contd…<br />Allergic reactions <br /> Delays gastric emptying which could predispose to nosocomial pneumonia<br />If pt is on dopamine infusion and is to be anaesthetized , he / she will be treated as a full stomach pt <br />Less dysarrytmogenic than epinephrine <br />
  27. 27. Contd…<br />Continuous infusion of dopamine increase intraocular pressure<br />Ventilation effects :-<br /> Infusion of dopamine interferes with the ventilatory response to arterial hypoxemia<br /> They results in unexpected depression of ventilation<br /> ABG have been observed to deteriote during infusion of dopamine<br />
  28. 28. Contd…<br />Hyperglycemia that is commonly present in pts receiving a continuous infusion of dopamine is likely to reflect drug induced inhibition of insulin secretion<br />
  29. 29. DRUGS MAY INTERACTS WITH DOPAMINE<br />Cyclopropane<br />Bromocriptine<br />Dyhydroergotamine<br />Entacapone<br />Halothane<br />Linezolide<br />Phenytoine<br />
  30. 30. CONTRAINDICATION<br />Pt receiving MAO inhibitors<br />Tricyclic antidepressants agents<br />Pheochromocytoma<br />Uncorrected tachyarrhythmia<br />Ventricular fibrillation<br />
  31. 31. If dopamine liquid falls on floor /cloth it gives permanent staining if allowed to dry and was not mopped off wet<br />
  32. 32. Thank you…<br />