Balance<br />Nationalism vs Sectionalism<br />
What was the basis of the Northern economy?<br />Agriculture<br />Manufacturing<br />
Main elements of agricultural system in the North	<br />Small farms<br />One or two crops<br />livestock raised for sale<b...
The southern economy was based up on agriculture.<br />
Main elements of the agricultural system in the South<br />Dependency on one crop<br />Slave labor<br />Plantations<br />
The ‘American System’<br />Clay’s plan for economic development<br />Goal: To unify a nation with diverse regional interes...
Purposes of each<br />Tariff<br />Aid the growth of American industry by protecting American made products<br />Bank<br />...
Regional Economies<br />* All supported strengthening the national bank<br />
Nationalism<br />
Cultural Nationalism<br /><ul><li>Education  The “Virtuous Citizen”
An American form of English
Noah Webster</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Nationalism<br /><ul><li>A well-defined American literature
Washington Irving</li></ul>The Sketch Book, 1819-20“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”<br />
Cultural Nationalism<br />Religious Movements:<br /><ul><li>Deism
Second “Great Awakening”</li></li></ul><li>The Second “Great Awakening:”Revivalist Meeting<br />
The revival&apos;s secular effects consisted of two main strains:<br />The virtues and behavior of the expanding middle cl...
Charles G. Finney<br />The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampmen...
Robert Fulton and the Clermont<br />1807- beginning of the steamboat era<br />Steamboats carried freight and passengers<br...
1808<br />Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston gain exclusive rights to run steamboats in New York<br />Monopoly establishe...
Gibbons v. Ogden<br />Ideas:<br />In interstate commerce, state laws must yield to federal laws<br />The federal governmen...
Gibbons v Ogden: background<br />Aaron Ogden believed his license to operate on a particular stretch of the Hudson river w...
The Timeline: Gibbons v. Ogden<br />1819 Ogden files a complaint against Gibbons in NY court<br />Ogden is ordered to stop...
1824 SC ruled interstate commerce could only be regulated by federal law.<br />Gave Congress control over interstate comme...
Federal gov’t also gains greater economic control in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)<br />
McCulloch v. Maryland<br />1791 US gov’t created the First National Bank<br />Jefferson did not renew the banks charter<br...
Maryland acts against the bank<br />Trying to close a branch of the Bank of the US by taxing it ($15000)<br />James McCull...
Timeline: McCulloch vs. Maryland<br />1818 Baltimore County Court<br />McCulloch is convicted of violation for failing to ...
Limits on state power<br />1810 Fletcher v Peck<br />Court nullified a GA law that had violated individuals const. rt. to ...
Details: Dartmouth v Woodward<br />Issue: can a st leg change the charter of a college<br />The Question: Would Dartmouth ...
Background<br />1769 Dartmouth was chartered by the King of England<br />1816 NH passed laws revising charter<br />Change ...
Opinion<br />Charter= a contract b/w the king and trustees<br />Still valid b/c Const says that a st cannot pass laws to i...
Nationalism and Foreign Policy<br />
The Marshall Court<br />1801-1835<br />Guided Supreme Court decisions that increased the pwr of fed gov’t over the state g...
Goals of JQA<br />John Quincy Adams: <br />Secretary of State under James Monroe<br />Two priorities<br />Security of the ...
JQA assisted in areas of Foreign Policyhelped to achieve:<br />American access to Oregon<br />Claimed by British and Ameri...
Rush Bagot Treaty 1817<br />Treaty w/ GB to reduce the Great Lakes fleets of both countries to only a few military vessels...
Convention 1818<br />Convention of Commerce<br />Est. N. boundary of US @ 49th //<br />Also agreed w/ GB on the joint occu...
Adams-Onis treaty<br />The AdamsOnís Treaty sometimes referred to as The Florida Treaty was signed in Washington on Februa...
Background: Adams-Onis Treaty<br />Florida conflict enhanced by the actions of Gen. Andrew Jackson<br />Led US forces into...
Why was Jackson in FL?<br />After the Battle of NOLA Jackson began to tour the nation.  On the tour he began to hear rumor...
