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Hsp sc y6

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA Integrated Curriculum For Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year 6 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2006
  2. 2. Copyright © 2007 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaKompleks Kerajaan Parcel E62604 PutrajayaFirst published 2007Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by anyelectronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording isforbidden without the written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry ofEducation Malaysia. iii
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageThe National Philosophy vNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 1Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 3Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7Teaching and Learning Strategies 7Content Organisation 9Investigating Living Things Learning Area: 1. Interaction among living things 11Investigating Force and Energy Learning Area: 1. Force 17 2. Movement 21
  4. 4. Investigating Materials Learning Area: 1. Food Preservation 22 2. Waste Management 25Investigating The Earth and the Universe Learning Area: 1. Eclipses 28Investigating Technology Learning Area: 1. Machine 30Acknowledgements 33Panel of Writers 34 v
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining ademocratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitablyshared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building aprogressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology;We, the people of Malaysia, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:BELIFE IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYSUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY
  6. 6. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in aholistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God.Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent,who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level ofpersonal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, society and thenation at large.
  8. 8. ix
  9. 9. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able tomaster scientific knowledge and technological competency.
  10. 10. PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made asociety depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instructionenvisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to This measure will enable pupils to keep abreast ofspearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society developments in science and technology in contemporaryand a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tapend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science written in theemphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for pupils to use the EnglishThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in theprovide opportunities for pupils to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing pupils’ ability to usestrategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in theeveryday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educationalprocess en route to achieving these aims would produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation ofwell-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been theharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express myThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labourTo this end, pupils are given ample opportunities to expended.engage in scientific investigations through hands-onactivities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies andthoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout theteaching-learning process. The content and contexts (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR AMP)suggested are chosen based on their relevance and Directorappeal to pupils so that their interest in the subject is Curriculum Development Centreenhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION AIMS The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to developAs articulated in the National Education Policy, education in pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiences andMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific andindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce thinking skills as well as the inculcation of scientific attitudes andindividuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and values.physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondaryschool science curriculum is developed with the aim of producingsuch individuals. OBJECTIVES The Level Two Primary School Science curriculum isdesigned to stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest as The Level Two Primary School Science Curriculum aims to:well to enable pupils to learn more about themselves and the 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest aboutworld around them through pupil-centered activities. the world around them. 2. Provide pupils with opportunities to develop science The curriculum is articulated in two documents: the process skills and thinking skills.syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents 3. Develop pupils’ creativity.the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a 4. Provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts.period of 3 years for Level Two Primary School Science. The 5. To provide learning opportunities for pupils to applycurriculum specifications provides the details of the curriculum, knowledge and skills in a creative, critical and analyticalwhich includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief manner for problem solving and decision-making.descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific 6. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning 7. Foster the appreciation on the contributions of science andstrategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content covers technology towards national development and well-beingthe learning objectives, suggested learning activities, learning of mankind.outcomes, notes and vocabulary. 8. Be aware of the need to love and care for the environment. 1
