World War I
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World War I

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Hitting the highlights of WWI. Created using PPT 2007, but saved in 97-2003 format.

Hitting the highlights of WWI. Created using PPT 2007, but saved in 97-2003 format.

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  • Your bullet point on page 38 about the Alpine Front is incorrect in the viewpoint of many including General Ludendorff. In a interview with the Swedish newspaper 'Sozialdemokraten' the 17th of March, 1919, general Ludendorff affirmed that:
    “… causes of the defeat were the faulty Moltke strategy, the unqualified direction of Falkenhayn, the bad information service and especially the missed support of Austria, always more gripped to the throat by Italy. If Austria had been able to have a part of his divisions free and send them to Germany, the war would have been won by the Central Powers which would not have feared the American reinforcements “.
    The Italian pressure on Austria therefore was one of the determinant factors of the allied victory, but many Anglo-Saxon historians, with some exception in the past have shown poor interest / understanding for the southern front, as if it was isolated from the rest of the war, forgetting that, only after the surrender of all hits allies (Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire (which the Italians also engaged in Libya) and Austria-Hungary), Germany, whose troops in November 1918, were still occupying a considerable part of France, was forced to ask for armistice, now threatened by southern front too unless it sued for peace. The Italians had soundly defeated the Austrians on November 4 a week before the overall armistice.
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World War I Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Road to World War I Chapter 16 Section 1
  • 2. Main Ideas
    • Militarism, nationalism, and a crisis in the Balkans led to World War I
    • Serbia’s determination to become a large, independent state angered Austria-Hungary and initiated hostilities
  • 3. Key Terms
    • Conscription
      • A military draft, compulsory enrollment
    • Mobilization
      • The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
  • 4. Causes of WWI
  • 5. Did the growth of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century lead to increased competition or increased cooperation among European nations?
    • Increased competition
  • 6. According to some historians, how might internal disorder have been one of the causes of WWI?
    • Conservative leaders feared that their countries were on the verge of revolution; the desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged them to plunge into war.
  • 7. What was the effect of conscription on the events leading up to WWI?
    • European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914.
  • 8. What was the Schlieffen Plan and how did it complicate the events leading to WWI?
    • It called for a two front war with France and Russia. By declaring war on France, Germany brought Great Britain into the war.
  • 9. Explain why GB became involved in the war.
    • Germany violated Belgian neutrality
    • Britain was concerned about own power
      • Germany’s “invasion” of Belgium gave Britain a good excuse to become involved in conflict with Germany, and maintain their power position
  • 10. Ethnic groups w/o nations after the nationalist movements of the 19 th century
    • Slavic minorities in Balkans and Hapsburg Empire
    • Irish in British Empire
    • Poles in Russian Empire
  • 11. How did the creation of military plans help draw the nations of Europe into WWI?
    • Countries could not partially mobilize or limit war fronts
    • Mobilization (assembling troops and supplies and readying for battle) was considered an act of war
  • 12. Series of events that led directly to war: all based on ALLIANCES
    • Serbia accused of the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    • Austria-Hungary punishes Serbia
    • Germany helps A-H
    • Russia (allied w/ Serbia) against A-H and Germany
    • Germany war against Russia and France
    • Britain declares war on Germany
  • 13. AQ C16S2 04/25/2008
    • Which country switched from the Central Powers to the Allied?
    • Which country withdrew from WWI?
    • Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
    • Based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
    • Complete mobilization of resources and people
  • 14. AQ C16S2 cont…
    • And
    • List two occupations of women during WWI
    • And
    • List two areas where government powers increased
    • What does the picture on page 505 depict?
  • 15. The Powers
    • Allied
    • Great Britain
    • France
    • United States
    • Italy
    • Russia
      • Withdrew
    • Central
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Bulgaria
    • Ottoman Empire
    Changed from Central to Allies
  • 16. Propaganda
    • Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
      • Used to stir national hatreds before war and to inspire nationalism in home countries
  • 17. Trench Warfare
    • Fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire
    • Resulted in a stalemate during WWI
      • Neither side advanced
  • 18. War of attrition
    • A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
  • 19. Total War
    • Complete mobilization of resources and people
    • All resources applied to war effort
  • 20. Planned economies
    • Systems directed by government agencies
  • 21.
    • WWI required total warfare because masses of men had to be organized and supplies had to be manufactured and purchased for years of combat, which led to measures that affected the lives of all citizens in the warring countries
  • 22. Occupations of women during WWI
    • Chimney sweeps
    • Truck drivers
    • Farm laborers
    • Factory workers in heavy industry
  • 23. Methods used to counter the loss of enthusiasm and opposition to war at home:
    • Propaganda
    • Expanded police powers
    • Protesters arrested
    • censorship
  • 24.  
  • 25. Propaganda Examples
  • 26. Why?
    • Each of the nations which participated in World War One from 1914-18 used propaganda posters not only as a means of justifying involvement to their own populace, but also as a means of procuring men, money and resources to sustain the military campaign.