More background<br />Two British Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister were providing arms to the Seminoles and encoura...
Speculation is that Monroe’s wording may have given Jackson permission to attack the Indians w/in Spanish territory, but P...
Jackson led troops across the border into FL<br />Seized the town of St. Marks<br />Captured Arbuthnot and Ambrister<br />...
Actions up until this point could be defendable by national law, but he went further.<br />
Jackson then…<br />Seized the Spanish capital and governor of Florida<br />Announced himself the new leader<br />Until neg...
Monroe had to pick up the pieces of…<br />2 executed British nationals<br />Illegal seizure of Spanish land and citizens<b...
censure and remove Jackson</li></li></ul><li>For the American Public…<br />Jackson’s hero status grew.<br />Adam’s used th...
	Spain ceded FL to the US
	US renounced claims to TX
	Sp renounced claims to Oregon territory.</li></li></ul><li>The Monroe Doctrine was a major element of American foreign po...
Monroe Doctrine<br />
The Missouri Compromise<br />1819 Missouri applied for statehood<br />
MO wanted to become a slave state<br />The balance b/w slave and free states was equal in the Senate<br />11 and 11<br />M...
Location issue<br />MO – center of US<br />As a slave state it would allow slavery to spread further northward<br />Propos...
Compromise Terms<br />1820<br />MO enters the Union as a slave state<br />Maine enters as a free state<br />Retains balanc...
Compromise term 2<br />Expansion of slavery is prohibited in LA Purchase territory north of the 36*30” line<br />Southern ...
MO compromise Perception<br />S benefited most from compromise b/c allowed to retain slavery south of 36*30” // line<br />...
Election of 1824<br />End of the Era of Good Feelings<br />
Candidates 1824<br />Andrew Jackson- TN<br />Hero NOLA and FL<br />John Q. Adams- Mass<br />Secretary of State<br />Willia...
1824 Election<br />House of Reps.<br />No majority<br />Majority = 131<br />
William Crawford suffers a stroke before the election so he was not a contender for President.<br />Henry Clay was not in ...
Clay and Adams were not close, but they did agree on a few issues and Clay felt Adams would be most supportive of his Amer...
A corrupt Bargain?<br />
JQA: as president<br />Upon becoming President, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson and his angry follower...
Election of 1828<br />Era of Good Feelings- OVER<br />Very dirty campaign w/ accusations thrown on both sides<br />A. Jack...
1828 Election Results<br />
Era of the common man<br />
The New “Jackson Coalition”<br /><ul><li>The Planter Elite in the South
People on the Frontier
State Politicians – spoils system
Immigrants in the cities.</li></li></ul><li>Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man”<br /><ul><li>Intense distrust of Eastern“e...
His heart & soul was with the“plain folk.”
Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.</li></li></ul><li>The Reign of “King Mob”<br />Jackson’s ...
Controversy<br />
As a young woman Peggy had married John Timberlake, a Navy purser who spent considerable time at sea. It was said that his...
Jackson had known Peggy Eaton for some time and liked her. Always one to take offense at any attack on his personal honor,...
Webster-Hayne Debate<br />	The Hayne-Webster Debate was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert...
Webster-hayne debate<br />Debate started as a sectional issue<br />Suggestion was made that all land sales and surveys be ...
Daniel Webster responded…<br />Sen. Massachusetts- Nationalist Whig<br />Responded to Hayne (really aiming @ Calhoun)<br /...
Webster’s Second Reply…<br />Revered by N.<br />Ended w/ “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable<br />Wha...
AJ vs Calhoun: In a banquet honoring TJ, AJ made a toast and Calhoun responded w/ his own.<br />“Our Federal Union, it mus...
1832 Tariff Conflict<br /><ul><li>1828 --> “Tariff of Abomination”
1832 --> new tariff
South Carolina’s reaction?
Jackson’s response?
Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?</li></li></ul><li>Tariff of Abominations<br />Passed on important items to encourage American ...
