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Civil War a Survey
 

Civil War a Survey

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An overview of the Civil War, beginning with Lincoln's election. It does not include the catalysts and build up to war.

An overview of the Civil War, beginning with Lincoln's election. It does not include the catalysts and build up to war.

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    Civil War a Survey Civil War a Survey Presentation Transcript

    • Civil War
      Foreign and Domestic
    • Secession of the South
    • Reasons for secession
      Emotional
      Attack on the Southern way of life
      The idea that the North wants to establish black rule in the South. Their goal is not equality, but the reversal of roles for the races.
      Economic
      the policies of a Republican president
      protective tariffs, free homesteads in the west, etc.
      will prevent the South from prospering.
    • It still all goes back to the issue of slavery. Had the regions been able to compromise on the issue of slavery and the growth of the United States it is likely that we would have not had a nation divided to the extent of war.
    • Northern reaction to secession
      Most opposed forcing the South to return to the Union
      Pres. Buchanan refused to act when a federal supply ship was attacked in Charleston Harbor in January 1861
      Crittenden Compromise proposed the prohibition of slavery north of the Missouri Compromise line (36 30), but allowing it south of the line in addition to compensation to owners for runaway slaves
    • Crittenden Compromise
      The Crittenden Compromise was perhaps the last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis of 1860-61 by political negotiation. Authored by Kentucky Senator John Crittenden (whose two sons would become generals on opposite sides of the Civil War) it was an attempt to resolve the crisis by addressing the concerns that led the states of the Lower South to contemplate secession. As such, it gives a window into what the politicians of the day thought the cause of the crisis to be.
      http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/critten.html
    • Lincoln’s Actions at Ft. Sumpter
      (S’ern View) Lincoln decided to employ force because the South was denying the democratic principle that formed the basis of the Union.
      Supplies are sent to Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor (April 12, 1861)
      Confederates opened fire on the fort, starting the war
    • The North and the South Compared
    • North's advantages over the South
      Potential fighting and working force: 20 million citizens
      Population: 2.5:1
      Free male population (ages 18-60): 4.4:1
    • Northern advantages…
      Wealth produced: 3:1
      Factory production: 10:1 Textile goods produced: 14:1 Iron production: 15:1 Coal production: 38:1 Farm acreage: 3:1 Working animals: 1.8:1 Livestock: 1.5:1 Wheat production: 4.2:1 Corn production: 2:1
    • Northern advantages…
      Transportation--superior in every respect
      a) Railroad mileage: 7:1 b) Naval tonnage: 25:1 c) Merchant ship tonnage: 9:1
    • South's advantages over the North
      Fighting a defensive war.
      Local support and familiarity with terrain
      Positive goal: seeking independence
      Short communication lines and friendly population
      United public in contrast to the North.
      Nonslaveholders eager to volunteer to fight Experienced officer corps--many veterans of the Mexican-American War joined the Confederacy
      Cotton (24:1 advantage over North)--necessary for textile factories of England and France, but limited advantage due to European imports from other nations
    • Early Strategies of the Opposing Sides
    • North
      Capture Richmond and force surrender
      Expel Confederates from border states
      Control the Mississippi River
      Blockade southern ports and stop cotton shipments
    • South
      Capture Washington, D.C.
      Control border states
      Gain England's support
      Expel Union troops from South
    • Northern Domestic Issues
    • Prosperity and expansion--the war provided a stimulant to Northern economic interests
      Homestead Act (1862)--160 acres of land virtually free to any citizen willing to occupy it for five years
      Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)----30,000 acres of land for each Congressional representative granted to each state. Proceeds of land sales to be used to finance public colleges
      High tariffs passed to protect Northern industries
      Transcontinental railroad promoted with creation of federally chartered corporations receiving free public lands and generous loans
      National Bank Act (1863)--created national banking system. Stabilized currency and reduced confusing state bank note system
    • Financing the war
      First income tax (1861): 3% on incomes above $800
      Borrowing. $6.2 billion through the issuance of bonds
      Greenbacks--paper currency not supported by specie reserve. Value fluctuated with success of Northern armies. Caused serious inflation problems
    • Raising the Union army
      Lincoln issues call for 75,000 volunteers in 1861 to supplement 16,000 man army.
      Although volunteer call succeeded at first, by 1863 Congress turned to a draft to fill units. States could avoid draft by filling quotas of volunteers. Draft opposed by Peace Democrats, laborers, and immigrants
      Draft riots resulted in New York City in July 1863, causing hundreds of deaths, mostly of blacks
    • Lincoln's political problems
      Seen as inexperienced and unfit, he was challenged by members of his own cabinet, including Chase and Seward
      Expansion of war powers
      Call for troops to repress rebellion without declaration of war
      Arrest of unfriendly newspaper editors
      Suspension of habeas corpus
      Proclamation of naval blockade without Congressional approval
      13,000 political opponents arrested for varying periods
      Refusal to obey writ issued by Chief Justice Taney (Ex parte Merryman)
    • Presidential Election of 1864
      Abolitionists urged the Republicans to choose a candidate who would wage total war against the South
      Lincoln chose Andrew Johnson as his running mate to attract "War Democrats" and formed the Union Party
      Democrats nominated McClellan and a platform which called for a truce and settlement with the South
      Lincoln once again won in the electoral college, but only had a 400,000 vote majority in the popular vote
    • Northern Foreign Issues
    • Relations with England
      English support for the Confederacy
      Upper class feared leveling effect of Union victory on English society, felt socially close to the Southern plantation aristocracy, and needed cotton
      Some liberals and lower-class English favored the South, seeing the Civil War as a rebellion against Northern tyranny or as a struggle to preserve the Union