    • http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/index.htm
  • 27. USA
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. We teach you to run!
  • 31. From Germany to American soldiers
    • It is interesting to note that the Germans feel that the American soldier has the Constitutional right to refuse to fight.
    • www.psywarrior.com/GermanWWIPSYOP.html
  • 32. Military Action
  • 33.
    • Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia
    • Murdered by a conspiracy of Serbian nationalist youths who were convinced that the assassination would somehow encourage Austria to abandon its Serb-populated possessions.
      • It only served to anger Austria.
    The Assassination
  • 34. The Reaction of Austria
    • Presented the government of Serbia with a 48 hour ultimatum
    • Acceptance would mean the surrender of Serbian independence
    • Refusal would mean war
    • Serbia chose war.
  • 35. The Result?
    • Early August
    • Within a week all but one of the members of the two blocs formed were also at war
    • Italy was the exception
      • Bargained with both sides for several months
  • 36. The Players
    • Central Powers
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Germany
    • Turkey
    • Bulgaria
    • Allied Powers
    • Serbia
    • Russia
    • France
    • Britain
    • Italy
    • Romania (1916)
    • United States (1917)
    • Greece (1917)
  • 37. Europe WWI
  • 38. Fought on 3 Fronts
    • Western Front
      • Decisive front in France and Belgium
    • Eastern or Russian Front
      • Reached from the Baltic Sea to the Aegean
    • Alpine Front
      • Involved only Italy and Austria-Hungary and had no major influence on the course of the conflict
  • 39. The Western Front
    • BBC Animated Map
  • 40. “ It will be over quick”
    • Military experts thought this would be a quick war with whichever side gaining the advantage at the beginning winning.
    • Why? All the new technology
    • Defense proved to be better than offense and WWI lasted 4 and ¼ LONG years.
  • 41. Why did the US enter WWI?
    • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and the Lusitania
    • Economics
    • Politics
    • Ideology
    • Zimmerman Telegram
  • 42. U.S. Entered World War I April 6, 1917
    • On April 6, 1917, the U.S. joined its allies--Britain, France, and Russia--to fight in World War I. Under the command of Major General John J. Pershing, more than 2 million U.S. soldiers fought on battlefields in France. Many Americans were not in favor of the U.S. entering the war and wanted to remain neutral. However, the U.S. eventually did enter the war.
  • 43. The Lusitania
    • American neutrality was put to the test in May 1915, when the German submarine U-20 sank the British luxury liner Lusitania , which was carrying 1200 passengers and a cargo of ammunition for British rifles. The German embassy had warned Americans that Allied vessels in the war zone were fair targets, but 128 Americans had ignored the warning and met their deaths. Wilson accused the Germans of brutality, demanded that they stop submarine warfare, and refused to ban American passengers from sailing on Allied vessels.
  • 44. Wilson did not want to enter a war while trying to get re-elected…
    • In March 1916, after another passenger vessel, the Sussex , was torpedoed, Germany finally agreed to apologize, pay damages and promise not to attack passenger vessels. This promise was known as the “ Sussex Pledge ”.
    • Wilson won the election of 1916 with the campaign slogan “He kept us out of war”.
    • By 1917, Wilson asked Congress to join the war in Europe. Most Americans did not support U.S. involvement in the war.
  • 45. Wilson delivering his War Message.
    • The final break with Germany came in the wake of two incidents.
    • (1) The Germans announced early in 1917 that they would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. At first, horrified that his policy of "strict accountability" seemed now to demand war, Wilson did nothing.
  • 46. Zimmerman Telegram
    • (2) In February, the British revealed the contents of the " Zimmermann Telegraph ," proposing a German-Mexican alliance under which Mexico would recover all the territory it had lost to the U.S. in the 1840s. Wilson began arming merchant ships, and on April 2, 1917, Wilson appeared before the Congress asking for a declaration of war against Germany.
  • 47. In the trenches
    • By the time the American troops arrived in substantial numbers in the spring of 1918, British and French units had endured more than three years of increasingly costly trench warfare. These British troops are shown on the front line in the Somme area in August 1916. The Battle of the Somme, in the summer and fall of 1916, achieved almost no changes in the positions of the German and Allied armies, but 420,000 British, 200,000 French, and 450,000 Germans lost their lives, and the area was almost totally destroyed.
  • 48. War Declaration
    • “ The world must be made safe for democracy” 
    • Woodrow T. Wilson
  • 49. The Home Front Information for this section obtained from: http://powayusd.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/online/virtualcivics/Experiencing%20WWI,%20Part%20II.htm
  • 50. VICTORY AT THE FRONT DEPENDED ON ECONOMIC AND EMOTIONAL MOBILIZATION AT HOME.
    • Mobilization
    • The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
    Reminder
  • 51.