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Balance Nationalism And Sectionalism

  1. 1. Balance<br />Nationalism vs Sectionalism<br />
  2. 2. What was the basis of the Northern economy?<br />Agriculture<br />Manufacturing<br />
  3. 3. Main elements of agricultural system in the North <br />Small farms<br />One or two crops<br />livestock raised for sale<br /> limited use of slave labor<br />
  4. 4. The southern economy was based up on agriculture.<br />
  5. 5. Main elements of the agricultural system in the South<br />Dependency on one crop<br />Slave labor<br />Plantations<br />
  6. 6. The ‘American System’<br />Clay’s plan for economic development<br />Goal: To unify a nation with diverse regional interests and create a strong, stable economy.<br />Tariff of 1816<br />Second Bank of the US<br />Internal improvements<br />
  7. 7. Purposes of each<br />Tariff<br />Aid the growth of American industry by protecting American made products<br />Bank<br />Aid the exchange of goods across regions by establishing a national currency<br />Improvements<br />Assist trade by improving transportation<br />National Road & Erie Canal<br />
  8. 8. Regional Economies<br />* All supported strengthening the national bank<br />
  9. 9. Nationalism<br />
  10. 10. Cultural Nationalism<br /><ul><li>Education  The “Virtuous Citizen”
  11. 11. An American form of English
  12. 12. Noah Webster</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Nationalism<br /><ul><li>A well-defined American literature
  13. 13. Washington Irving</li></ul>The Sketch Book, 1819-20“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”<br />
  14. 14. Cultural Nationalism<br />Religious Movements:<br /><ul><li>Deism
  15. 15. Second “Great Awakening”</li></li></ul><li>The Second “Great Awakening:”Revivalist Meeting<br />
  16. 16. The revival&apos;s secular effects consisted of two main strains:<br />The virtues and behavior of the expanding middle class—a strong work ethic, frugality and temperance—were endorsed and legitimized. <br />Its emphasis on the ability of individuals to amend their lives engendered a wide array of reform movements aimed at redressing injustice and alleviating suffering—a democratizing effect<br />
  17. 17. Charles G. Finney<br />The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.<br />
  18. 18. Robert Fulton and the Clermont<br />1807- beginning of the steamboat era<br />Steamboats carried freight and passengers<br />Helped unite the economies of the N & S<br />Contributes to nationalism<br />Also leads to controversy<br />
  19. 19. 1808<br />Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston gain exclusive rights to run steamboats in New York<br />Monopoly established and profit gained<br />Exclusive control<br />Able to charge steamboat operators for licenses to operate on various stretches of river<br />Leads to Gibbons v Ogden<br />
  20. 20. Gibbons v. Ogden<br />Ideas:<br />In interstate commerce, state laws must yield to federal laws<br />The federal government has power to regulate almost anything that moves across state lines<br />Promoted nationalism by:<br />Preventing states from acting in ways that hurt other states<br />
  21. 21. Gibbons v Ogden: background<br />Aaron Ogden believed his license to operate on a particular stretch of the Hudson river was exclusive<br />Thomas Gibbons believed he also had a right to operate on the same stretch of the Hudson. <br />Ogden takes it to court<br />
  22. 22. The Timeline: Gibbons v. Ogden<br />1819 Ogden files a complaint against Gibbons in NY court<br />Ogden is ordered to stop<br />1820 a higher court agrees with the lower NY court<br />1824 Supreme Court reverses the lower decision<br />
  23. 23. 1824 SC ruled interstate commerce could only be regulated by federal law.<br />Gave Congress control over interstate commerce.<br />Federal gov’t has power to regulate everything that crosses state lines.<br />
  24. 24. Federal gov’t also gains greater economic control in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)<br />
  25. 25. McCulloch v. Maryland<br />1791 US gov’t created the First National Bank<br />Jefferson did not renew the banks charter<br />1816 James Madison created the 2nd Bank of the US<br />Many branches opened across the nation<br />States resented these due to competition<br />Also a question of corruption and fear of increased pwr to the nat’lgov’t<br />