  12. 12. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Making a forecast about what Predicting will happen in the future basedScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and on prior knowledge gainedproblem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are through experiences or collectedutilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation data.such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. Communicating Using words or graphic symbols Scientific skills encompass science process skills and such as tables, graphs, figuresmanipulative skills. or models to describe an action, object or event.Science Process Skills Using space-time Describing changes inScience process skills enable pupils to formulate their questions relationship parameter with time. Examplesand find out the answers systematically. of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume,Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: weight and mass.Observing Using the sense of hearing, Interpreting data Giving rational explanations touch, smell, taste and sight to about an object, event or pattern find out about objects or events. derived from collected data.Classifying Using observations to group Defining Defining concepts by describing objects or events according to operationally what must be done and what similarities or differences. should be observed.Measuring and Making quantitative Controlling Naming the fixed variables,Using Numbers observations by comparing to a variables manipulated variable and conventional or non- responding variable in an conventional standard. investigation. The manipulated variable is changed to observeMaking Using past experiences or its relationship with theInferences previously collected data to draw responding variable. At the conclusions and explain events. same time, the fixed variables are kept constant. 2
  13. 13. THINKING SKILLS Making Making a general statement Hypotheses about the relationship between a Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to manipulated variable and a integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand responding variable to explain the environment. an observation or event. The statement can be tested to One of the objectives of the national education system is to determine its validity. enhance the thinking ability of pupils. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtfulExperimenting Planning and conducting learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is(design a fair test) activities to test a hypothesis. a foundation for thoughtful learning. These activities include collecting, analysing and Thoughtful learning is achieved if pupils are actively interpreting data and making involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be conclusions. organised to provide opportunities for pupils to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making.Manipulative Skills Thinking skills can be categorised into critical and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates anManipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person whothat enable pupils to: thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and• Use and handle science apparatus and substances. products.• Handle specimens correctly and carefully.• Draw specimens and apparatus. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes• Clean science apparatus. that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and• Store science apparatus. creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process. 3
  14. 14. Critical Thinking SkillsA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying characteristics, Analysing Examining information in detail features, qualities and by breaking it down into elements of a concept or an smaller parts to find implicit object. meanings and relationships. Comparing and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to such as characteristics, support or oppose something features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading way. elements of a concept or event. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value of something Grouping and Separating objects or based on valid reasons or Classifying phenomena into categories evidence. based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or Making Making a statement about the features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. 4
  15. 15. Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements discussion. or parts to form a general picture in various forms such Relating Making connections in a as writing, drawing or artefact. certain situation to determine a structure or pattern of Making Making general statements relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship between manipulated variable and Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The draw conclusions and explain statements can be tested to events. determine their validity. Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding an abstract or will happen in the future based complex concepts by relating it on prior knowledge gained to simpler or concrete through experiences or concepts with similar collected data. characteristics. Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in observations on, or existence to overcome information from, samples of problems in a systematic the group. manner. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. 5
  16. 16. Relationship between Thinking Skills andScience Process Skills Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience process skills are skills that are required in the process of Predicting Relatingfinding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic Visualisingmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative,analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Using Space-Time Sequencingskills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge Relationship Prioritisingenable pupils to think effectively. Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting The mastering of science process skills involves the Analysingmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Detecting biasrelated to a particular science process skill are as follows: Making conclusions Generalising EvaluatingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills Defining operationally Relating Making analogyObserving Attributing Visualising Comparing and contrasting Analysing Relating Controlling variables AttributingClassifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Grouping and classifying AnalysingMeasuring and Using Relating Making hypotheses AttributingNumbers Comparing and contrasting Relating Comparing and contrastingMaking Inferences Relating Generating ideas Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses Analysing Predicting Making inferences Synthesising 6