    • Wilson moved quickly in 1917 and 1918 to organize war production and distribution.  He also recognized the need to enlist American emotions.  To him, the war for people's minds, the "conquest of their convictions," was as vital as events on the battlefield.
    How?
  • 52. Propaganda: Wilson formed the Committee on Public Information (CPI). What do these posters say about Germany?
  • 53. Again I ask…does propaganda exist in the 21 st century? WASHINGTON (CNN) -- The cafeteria menus in the three House office buildings changed the name of "french fries" to "freedom fries," in a culinary rebuke of France stemming from anger over the country's refusal to support the U.S. position on Iraq. http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/11/sprj.irq.fries/
  • 54. Examples of Anti-German Propaganda:
    • Many American schools stopped offering instruction in the German language.  California's stated education board called German a language of "autocracy, brutality, and hatred.“
    • Sauerkraut became "liberty cabbage“
    • Saloonkeepers removed pretzels from the bar
    • Orchestral works by Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms vanished from music programs, including that of the New York Philharmonic
    • German Americans were badgered, beaten, and sometimes killed.
  • 55. Home Front cont…
    • Wilson turned to conscription, which he felt was both efficient and democratic.  In May, 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act, providing for the registration of all men between 21 - 30 (later changed to 18 - 45).  Early in June, 9.5 million men registered for the draft.
    p500
  • 56. Registration Card
  • 57. Industrial Controls
    • To create order, President Wilson established the War Industries Board (WIB) to increase industrial output and coordinate industries. 
    • The government took over all factories and ran them like one big factory.  The board instructed the factories on what to produce, how much to produce, and the cost of the items.
  • 58. To keep workers working…
  • 59. What did factories produce?
    • Women's blouse factories made signal flags
    • Radiator manufacturers made guns
    • Automobile factories made airplane engines
    • Piano companies made airplane wings.
  • 60. President Wilson created the National War Labor Board (WLB) to unify labor policies.
    • He wanted to insure that management and workers cooperated during the war to prevent strikes.  It was absolutely essential that the workers were kept satisfied so that industries could produce good for war. 
    • The WLB also worked to improve working conditions
  • 61. Propaganda was extensively used to influence public opinion.
  • 62. President Wilson established the Fuel Administration to control America's use of fuel.
    • Americans were asked to voluntarily conserve their use of fuel.
    • Lightless nights and gasless days were observed. 
    • Daylight Savings Time was observed for the first time in the US's history in order to cut back on the use of fuel and electricity.
  • 63. Don’t waste propaganda posters
  • 64. Women
    • Up  to 30,000 American women served on the front during WWI. At home, women filled the gap left by the millions of men training and fighting in the war. 
  • 65. The End of “The Great War”
  • 66. The final Allied push towards the German border began on October 17, 1918.
    • As the British, French and American armies advanced, the alliance between the Central Powers began to collapse.
    • Turkey signed an armistice at the end of October, Austria-Hungary followed on November 3.
      • Armistice: Truce, an agreement to end fighting
  • 67. Wilson proposed a plan
    • Fourteen Points (p523)
      • Open Diplomacy
      • Freedom of Navigation
      • Free trade
      • Disarmament
      • Self-determination
      • Evacuation of all Russian Territory
      • Belgium must be evacuated and restored (from German occup.)
      • Freeing of French territory (Alsace-Lorraine)
      • Readjustment of Italian borders
      • Autonomous dev. for the peoples of A.H.
      • Independence for the Balkan states
      • Securing of Turkish territory/sovereignty / the Dardanelles as a free passage
      • The establishment of an independent Poland
      • The creation of the League of Nations
  • 68. Wilson’s proposals p.523
    • Included:
      • Reaching agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy
      • Reducing armaments (military and weapons)
      • Domestic safety
      • Self determination
        • The right of each people to have its own nation.
  • 69. Other ideas
    • Delegates met in Paris 1919 to determine the peace settlement
    • Secret treaties and agreements had been made
      • Conflicted with hopes of self-determination put forth by Wilson
  • 70. Paris Peace Conference
    • David Lloyd George: PM of GB
    • Platform: Make Germany Pay for the war
    • George Clemenceau: French Premier
    • Desired revenge and security
    • Wanted Germany stripped of all weapons and vast German payments (reparations)
  • 71.
    • Most important decisions of the Paris Peace Conference were made by Wilson, Lloyd George, and Clemenceau.
    • Germany was not invited.
    • Russia was too involved in civil war
  • 72.
    • Wilson wanted to create the League of Nations to prevent future wars
    • Clemenceau and Lloyd George wanted to punish Germany
  • 73. Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919
    • Germany had to claim responsibility
    • Germany had to pay reparations to Allied governments
    • Germany had to reduce its army, cut back navy, and eliminate its air force
    • Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France
  • 74. 14 Points vs. Treaty of Versailles
  • 75. Legacy of WWI
    • Changed the way wars were fought
    • Power of government increased
    • Opened the door for great insecurity
    • “ normalcy” was over
  • 76.