Similar Principles Copy the Explanations for Popular Sovereignty The people are the source of governmental power (We the People) Limited Government The gov’ts power is restricted by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Separation of Powers Dividing the powers of the government between 3 branches so no branch has too much power Checks and Balances When each branch of government restricts another branch from doing something wrong (keeping a watch over each branch)
Which Principle is this? “All political power is vested in and derived from the people…” Popular Sovereignty Article 1, Section 2
Which Principle is this? “The people of this State have the inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the government…and of altering or abolishing their Constitution…whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness.” Limited Government Article 1, Section 3
Which Principle is this? “The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers of the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each other.” Separation of Powers & Checks and Balances Article 1, Section 6
Find the Locations Of the Preamble Bill of Rights/Declaration of Rights Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch Amendments
The Preamble U.S. Constitution Beginning of Document N.C. Constitution Beginning of Document
Bill of Rights/Declaration of Rights U.S. Constitution Amendments 1-10 N.C. Constitution Article I
Legislative Branch U.S. Constitution Article I N.C. Constitution Article II
Executive Branch U.S. Constitution Article II N.C. Constitution Article III
Judicial Branch U.S. Constitution Article III N.C. Constitution Article IV
Amendments U.S. Constitution Added to end of document N.C. Constitution Written into document
The 3 Branches of the N.C. and Local Governments
Legislative (makes the laws) State Level (N.C.) The General Assembly Senate HoR
County (Mecklenburg County) Board of Commissioners Mecklenburg Board of County Commissioners (pictured left to right)Front row:VilmaLeake (District 2), Harold Cogdell, Jr. (Vice-Chairman, At-Large), Jennifer Roberts (Chairman, At-Large), Dan Murrey (At-Large), Karen Bentley (District 1).Back Row:George Dunlap (District 3), Dumont Clarke (District 4),Bill James (District 6), Neil Cooksey (District 5).
City/Town (City of Charlotte) City Council / Town Council
Executive Branch (carries out the Laws) State (N.C.) Governor & Lieutenant Governor Governor Bev Purdue
County (Mecklenburg County) County Manager Harry Jones – County Manager
City/ Town (City of Charlotte) Mayor Mayor Anthony Foxx
Judicial Branch (interprets the laws) State (N.C.) State Supreme Court Goodson Brady Martin Chief Justice Sarah Parker Edmunds Newby Hudson
County (Mecklenburg County) District Court
City/Town (City of Charlotte) District Court
Qualifications for State Officials House of Representatives (120 members) Age: 21 Residency: Citizen and Resident of NC for 1 year Length of Term: 2 yrs. Term Limit: None
Qualifications for State Officials Senate (50 members) Age: 25 Residency: Citizen and Resident of NC for 2 year Length of Term: 2 yrs. Term Limit: None
DISCUSS: Do you think it is more prestigious to be a N.C. Senator or N.C. House Representative? Why?
Qualifications for State Officials Governor/Lieutenant Governor Age: 30 Residency: Citizen 5 yrs. and Resident of NC for 2 years Length of Term: 4 yrs. Term Limit: 2 terms
Qualifications for State Officials State Supreme Court Age: 21 Residency: Citizen and Resident of NC Length of Term: 8 yrs. Term Limit: unlimited
The NC Executive Branch Enforce the Laws
Characteristics of the Weak Mayor Council Characteristics of the Strong Mayor Council Mayor is selected by the city council rather than elected by the people Mayor’s powers are usually limited City councils generally possess both legislative and executive authority Executive department heads are elected by the citizens not appointed by the mayor There is no single administrative head for the city Designed for smaller cities with simple governments Poorly suited for large cities where political and administrative leadership is vital. Mayor is elected directly by the people and given broad powers. City councils generally possess only legislative powers Department heads are appointed by the mayor The mayor is the administrative head of the city. The system calls for a mayor to be both a good political leader and an effective administrator.
The NC Judicial Branch Interpret the Laws
Why do we need a Judicial Branch? DISCUSS: What does freedom of speech mean? Does it protect verbal threats? Does it protect governmental protest? Does it protect student protest? Does it mean you can lie about somebody to harm them? How do we know if freedom of speech allow these things? Answer: The Judicial Branch
The “Supremacy Clause” “This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States…shall be the supreme Law of the Land…” -Article VI, Section 2 No other law or constitution is more important than the U.S. Constitution The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
THE U.S. Constitution Federal Laws State Constitutions State Statutes (Laws) County/City Ordinances
According to the chart DISCUSS: If the North Carolina makes a law declaring war on Canada and the U.S. Constitution says it is a federal power to declare war, who would win? (N.C. law or Constitution?) Who would win if Charlotte creates a law allowing convicted felons to be bought and sold as slaves and the 13th Amendment abolished slavery? (Charlotte law or 13th Amendment?)
Line-Item Veto V. Presidential Veto Line-Item Veto:The ability of a Governor to veto parts of a bill he/she disagrees with and keep the parts he/she agrees with Presidential Veto:an “all or nothing” decision. The president must approve or reject the entire bill
Strong Mayor V. Weak Mayor Strong Mayor: can choose who will head various city departments on his or her own Weak Mayor: needs the approval of the city council to appoint department heads Pat McCrory Former Mayor of Charlotte
State Government Agencies Government agencies belong to the Executive Branch Exist to assist the Governor in carrying out the laws created by the General Assembly Examples of Agencies: Department of Transportation (DOT): oversees most transportation issues like speed limits and road repairs Department of Public Instruction (DPI): ensures that all students receive an equal and fair education Board of Election (BOE): makes sure all elections are fairly conducted
Initiative V. Referendum Initiative: when the people start an action in an effort to propose a new law Referendum: a way for citizens to approve or reject a state or local law.
Amending the NC Constitution To Propose an Amendment: 3/5 of the General Assembly must approve of it To Ratify an amendment: a majority (51%) of the citizens of NC must approve of the amendment in a vote
Gerrymandering Redrawing district lines in a state to favor a particular political party A way politicians cheat in order to be elected! 12th District of Mel Watt
Annexation Annexing land means that one city gains the territory of another town or city Annexation benefits local government by increases the amount of revenue (taxes) the city or town collects
constitutionality Deciding if a law or act of government goes with or against the Constitution.
judicial review Supreme Court’s power to determine constitutionality (Marbury v. Madison)
unconstitutional When a law or act of gov’t goes against the Constitution Ex: Segregation Prayer in school Poll tax Unreasonable searches
constitutional When a law or act of gov’t is in line with the constitution Ex: Search with probable cause Take private land if paid for and for public use Deny the right to vote to 16 year olds