  17. 17. • Dare to try.Science Process Skills Thinking Skills • Thinking rationally. • Being confident and independent.Experimenting All thinking skills The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the following stages:Communicating All thinking skills • Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. • Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES • Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values.Science learning experiences can be used as a means toinculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in pupils. Theseattitudes and values encompass the following: Inculcating Patriotism• Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the• Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. development and strengthening of patriotism among pupils. For• Being diligent and persevering. example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the richness and• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the variety of living things and the development of science and environment. technology in the country, pupils will appreciate the diversity of• Realising that science is a means to understand nature. natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. for the country.• Appreciating the balance of nature.• Being respectful and well-mannered.• Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES• Being thankful to God.• Having critical and analytical thinking.• Being flexible and open-minded. Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum• Being kind-hearted and caring. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process• Being objective. that helps pupils acquire knowledge and master skills that will help• Being systematic. them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning approaches such as• Being cooperative. inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning.• Being fair and just. Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating 7
  18. 18. pupils’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learningroutine or rote learning. Pupils should be made aware of the methods.thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in theirlearning. They should be challenged with higher order questions Experimentand problems and be required to solve problems utilising theircreativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Inshould enable pupils to acquire knowledge, master skills and experiments, pupils test hypotheses through investigations todevelop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting anmanner. experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills. Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning throughexperiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guidingquestion and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the pupils to carry out experiments, where appropriate, teachersenvironment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. should provide pupils with the opportunities to design their ownLearning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and experiments. This involves pupils drawing up plans as to how toprinciples of science are investigated and discovered by pupils conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and howthemselves. Through activities such as experiments, pupils to present the results of their experiment.investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves.Teachers then lead pupils to understand the science concepts Discussionthrough the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientificskills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. A discussion is an activity in which pupils exchange questions andHowever, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be conductedand learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play the role offor teachers to present concepts and principles directly to pupils. a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting pupils to express themselves. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods canenhance pupils’ interest in science. Science lessons that are not Simulationinteresting will not motivate pupils to learn and subsequently willaffect their performances. The choice of teaching methods should In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation isbe based on the curriculum content, pupils’ abilities, pupils’ carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and therepertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources and use of models. In role-play, pupils play out a particular role basedinfrastructure. Different teaching and learning activities should be on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require proceduresplanned to cater for pupils with different learning styles and that need to be followed. Pupils play games in order to learn aintelligences. particular principle or to understand the process of decision- making. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations 8
