Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Vitamins  nutrition
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Vitamins nutrition

163

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
163
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  Definition Vital amine Vitamins are a group of non caloric, organic substances that are essential for normal cell function, growth, and development.  The only disease a vitamin can cure is the one caused by deficiency of that vitamin.  Precursor or pro vitamins: compounds that can be converted to vitamins.
  • 2.  There are 13 essential vitamins that needed for the body to function. : Classification based on biological and chemical activity  Vitamin A  Vitamin C  Vitamin D  Vitamin E  Vitamin K  Vitamin B complex: Eight  Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)  Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)  Vitamin B3 (Niacin)  Vitamin B5(Pantothenic acid)  Vitamin B7 (Biotin)  Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin etc)  Vitamin B9 Folate (Folic acid)  Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)
  • 3. Vitamer is chemical compound associated with vitamins Some conditions associated with vitamins Vitamin A:(Retinol and carotenoids) : Night blindness Vitamin C :(Ascorbic acid) : Scurvy Vitamin D:(Ergocolciferol and cholecalciferol): Rickets & Osteomalacia Vitamin E : (Tocopherols): Hemolytic anemia Vitamin K : (Phylloquinone): Bleeding diathesis Vitamin B complex: Eight Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):Beriberi, Wernikce-Korsakoff syndrome Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): cracks, sore throat Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Pellagra Vitamin B5(Pantothenic acid) : sensation: pricking Vitamin B7 (Biotin) :Dermatitis Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin etc): Anemia, depression Vitamin B9 Folate (Folic acid): Neural tube birth defects Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins): Pernicious anemia
  • 4.  Vitamins are grouped into two categories: Fat and water soluble vitamins  Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue.  The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K.  Dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the blood stream to carry out their functions.  Excesses of these vitamins are stored in the liver.  Because they are stored, they are not needed every day in the diet.
  • 5.  Nine water-soluble vitamins.  B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water-soluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and must be replaced each day.  These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation.  The B-complex group is found in a variety of foods: cereal grains, meat, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, legumes and fresh vegetables.  Citrus fruits are good sources of vitamin C.  Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine.  Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.
  • 6.  Vitamin A  Beta carotene present in plants is a precursor  Deficiency :Night blindness  Xerophthalmia: Permanent blindness ◦ Keratinization : Keratin accumulation  Anti infective : HIV, malaria, lung disease  Growth : Normal growth of bone  3 – 10 million children suffer in the world: WHO and UNICEF role  Toxicity: skin rash, hair loss, hemorrhage, fracture, liver failure, birth defects  UL: 3000 microgram/day: Men 900 and women 700 microgram/day  Eating carrots: does it help: YES  Plant-based foods ◦ Colorful groups: Leafy vegetables, dark green edible leaves, carrots  Macular degeneration prevention  Dietary antioxidant like Vitamin C & E  Toxicity : Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea  Food: Liver and fish oil (richest), carrots, spinach, apricot, milk, cereals, butter and eggs, sweet potato  Fast foods? NO
  • 7.  Plant-based foods ◦ Colorful groups: Leafy vegetables, dark green edible leaves, carrots  Macular degeneration prevention  Dietary antioxidant like Vitamin C & E  Toxicity : Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea  Food: Liver and fish oil (richest), carrots, spinach, apricot, milk, cereals, butter and eggs, sweet potato  Fast foods? NO
  • 8.  Vitamin D  Body can synthesize all it needs utilizing sunlight (UV B light)  Sunshine vitamin: For bones  Cholesterol transformation to vitamin D occurs inside Liver and kidneys  Who get insufficient supply of vitamin D? Mexican Americans, African Americans and two-thirds of US residents over 1 year age take less vitamin D  Too little: Danger for bones: Rickets: bowed legs in children and osteomalacia in adults (soft, flexible, brittle and deformed), Osteoporosis : Loss of calcium  Too much: Most toxic vitamin in excess. Increases blood calcium forming stones. Kidney is more vulnerable. Blood vessels hardening & may cause death  Sunbathing risks: Good for vitamin D, not for skin  Tanning booth? Does not help vitamin D production  Intake recommendations:10 microgram 51-70 years, 5 microgra for 19-50 years, 15 microgram=70 above  Food sources: cereal, sardines, salmon, cod liver oil, milk, tuna
  • 9.  Vitamin E  DRI recommendation of Tocopherol : alpha tocopherol gold standard  Roles: Antioxidant: bodyguard against oxidative damage (free radicals), RBC, WBC , cell membrane protection  Deficiency: More symptoms in lab animals. In humans: liver, pancreas injury related to fat malabsorption. Premature babies : rupture of blood cells  Recommendation: Adults 15 mg/day  Toxicity: Rare, Unwanted blood clotting due to supplements  Food: Vegetables oils, wheat germ oil, canola oil, sunflower seeds  Processed food: Heat destroys Vitamin E.
  • 10.  Vitamin K:  Roles: Life saving- Blood clotting, activate proteins to clot blood.  NOT in hemophilia and not when patients take warfarin (blood thinning medicine)  Toxicity: Jaundice  Deficiency: Rare. Intestinal bacteria synthesize vit K.  Can make fat soluble vitamins unabsorbable due to interfere in bile action –Fatal  Requirement: Men:120 microgram/day, women: 90 microgram/day  Food source: very rich in liver, canola and soybean oil, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, salad greens, Dry roasted soybean