  26. 26. Maryland acts against the bank<br />Trying to close a branch of the Bank of the US by taxing it ($15000)<br />James McCulloch @ the Baltimore branch refused to pay the tax<br />Maryland took him to court<br />
  27. 27. Timeline: McCulloch vs. Maryland<br />1818 Baltimore County Court<br />McCulloch is convicted of violation for failing to pay $15000 tax to MD<br />1818 MD Court of Appeals<br />Upheld the decision of the lower court<br />1819 US Supreme Court<br />Reversed the lwr court and overturned McCulloch’s conviction<br />Upheld the pwr of the fed gov’t to est. a nat’l bank<br />Constitutional w/in the pwr of the what is “necessary and proper”<br />MD did not have the authority to tax a federal institution<br />
  28. 28. Limits on state power<br />1810 Fletcher v Peck<br />Court nullified a GA law that had violated individuals const. rt. to enter into contracts<br />1819 Dartmouth v Woodward<br />St could not revise the original charter granted to the college during colonial times<br />A charter is a contract and a state cannot interfere with contracts<br />
  29. 29. Details: Dartmouth v Woodward<br />Issue: can a st leg change the charter of a college<br />The Question: Would Dartmouth remain private or b/c a st institution of higher learning<br />BROAD issue: What is protected by Const. contract clause?<br />
  30. 30. Background<br />1769 Dartmouth was chartered by the King of England<br />1816 NH passed laws revising charter<br />Change from private to public<br />And change duties of trustees as well as how they would be selected<br />Result: Old trustees sued<br />
  31. 31. Opinion<br />Charter= a contract b/w the king and trustees<br />Still valid b/c Const says that a st cannot pass laws to impair a contract<br />
  32. 32. Nationalism and Foreign Policy<br />
  33. 33. The Marshall Court<br />1801-1835<br />Guided Supreme Court decisions that increased the pwr of fed gov’t over the state gov’t<br />
  34. 34. Goals of JQA<br />John Quincy Adams: <br />Secretary of State under James Monroe<br />Two priorities<br />Security of the nation<br />Expansion of territory<br />
  35. 35. JQA assisted in areas of Foreign Policyhelped to achieve:<br />American access to Oregon<br />Claimed by British and America w/ each agreeing to joint occupation for ~10 years<br />Opened Oregon to future Am. Expansion<br />Control of Florida<br />
  36. 36. Rush Bagot Treaty 1817<br />Treaty w/ GB to reduce the Great Lakes fleets of both countries to only a few military vessels<br />Eventually led to the complete demilitarization of the US/Canada border<br />
  37. 37. Convention 1818<br />Convention of Commerce<br />Est. N. boundary of US @ 49th //<br />Also agreed w/ GB on the joint occupation of Oregon territory<br />
  38. 38. Adams-Onis treaty<br />The AdamsOnís Treaty sometimes referred to as The Florida Treaty was signed in Washington on February 22, 1819 and ratified by Spain October 24, 1820 and entered into force February 22, 1821. It terminated April 14,1903 by a treaty of July 3, 1902. The treaty was named for John Quincy Adams of the United States and Louis de Onís of Spain and renounced any claim of the United States to Texas. It fixed the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase as beginning at the mouth of the Sabine River and running along its south and west bank to the thirty-second parallel and thence directly north to the Río Rojo (Red River).<br />http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/adamonis.htm<br />
  39. 39. Background: Adams-Onis Treaty<br />Florida conflict enhanced by the actions of Gen. Andrew Jackson<br />Led US forces into FL on the pretense of protecting American citizens there<br />He occupied Sp. Forts and executed two British citizens <br />
  40. 40. Why was Jackson in FL?<br />After the Battle of NOLA Jackson began to tour the nation. On the tour he began to hear rumors about Seminole Indians in Florida attacking settlements and using the Spanish territory for protection.<br />Fugitive slaves were also fleeing to the area and launching raids on nearby plantations<br />By 1817 it was a mjr problem due to the growth of Am. Settlement in the area<br />
  41. 41. More background<br />Two British Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister were providing arms to the Seminoles and encouraging them to fight Americans<br />Seminoles seized property outside an area called Fowltown<br />President Monroe called for Jackson to lead forces in the area <br />