  19. 19. so that pupils can visualise the said objects or situations and thus Computer simulation and animation can be presented throughunderstand the concepts and principles to be learned. courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word processors, graphic presentation software and electronicProject spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data.A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by anindividual or a group of pupils to achieve a particular learningobjective. A project generally requires several lessons to CONTENT ORGANISATIONcomplete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report,an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacherand other pupils. Project work promotes the development of The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each themeproblem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of alearning. number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more learning outcomes.Visits and Use of External Resources Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurableThe learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for aschool compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity.the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science However, in the process of teaching and learning, learningcentres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories. activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated mannerVisits to these places make the learning of science more that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomesinteresting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employingopportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Pupils may be a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcomeinvolved in the planning process and specific educational tasks separately according to the order stated in the curriculumshould be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is specifications.complete without a post-visit discussion. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information onUse of Technology the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning ActivitiesTechnology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to howthe learning of science. Through the use of technology such as learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity maytelevision, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, morelearning of science can be made more interesting and effective. than one activity may be suggested for a particular learningComputer simulation and animation are effective tools for the outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit theteaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. ability and style of learning of their pupils. Teachers are 9
  20. 20. encouraged to design other innovative and effective learningactivities to enhance the learning of science. 10
  21. 21. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Interaction among living things1.1 Understanding Pupils view a video on Pupils solitary – that some animals that live in groups menyendiri animals live in and in solitary. • state that some animals safety-keselamatan groups and live in groups. cooperation- others live in Pupils gather information bekerjasama solitary and give examples of • state that some animals competition- animals that live in group live in solitary. persaingan and in solitary. • give examples of animals Pupils discuss why animals that live in groups. live in groups, e.g. a) for safety, • give examples of animals b) for food. that live in solitary. Pupils observe how ants live • explain why animals live Teacher can prepare a together in a vivarium. in groups. vivarium of an ant colony two weeks Pupils discuss why animals before the lesson. • explain why animals live live in solitary, e.g. in solitary. a) to avoid competition for food, b) to avoid competition for space. • state that cooperation is a form of interaction among animals. 11
  22. 22. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1.2 Understanding Pupils view video on Pupils The video should interaction-interaksi that competition interaction among living include various types competition- is a form of things in various habitats. • state that living things of interaction such as persaingan interaction interact with one another competition and limited resources- among living Pupils discuss and give in the environment coorperation. sumber terhad things examples of interaction territory-wilayah among living things. breeding- pembiakan Pupils discuss that • state that competition is a mate-pasangan competition is a form of form of interaction. defend- interaction. mempertahankan space-ruang Pupils view video or shelter-tempat computer simulation of perlindungan competition among animals. Pupils discuss and list the • list the factors that factors that animals animals compete for. compete for: a) food, b) water, c) mate, d) shelter, e) territory/space. Pupils carry out activities to observe animals competing for food, e.g. fish or bird. • give reasons why animals Pupils discuss that animals compete. compete because of: 12
  23. 23. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities a) limited food resources, b) limited water resources, c) trying to get a mate for breeding, d) defending or looking for territory, e) defending or looking for shelter. Pupils view a video or These activities can be pictures of plants in the prepared earlier forest. Based on the video because they may or pictures pupils discuss take some time to why plants in the forest have show results. different heights. Suggestion: a) green beans, Pupils carry out activities to b) maize. observe competition among plants. Pupils discuss that plants compete for: • list factors that plants a) sunlight, compete for. b) water, c) space, d) nutrient. Pupils discuss and • give reasons why plants conclude that plants compete with each other. compete because of: a) limited sunlight that can 13
  24. 24. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities reach them, b) limited water resources, c) limited space, d) limited nutrient.1.3 Understanding Pupils view a video or Pupils rafflesia- bunga the responsibility pictures of animals that are pakma of human beings extinct, e.g. dinosaurs. • give examples of hornbill-burung in protecting extinct animal. enggang endangered Pupils view a video or • give examples of conservation- species pictures of endangered endangered animal. pemuliharaan animals and plants, e.g. • give examples of protection- tiger, turtle, orang utan, endangered plant. pelindungan panda, rhinoceros and endangered- rafflesia and pitcher plant. terancam extinct-pupus Pupils discuss and conclude • explain why certain excessive- that certain animals and animals or plants are berleluasa plants are facing the threat facing the threat of threat- ancaman of extinction because of extinction. logging- human activities such as pembalakan illegal or excessive: consume- a) logging, menggunakan b) hunting, enforcement- c) development. penguatkuasaan Discuss ways to prevent • suggest ways to animals and plants from prevent animals and extinction, e.g. plants from extinction. a) campaign against 14