      English support for the Union
      Many English workers favored the North because a Northern victory would mean emancipation of the slaves
      Others felt western wheat was more critical to England than Southern cotton
    • Trent Affair (November 1861)--
      American warships stopped a British ship and removed two Confederate diplomats.
      Britain threatened war unless they were released
      Sec. of State Seward ordered the men released, although Northern sentiment opposed backing down
    • Relations with France
      Union defeats in 1861 and 1862 convinced France that the South would win.
      Lincoln delayed both France and England's recognition of the Confederacy by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation
      France placed Archduke Maximilian on the Mexican throne in challenge to Monroe Doctrine
    • Battles: Overview
      The battles mentioned are only a part of the whole. For more information about individual battles you can check the battles overview site at http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/abpp//battles/bystate.htm
    • Fort Sumter: first shots
      South Carolina
      April 12-14, 1861
      US Major Anderson
      CS Brig. Gen Beauregard
      Beauregard demands surrender of the fort, but Anderson refuses. Confederates open fire and Union was unable to defend. Anderson surrenders the fort.
      Confederate victory, no casualties
    • Bull Run/Manassas
      June 1861
      Union= McDowell, Confederate= Beauregard
      Union was initially successful but Confederates reinforced and defeated Union troops
      Humiliating for the North, boosted confidence of the South
      Each side underestimated the other. Both realized this was not going to be a quick war
      Confederate victory
    • Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing
      April 6-7,1862
      Pickwick, TN
      Grant was looking for control of Corinth and as luck would have it this is where Johnston had retreated after Ft. Henry and Donnelson
      Confederates attacked at Shiloh and were successful until Union reinforcements arrived (Buell)
      Confederate commander was Gen. Albert Sydney Johnston (killed) and Beauregard assumed command
      Union victory but at a great price
    • Antietam/Sharpsburg
      Confederates were looking for European recognition
      (Some consider) A draw for both sides, but turned the tide of war b/c Europe made decision not to support the South
      Strategic victory for the Union
      Bloodiest single day of the war
      Led to Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation
    • Vicksburg (Siege)
      In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
      http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/abpp//battles/ms011.htm
    • Significance
      Vicksburg was a stronghold on the Mississippi River because of the terrain. The bluffs are a line of 100-200 foot clay hills that border the flat delta of the Mississippi River. These bluffs continue north from Vicksburg and swing to the East in a large arc and continues up to north-central Mississippi. These bluffs are made of clay, which allowed the army and the civilians to dig caves for safety.
      The Confederates mounted heavy artillery on top of these high bluffs, which allowed them to shell the Union boats on the river at long range. At close range, the gunboats could not elevate their guns to hit the top of the bluffs. Also, the Mississippi River made a sharp bend at Vicksburg, which allowed Confederate guns placed at the waters edge to hit the Union boats as they slowed to maneuver the river.
      Victory in the battle of Vicksburg gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
    • Gettysburg
      Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac at the crossroads county seat of Gettysburg. On July 1, Confederate forces converged on the town from west and north, driving Union defenders back through the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides. On July 2, Lee attempted to envelop the Federals, first striking the Union left flank at the Peach Orchard, Wheatfield, Devil’s Den, and the Round Tops with Longstreet’s and Hill’s divisions, and then attacking the Union right at Culp’s and East Cemetery Hills with Ewell’s divisions. By evening, the Federals retained Little Round Top and had repulsed most of Ewell’s men. During the morning of July 3, the Confederate infantry were driven from their last toe-hold on Culp’s Hill. In the afternoon, after a preliminary artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Pickett’s Charge) momentarily pierced the Union line but was driven back with severe casualties. Stuart’s cavalry attempted to gain the Union rear but was repulsed. On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles.
    • Significance
      End of the Confederate Offensive
      Volunteers increased
      Blacks recruited into the military
      Emancipation confirmed
      Copperhead influence declined
      Confederacy divided
      Gettysburg Address
    • Most Hallowed Ground
    • Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
      ATL fell Sept 1864
      S. Industrial center and distribution center
      Helped Lincoln win Reelection
      The “march” was a military tactic to break S’ern will.
      Sherman was destructive, but not to the extent accused. Conf. troops were told to leave Sherman nothing to use so he couldn’t live off the land.
    • Appomattox Courthouse
      Lee surrendered to Grant April 9, 1865
    • Andersonville
    • Major Battles in the American Civil WarMajor battles fought between the North and the secessionist South. Pasted from <http://encarta.msn.com/media_701500524_761575605_-1_1/major_battles_in_the_american_civil_war.html>
    •  
    • Soldiers
      Enrollment Act, Draft Riots, Life, Prisons
    • Enrollment Act 1863
      Men 20-45 were eligible for draft
      Draftee could hire a substitute to serve in his place
      Could simply pay $300 to avoid service
      Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”
    • Draft Riots
      July 1863
      Largest was in NY
      Working class white men targeted well dressed white men, African Americans, and supporters of the war
      Several were injured and at least six African Americans were lynched. Businesses and black homes were burned. Federal troops arrived from the Battle of Gettysburg and halted the violence
    • Confederacy Draft
      Similar to that of the North, but the law provided an exemption for owners of 20 or more slaves (“Twenty Negro Law”)
      Less than 20% of S’ern population owned slaves
      Those exempted had to pay $500
      Caused resentment among poor whites
    • Credits
      http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/lec.civilwar.html
      http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/critten.html
      http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/abpp//battles/bystate.htm