  42. 42. Speculation is that Monroe’s wording may have given Jackson permission to attack the Indians w/in Spanish territory, but President Monroe denied this.<br />
  43. 43. Jackson led troops across the border into FL<br />Seized the town of St. Marks<br />Captured Arbuthnot and Ambrister<br />Tried them<br />Sentenced them to death<br />
  44. 44. Actions up until this point could be defendable by national law, but he went further.<br />
  45. 45. Jackson then…<br />Seized the Spanish capital and governor of Florida<br />Announced himself the new leader<br />Until negotiations b/w the two gov’ts could reach a satisfactory conclusion<br />
  46. 46. Monroe had to pick up the pieces of…<br />2 executed British nationals<br />Illegal seizure of Spanish land and citizens<br />Installation of a new government in Spanish territory<br />Monroe’s cabinet suggested :<br /><ul><li>deny any knowledge of the events
  47. 47. censure and remove Jackson</li></li></ul><li>For the American Public…<br />Jackson’s hero status grew.<br />Adam’s used the events to his advantage and argued the Spanish could not control its FL residents.<br /><ul><li> Adams-Onis Treaty-
  48. 48. Spain ceded FL to the US
  49. 49. US renounced claims to TX
  50. 50. Sp renounced claims to Oregon territory.</li></li></ul><li>The Monroe Doctrine was a major element of American foreign policy. It was first proposed by U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. He is shown here in a Cabinet meeting pointing to a globe. In 1823 Russia was threatening to expand its claimed territory southward along the Pacific Coast. President James Monroe warned the European powers that North and South America were not open to further European colonization. The next year, the U.S. signed a treaty with Russia about the coastal area. It set the southward boundary for Russian colonies at 54 degrees and 40 minutes north latitude. By preventing Russian expansion, the treaty and the Monroe Doctrine contributed to the eventual end of the Russian settlement at Fort Ross.<br />Another success of JQA:The Monroe doctrine<br />http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=57D4BD2D-4BD9-422A-ADFE-E7557F84AEFE&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US<br />
  51. 51. Monroe Doctrine<br />
  52. 52. The Missouri Compromise<br />1819 Missouri applied for statehood<br />
  53. 53. MO wanted to become a slave state<br />The balance b/w slave and free states was equal in the Senate<br />11 and 11<br />MO as a slave state would upset the balance<br />
  54. 54. Location issue<br />MO – center of US<br />As a slave state it would allow slavery to spread further northward<br />Proposal was made for the gradual emancipation of slaves in MO<br />Sparked debate in Congress founded on sectionalism<br />N supported/S opposed<br />Each side blamed the other for national division<br />
  55. 55. Compromise Terms<br />1820<br />MO enters the Union as a slave state<br />Maine enters as a free state<br />Retains balance of slave and free<br />
  56. 56. Compromise term 2<br />Expansion of slavery is prohibited in LA Purchase territory north of the 36*30” line<br />Southern boundary of MO<br />
  57. 57. MO compromise Perception<br />S benefited most from compromise b/c allowed to retain slavery south of 36*30” // line<br />N of // thought unsuitable for slavery anyway<br />PRECEDENT set<br />S accepted the concept that Congress could prevent slavery in some territories<br />Foreshadows future arguments<br />
  58. 58. Election of 1824<br />End of the Era of Good Feelings<br />
  59. 59. Candidates 1824<br />Andrew Jackson- TN<br />Hero NOLA and FL<br />John Q. Adams- Mass<br />Secretary of State<br />William Crawford- GA<br />Treasury Secretary<br />Henry Clay- KY<br />Speaker of the House<br />
  60. 60. 1824 Election<br />House of Reps.<br />No majority<br />Majority = 131<br />
  61. 61. William Crawford suffers a stroke before the election so he was not a contender for President.<br />Henry Clay was not in the top three so he was not considered, but his position as Speaker of the House gave him GREAT influence<br />
  62. 62. Clay and Adams were not close, but they did agree on a few issues and Clay felt Adams would be most supportive of his American System. Clay used his influence to gain votes needed to select JQA as President. <br />Supporters of A. Jackson were furious and this was made worse by JQA selecting Clay as Secretary of State.<br />Sec. of St. was considered the stepping stone to the presidency. <br />