  25. 25. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities excessive logging, b) educating the public about the importance of protecting and conserving animals and plants, c) avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species, d) enforcing the law.1.4 Knowing the Pupils view video or see Pupils balance of nature- impact of human pictures of environmental keseimbangan activities on destructions caused by • give examples of alam environment human activities, e.g. environmental destruction illegal logging- a) erosion, caused by human. pembalakan haram b) landslide, illegal hunting- c) flash-flood, pemburuan haram d) water pollution, landslide-tanah e) air pollution. runtuh • explain how human flash-flood-banjir Pupils view a video and activities cause kilat discuss human activities environmental pollution- that cause destruction to the destruction. pencemaran environment, e.g. erosion-hakisan a) illegal and excessive disaster-bencana logging, destruction- b) illegal and excessive kemusnahan hunting, c) improper management of development. 15
  26. 26. Investigating Living Things Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss what will happen to the Earth if • predict what will happen human activities that caused to the Earth if human environmental destructions activities are not are not controlled. controlled. Pupils prepare a scrap book on environmental destruction caused by human activities and steps taken to reduce its effects. 16
  27. 27. Investigating Force and Energy Year 6- Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Force1.1 Understanding Pupils push and pull each Pupils pull-tarikanthat push and pull other’s palms to feel the push-tolakanare forces effect of forces. • state that push and force-daya pull are forces. palm-tapak tangan Pupils discuss and conclude that push and pull are forces. Based on the above activity pupils discuss and • state that force cannot conclude that a force be seen but its effects cannot be seen but its can be observed. effects can be observed.1.2 Understanding Pupils carry out activities Pupils speed – kelajuan the effects of a and discuss the effects of stationary–pegun force pushing • state that a force can moving – a) a stationary ball, move a stationary bergerak b) a moving ball. object. twist-pulas • state that a force can press- tekan Pupils press, twist or change the motion of squeeze objects such as an object. plasticine, sponge and • state that a force can spring. change the shape of an object. Pupils observe and discuss the effects of forces. 17
  28. 28. Investigating Force and Energy Year 6- Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss and conclude that a force can: a) move the stationary object, b) stop a moving object, c) change the direction of a moving object, d) make an object move faster or slower, e) change the shape of an object.1.3 Analysing Pupils observe an object Pupils friction – geseran friction such as a book or a coin aerodynamic- sliding on a surface. • state that friction is a aerodinamik type of force. oppose – Pupils discuss that friction bertentangan slows down a moving object effect – kesan and conclude that friction is reduce – a force. kurangkan increase – Pupils carry out activities menambahkan that involve friction, e.g. surfaces in contact a) open the lid of a jar with – permukaan yang dry hands, bersentuhan b) open the lid of a jar with oily hands. Pupils discuss and conclude that it is easier to open the lid of a jar with dry hands 18
  29. 29. Investigating Force and Energy Year 6- Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities because of greater friction. Pupils carry out activities • describe the effects of that involve friction, e.g. friction. a) rubbing their palms, b) pulling a heavy object, c) rubbing an eraser against a surface. Based on the above activities pupils explain the effects of friction: a) their palms become warmer because friction produces heat, b) it is difficult to move the object because friction opposes motion, c) the eraser becomes smaller because friction causes wear and tear. Pupils list and discuss the Friction can be effects of friction in everyday reduced by using: life. a) using roller, marbles b) using talcum Pupils compare the effects • describe ways to powder, oil, wax, of friction by rubbing their reduce friction. grease, air cushion, palms: • describe ways to c) smoothening the a) without oil, increase friction. surfaces in contact. b) with oil. 19
  30. 30. Investigating Force and Energy Year 6- Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss and conclude that oil reduces friction. Pupils suggest various ways to reduce friction. Pupils carry out activities to test their suggestions. Pupils gather information on • state the advantages the advantages and of friction. disadvantages of friction in everyday life. • state the disadvantages of Pupils discuss various friction. situations where friction • conclude that friction occurs and conclude that occurs when two friction is produced when surfaces are in surfaces are in contact with contact. one another. • design a fair test to Pupils plan and carry out an find out how different experiment to investigate types of surfaces how different types of affect the distance a surfaces affects the distance trolley moves by a trolley moves. deciding what to change, what to keep the same and what to measure. 20
  31. 31. Investigating Force and Energy Year 6- Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities2. Movement2.1 Understanding Pupils carry out activities Pupils speed to: a) compare the distances • state that an object travelled in a given time which moves faster by two moving objects, travels a longer b) compare the time taken distance in a given by two moving objects to time. travel a given distance. • state that an object Pupils discuss and conclude which moves faster that: takes a shorter time to a) an object which moves travel a given distance. faster travels a longer distance in a given time, b) an object which moves faster takes a shorter time to travel a given distance. Pupils conclude that: • state what speed is. a) speed is a measurement of how fast an object moves, b) speed can be calculated by using the formula • solve problems using speed = distance/time. the formula. Pupils solve problems using the formula. 21