  • 11.  There are nine water-soluble vitamins.  B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water- soluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and must be replaced each day.  These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation.  The B-complex group is found in a variety of foods: cereal grains, meat, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, legumes and fresh vegetables.  Citrus fruits are good sources of vitamin C.  Any left over water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine.  Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.
  • 12.  Dissolve in water ◦ Absorption ◦ Transport ◦ Excretion  Sources ◦ Food ◦ Supplements
  • 13.  Ascorbic acid or Ascorbate  Water soluble  Vitamin C is easily oxidized by air and can be destroyed during food processing and cooking. Vitamin C is stable in a dry, powdered or tablet form.  Acts as antioxidant  Important for collagen synthesis- cofactor  Involved in metabolism of cholesterol  Conditions: Scurvy, atherosclerosis
  • 14.  Toxicity ◦ Safe doses  Recommendations ◦ Tobacco use ◦ Physical stressors  Food sources  Destruction of vitamin C Smokers, secondary smokers & chewing tobacco
  • 15.  Almost 90% of dietary vitamin C comes from foods of plant origin.  Vitamin C can be found in fruits (especially citrus) and vegetables, including green and red peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and green, leafy varieties (e.g. spinach and collard greens).  Cooking and food preparation can diminish the amount of vitamin C in foods.
  • 16.  Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):nerve impulses and allows nerves to function properly  Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): converting carbohydrates, protein and fat into energy  Vitamin B3 (Niacin):synthesize fat and cholesterol. Niacin also helps keep your skin cells healthy  Vitamin B5(Pantothenic acid) :Energy release  Vitamin B7 (Biotin) : Energy release  Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin etc):synthesis of hemoglobin in your red blood cells and keeps your immune system healthy. Vitamin B9 Folate (Folic acid):Folate is essential for forming the DNA in every one of your cells. Folate is also vital in preventing birth defects, called neural tube defects, in a developing fetus.  Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins): Keeps Red blood cells and nerve cells healthy. It is important to note that vitamin B- 12 is the only water-soluble vitamin our body can store.
  • 17.  Tender (thiamin) romance (riboflavin) never (niacin) fails (folic acid) with 6 or 12 (B6 & B12)  Beautiful pearls (biotin & pantothenic acid)
  • 18. Vitamin B complex: Eight Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):Beriberi, Wernikce- Korsakoff syndrome Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): cracks, sore throat Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Pellagra Vitamin B5(Pantothenic acid) : sensation: pricking Vitamin B7 (Biotin) :Dermatitis Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin etc): Anemia, depression Vitamin B9 Folate (Folic acid): Neural tube birth defects Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins): Pernicious anemia
  • 19. 1. Cereals and whole grains (a source of B1, B2, and B3) 2. green leafy vegetables (a source of B2 and B9) 3. eggs (a source of B7 and B12) 4. chicken (a source of B3, B6, and B12) 5. citrus fruits (a source of B9) 6. nuts (a source of B3 and B9) 7. kidney beans (a source of B1 and B2) 8. bananas (a source of B6 and B7)
  • 20.  Dry beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff (wet brain) syndrome affect the peripheral and central nervous system respectively.  Wet beriberi affects the cardiovascular system, as well as other bodily systems.  Infantile beriberi affects mostly children in developing countries: crying, but not loudly and without tears. Untreated, it can prove fatal within 24 hours. Symptoms:  Difficulty walking  Loss of feeling (sensation) in hands and feet, pain  Loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs, swelling of lower parts of legs  Mental confusion/speech difficulties  Strange eye movements (nystagmus)  Tingling  Vomiting  Alcoholism can affect vitamin B absorption and can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff disease
  • 21. Wet beriberi : ear cartilage infection Food rich with vitamin B1: Brown rice, beef liver
  • 22. Vitamin B2:Riboflavin deficiency # Bloodshot eyes # Sore tongue and lips # Infection in the mouth and throat # Extreme and unusual sensitivity to light # Irritability in the eyes # Chopped lips Women need to take extra care as it affects reproductive system, growth and repair of body tissue Most common water soluble vitamin: Avocados, Milk
  • 23. The main symptoms of niacin deficiency "four D's": diarrhea, dementia, and dermatitis/ pellagra followed by death: Can cause death within five years if not treated Food: Peanut butter, chicken, Beef
  • 24.  Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 is present in a huge range of food products including meats like liver, kidney, and chicken. Vegetables and whole grains also contain large amounts of this vitamin.  Symptoms: burning sensations, muscle contraction, cramps, numbness, and tingling  sensitivity of tissue cells to blood sugar levels: hypoglycemia  Food: Eggs, Mushroom, Beef liver
  • 25. Vitamin B7: Biotin •Hair loss •Dermatitis, dry, scaly patches of skin on the arms, legs. If left unchecked, the texture of the skin may become exceedingly rough and easily irritated. •it is important that the biotin supply is restored each day. Food: Almonds, Eggs, Meat, Dairy products
  • 26.  Lack of energy  Decrease in brain function  High level of homocystein –non protein amino acid: cardiovascular disease  Nodding disease in Uganda linked to water born worm & vitamin B6 deficiency  fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit (not citrus), chick peas
  • 27. Vitamin B12: Cobalamin Pernicious anemia, a type of blood disorder: Need injections containing B12 that goes to blood directly avoiding stomach. Nerve & brain damage Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years Food: Clams, Caviar, Tuna, Yogurt, Eggs, Beef liver
  • 28.  Reasons: alcoholism, malabsorption diseases, pharmaceuticals, and dialysis  Symptoms: spina bifida- incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube in the baby, incomplete development of vertebra  anemia, osteoporosis  Foods: Yeast extract, soybean, dark leafy vegetable, sprouts, beans, asparagus

×