  63. 63. A corrupt Bargain?<br />
  64. 64. JQA: as president<br />Upon becoming President, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson and his angry followers charged that a &quot;corrupt bargain&quot; had taken place and immediately began their campaign to wrest the Presidency from Adams in 1828.<br />Well aware that he would face hostility in Congress, Adams nevertheless proclaimed in his first Annual Message a spectacular national program. He proposed that the Federal Government bring the sections together with a network of highways and canals, and that it develop and conserve the public domain, using funds from the sale of public lands. In 1828, he broke ground for the 185-mile C & 0 Canal.<br />Adams also urged the United States to take a lead in the development of the arts and sciences through the establishment of a national university, the financing of scientific expeditions, and the erection of an observatory. His critics declared such measures transcended constitutional limitations.<br />http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams<br />
  65. 65. Election of 1828<br />Era of Good Feelings- OVER<br />Very dirty campaign w/ accusations thrown on both sides<br />A. Jackson wins<br />
  66. 66. 1828 Election Results<br />
  67. 67. Era of the common man<br />
  68. 68. The New “Jackson Coalition”<br /><ul><li>The Planter Elite in the South
  69. 69. People on the Frontier
  70. 70. State Politicians – spoils system
  71. 71. Immigrants in the cities.</li></li></ul><li>Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man”<br /><ul><li>Intense distrust of Eastern“establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege.
  72. 72. His heart & soul was with the“plain folk.”
  73. 73. Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.</li></li></ul><li>The Reign of “King Mob”<br />Jackson’s inauguration: Thousands attend. He is seen as a President of the people.<br />
  74. 74. Controversy<br />
  75. 75. As a young woman Peggy had married John Timberlake, a Navy purser who spent considerable time at sea. It was said that his untimely death in a foreign port was a suicide brought about by Peggy&apos;s infidelity, a charge never proven. Whether true or not, Peggy got married again, this time to John Eaton, who soon became a Secretary of War in Andrew Jackson&apos;s cabinet, whom she had met in her father&apos;s establishment. <br />Soon after Jackson&apos;s inauguration it became apparent that the wives of the other members of Jackson&apos;s Cabinet did not approve of Mrs. Eaton&apos;s allegedly lurid past. She was snubbed at White House receptions, and Washington political society refused to accept or return social visits from Mrs. Eaton, and pronounced themselves scandalized that Mrs. Eaton was even invited to participate in polite Washington company.<br />The “Peggy Eaton Affair”<br />http://www.academicamerican.com/jeffersonjackson/topics/eaton.htm<br />
  76. 76. Jackson had known Peggy Eaton for some time and liked her. Always one to take offense at any attack on his personal honor, Jackson naturally sided with Peggy and John Eaton and became furious with the allegations. He fumed: &quot;I did not come here to make a cabinet for the ladies of this place, but for the nation!&quot;  <br />The situation deteriorated to the point where it became a difficult even for Jackson&apos;s cabinet to conduct its regular business, so preoccupied were the members with the Eaton affair. Martin Van Buren, Jackson&apos;s Secretary of State, was a widower and therefore safe from wifely criticism of Mrs. Eaton. Van Buren could therefore afford to be kind to Mrs. Eaton, which gratified Jackson. Finally, as a way out of the &quot;Eaton malaria,&quot; Van Buren offered to resign and suggested that the rest of the cabinet do so also. Jackson gratefully accepted his offer and promised to aid Van Buren, which he did, naming him Ambassador to Great Britain.<br />There was more to this story, however. The attack on Mrs. Eaton had been led by Floride Calhoun, wife of Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun had been elected vice president both in 1824 and 1828 and had run separately from Jackson, and there was some old animosity between Jackson and Calhoun dating back to the time when Calhoun was Secretary of War under President Monroe and Jackson was chasing Indians in Florida. Van Buren&apos;s appointment to the Court of St. James had to be approved by the Senate, and because of growing opposition to Jackson&apos;s policies in the Senate, the vote for approval turned out to be a tie. Vice President Calhoun, presiding over the Senate, cast the deciding vote against Van Buren. Henry Clay, a savvy politicians himself, remarked to Calhoun that he had destroyed an ambassador but created a Vice President.