  32. 32. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Food preservation1.1 Understanding Pupils observe samples of Pupils medium - keadaan food spoilage spoilt food. Food used in the • describe what spoilt food is. activity should not be Pupils discuss and conclude tasted. that spoilt food is unsafe to eat. • identify characteristics of Pupils conclude that spoilt spoilt food. food has one or more of the following characteristics: a) unpleasant smell, b) unpleasant taste, c) changed colour, d) changed texture, e) mouldy. Pupils carry out an activity • state that microorganisms to observe that food turns can spoil food. bad by leaving a slice of bread in the open for a few days. Pupils discuss and conclude that microorganisms can spoil food. Pupils gather information • state the conditions for and conclude that microorganisms to grow. microorganisms need certain conditions to grow: 22
  33. 33. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities a) air, b) water, c) nutrient, d) suitable temperature, e) suitable acidity.1.2 Synthesisng the Pupils find information Pupils drying- concept of food about ways to preserve pengeringan preservation food and examples of food • describe ways to preserve pickling- for each type of food. penjerukan preservation, i.e. • give examples of food for heating - a) drying, each type of food pemanasan b) boiling, preservation. vacuum packing- c) cooling, pembungkusan d) vacuum packing, vakum e) pickling, cooling- f) freezing, pendinginan g) bottling/canning, freezing-penyejuk h) pasteurising, bekuan i) salting, bottling- j) smoking, pembotolan k) waxing. canning- pengetinan Pupils discuss and explain • give reasons why each way smoking- salai why the above ways are of food preservation is salting- pengasinan used to preserve food. used. 23
  34. 34. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils view a video or visit food factory to observe how food is processed and preserved. Pupils discuss that food • state what food preservation is a process of preservation is. slowing down the food from Food given can be: becoming bad. a) tapioca, • design and carry out a b) banana, Pupils carry out a project on project to preserve a given c) egg, food preservation to food. d) mango, preserve a given food. e) chili.1.3 Realising the Pupils discuss and give Pupils importance of reasons why we need to preserving food preserve food, e.g. • give reasons why we need a) the food will last longer, to preserve food. b) the food is easy to store, c) to reduce wastage of food. 24
  35. 35. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities2. Waste management2.1 Understanding Pupils observe various Pupils harmful effects- the effects of waste in a rubbish bin, e.g. kesan buruk improper plastic, glass, chemical • identify types of waste waste disposal - disposal of waste, organic waste and in the environment. pembuangan waste on the metal. bahan buangan environment • identify sources of Pupils view a video on waste. various waste from factories, food stalls and market. • state the improper ways of waste Pupils gather information disposal. on: a) sources of waste, • state the proper ways b) various ways of waste of waste disposal. disposal. • describe the harmful Pupils discuss and classify effects of improper the proper and improper waste disposal. ways of waste disposal. Pupils discuss the harmful effects of improper waste disposal, e.g. a) air pollution, b) water pollution, c) sickness and diseases, d) acid rain, e) flash-flood. 25
  36. 36. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils gather information on • describe how waste is how waste in a local area is disposed in a local disposed. area. Pupils discuss and suggest • suggest ways to ways to improve waste improve waste disposal in a local area. disposal. Pupils visit a waste management centre or listen to a talk to gather information on how waste is treated.2.2 Understanding Pupils view videos and time- Pupils Biodegradable decay-reput that some waste lapse clippings about waste materials are materials harmful-merbahaya can decay that decay and waste that • state that certain that can be decayed separate- asingkan do not decay. waste can decay. by microorganisms. Pupils separate waste in a • give examples of Certain plastics are rubbish bin according to the waste that can decay. biodegradable. categories such as vegetables, paper, glass, • give examples of plastics and wood. waste that do not decay. Put each type into separate thick plastic bags. Place these bags in the open and observe the changes over a period of time. 26
  37. 37. Investigating Materials Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss and give examples of waste that: a) decay, b) do not decay. • state that Pupils discuss and conclude microorganisms can a) some microorganisms cause waste materials caused waste to decay, to decay. b) during the decaying process nutrients are returned to the soil, in this way they can be used again. Pupils gather information • state the advantages and discuss the advantages of waste decaying. and disadvantages of decay • state the of waste. disadvantages of waste decaying. Pupils discuss and predict • predict what will what will happen to human happen to human and and the environment if the environment if waste do not decay. waste do not decay. 27
  38. 38. Investigating The Earth and The Universe Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Eclipses1.1 Understanding Pupils use models to Pupils eclipse-gerhana the eclipse of the simulate the movement of position-kedudukan moon the Earth, the Moon and the • state what eclipse of the partial eclipse- Sun. moon is. gerhana separa total eclipse- Pupils view a video or • state the position of the gerhana penuh computer simulation about Moon, the Earth and the partial and total eclipse of Sun during the eclipse of the moon. the moon. Pupils discuss and conclude • explain why eclipse of the that eclipse of the moon moon occurs occurs because: a) the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun, and b) the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are positioned in a straight line. Pupils draw diagrams to show the position of the Moon, the Earth and the Sun during the eclipse of the moon.1.2 Understanding Pupils use models to Pupils the eclipse of the simulate the movement of sun the Earth, the Moon and the • state what eclipse of the Sun. sun is. 28
  39. 39. Investigating The Earth and The Universe Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss that the eclipse of the sun occurs during daytime. Pupils view videos or computer simulations about partial and total eclipse of the sun. Pupils discuss and conclude • state the position of the that eclipse of the sun Moon, the Earth and the occurs because: Sun during the eclipse of a) the Moon is between the the sun. Earth and the Sun, b) the Earth, the Moon and • explain why eclipse of the the Sun are positioned in sun occurs. a straight line. Pupils draw diagrams to show the position of the Moon, the Earth and the Sun during the eclipse of the sun. Pupils discuss and predict • predict the scenario on the scenario on the Earth the Earth during the during the eclipse of the eclipse of the sun. sun. 29
  40. 40. Investigating Technology Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Machine1.1 Understanding Pupils try to remove the lid Pupils lid- penutup simple machines of a tin using wheel and axle- a) bare hands, • explain what simple roda dan gandar b) spoon. machine is. lever-tuas wedge-baji Pupils compare the pulley-takal difficulty to complete the gear-gear task and discuss the inclined plane- function of the tool. satah condong screw-skru Pupils discuss that a simple machine is a device that allows us to use less force to make work easier or faster. Pupils examine and • state types of simple manipulate the following machines simple machines: a) wheel and axle, • give an example for each b) lever, type of simple machine. c) wedge, d) pulley, e) gear, f) inclined plane, g) screw. Pupils discuss types and examples of simple machines. 30
  41. 41. Investigating Technology Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils walk around the school compound and identify various types of simple machines.1.2 Analysing a Pupils identify the simple Pupils wheel barrow- complex machines in a bicycle or a kereta sorong machine wheel barrow. • identify simple machines in a complex machine. Pupils discuss and conclude that a complex machine is a • conclude that a complex machine made up of more machine is made up of than one simple machine. more than one simple machine. Pupils prepare scrap books • give examples of complex on examples of complex machines. machines.1.3 Appreciating the Pupils carry out simulation Pupils Encourage pupils to invention of to find out how life would be reuse materials and machines that without machines. • predict how life is without recycle materials. make life easier machines. Pupils discuss and predict how life would be without machines. 31
  42. 42. Investigating Technology Year 6-Science Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss and explain • explain how machines how machines make our can make our lives lives easier. easier. Pupils identify a problem • design a machine to solve and design a machine to a problem. solve the problem. 32
  43. 43. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAdvisors Dr. Haili bin Dolhan Director Curriculum Development Centre Mahzan Bakar SMP, AMP Director Curriculum Development Centre (until February 2007) Maznah bt Abdul Hamid Deputy Director Curriculum Development Centre Zulkifly Wazir Deputy Director Curriculum Development Centre (until August 2006)Editorial Advisors Cheah Eng Joo Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics) Curriculum Development Centre Ho Heng Ling Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Zaidah Mohd Yusoff Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre (until July 2005)Editor Zainon Abd Majid Assistant Director Curriculum Development Centre 33
  44. 44. PANEL OF WRITERSCheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Lim Yoon Khim SJKC Kwang Hwa, P. PinangHo Heng Ling Curriculum Development Centre Linda Cheng Lean Bee SK Hutchings, P. PinangZaidi Yazid Curriculum Development Centre Lim Siew Peng SK(P) Methodist, MelakaYeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Makrin Sudi SK Sampir, SabahZainon Abd Majid Curriculum Development Centre Marzita Omar SK Permatang Bertam, P.PAizatul Adzwa M. Basri Curriculum Development Centre Munisamy a/l Sengodan SJKT Ladang Henrietta, KedahAhmad Salihin Mat Saat Curriculum Development Centre Misiah Sanusi SK Merbau Sempak, SelangorLanita Mohd Yusof Curriculum Development Centre Mahendran a/l Subramaniam SK(L) Methodist, K.LSalbiah Mohd Som Curriculum Development Centre Mohd Fauzi Hashim SK Paya, PerlisSalina Hanum Osman M Curriculum Development Centre Mohd Nashuha Jamidin (Ph.D) MP Sultan Abd Halim, KedahYusof Ismail Curriculum Development Centre Normah Abd Wahab SK Air Terjun, TerengganuZaidah Mohd Yusof Curriculum Development Centre Nordin Ambak SK Rasau Kerteh, TerengganuZainusham Yusof Curriculum Development Centre Noor Iemah Ismail SK Sg Behrang, PerakZulkifli Baharudin Curriculum Development Centre Nor Laili Hj. Shoed SK Port Dickson, N.SembilanAbd Wahab Abd Aziz SK Bukit Lintang, Melaka Normah Baharom SK Sultanah Asma, KedahAriffin Jaafar SK Kemahang 2, Kelantan Ooi Chong Nam SJKC Yang Koa,Abdullah Ibrahim SK Wakaf Bharu, Kelantan Rohani Ahmad SK Methodist, PerakAhmad Hasan SK Kuala Perlis, Perlis Rosanani Ghazali SK Seri Biram, PahangAbu Jalil Hasan IPDA Jitra, Kedah Rais Abd Aziz SK Batu Lanchang, P.PinangAzizah Ngah Tasir MP Teknik, Kuala Lumpur Rohaya Ahmad SK Sg. Rambai,Ettin ak Lambat SK St. Faith, Sarawak Rohana Hussein SK Jln. 2, Bangi, SelangorFuad Hashim SK P Sultan Ibrahim, Johor Rosnah Johari MP Batu Rakit , TerengganuFaridah Salleh SK Jijan,Negeri Sembilan Siti Norfaridah Chai Abdullah SK Agama Miri, SarawakFatimah Yusoff MPP Melayu, Melaka Shamsuria Ebni SK St Annes, Wp LabuanFadzillah Ab Rahman SK Seri Budiman II, Terengganu Suriakumari a/lp Palaniyandi SJKT Paya Rumput, Melaka 34
  45. 45. Hasanor Said Mohd Sabri SK Taman Melati, Kl Saat Ariffin SK Pulau Kundur, KelantanIbrahim Abdullah SK Penghulu Ahmad, Kedah Siti Fauziah Ridzuan SK Batu Hampar, KedahIndon Sulong SK Mergong II, Kedah Teh Malihah Hussain SK Simpang Empat, PerakJagajothy a/p Selvarasah SK Convent Green Lane, Venancy Angela Suimen SRK St. Aloysius Limbanak, SabahJaffri Johan Zanudin SK Batu Hampar, Kedah Wong Poh Teck SK Semabok, MelakaKu Norgayah Ku Sulong SK Tasik Apong, Kedah Zainuddin Abdullah SK Batang Melaka, Melaka 35
  46. 46. Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education 2007