<br />And so it was. In 1832 Andrew Jackson asked Van Buren to join him on the Democratic Party ticket as his running mate and candidate for vice president. Jackson and Van Buren were elected, and Van Buren succeeded President Jackson in the election of 1836. Thus the Peggy Eaton affair, the story of a woman scorned, rather than remaining a low-level scandal, altered the course of American political history, not the first time nor the last in which a woman would play that role. <br />
  77. 77. Webster-Hayne Debate<br /> The Hayne-Webster Debate was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. <br />
  78. 78. Webster-hayne debate<br />Debate started as a sectional issue<br />Suggestion was made that all land sales and surveys be temporarily suspended<br />Robert Hayne (Sen. SC) responded: slowing down the growth of the W was a way for the E to retain pol/econ pwr. Claimed the S and W were victims of NE tyranny and could wk together<br />Not interested in W.<br />Seeking support in Congress for SC tariff issue<br />
  79. 79. Daniel Webster responded…<br />Sen. Massachusetts- Nationalist Whig<br />Responded to Hayne (really aiming @ Calhoun)<br />Said they were a challenge to the integrity of the Union<br />Challenged Hayne to a debate on sts. rtsvsnat’lpwer.<br />Hayne (w/prep help from Calhoun) defended the theory of nullification<br />
  80. 80. Webster’s Second Reply…<br />Revered by N.<br />Ended w/ “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable<br />What would AJ say???<br />
  81. 81. AJ vs Calhoun: In a banquet honoring TJ, AJ made a toast and Calhoun responded w/ his own.<br />“Our Federal Union, it must be preserved.” AJ<br />“The Union, next to our liberty most dear.”JC<br />
  82. 82. 1832 Tariff Conflict<br /><ul><li>1828 --> “Tariff of Abomination”
  83. 83. 1832 --> new tariff
  84. 84. South Carolina’s reaction?
  85. 85. Jackson’s response?
  86. 86. Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?</li></li></ul><li>Tariff of Abominations<br />Passed on important items to encourage American mfg and help New England<br />Raised the cost of mfg items as it encouraged other nations to have their own tariffs<br />Very unpopular in the South b/c the South exported goods to Europe<br />
  87. 87. Duties on imports set by the Tariff of 1828 were so high that its opponents denounced it as the Tariff of Abominations. Northern bankers, merchants, and manufacturers favored high duties, or taxes, on imports to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern planters feared that high tax rates would increase the cost of nearly everything they bought. When Northerners in Congress worked to increase tariff rates, opponents adopted the tactic of adding many excessively high duties to make the whole tariff unattractive enough to defeat. But their strategy backfired, and the highly protective tariff was enacted. The South was so outraged over the Tariff of Abominations that VicePresident John C. Calhoun (Democrat–South Carolina) drafted a proposal that states could “nullify,” or effectively cancel, offensive federal laws within their own jurisdiction. President Andrew Jackson and his supporters vigorously denied that states had any right of nullification. A constitutional crisis was avoided in 1832, when Congress adopted a new tariff that significantly lowered the rates set by the Tariff of Abominations.<br />http://www.answers.com/topic/tariff-of-abominations<br />
  88. 88. SC Response?<br />South Carolina Exposition and Protest 1828<br />Argued the constitutionality of tariff and said states had the right of nullification.<br />Author: VP John Calhoun<br /> Based on the same arguments used in the 1790s VA and KY Resolutions by TJ and J.Madison in response to Alien and Sedition Acts<br />
  89. 89. Nullification Crisis<br />AJ rejected nullification<br />When it became known that Calhoun authored the SCE&P it created a greater rift w/ AJ<br />Calhoun eventually resigned<br />Compromise was desperately needed<br />1833 Compromise Bill: a new tariff that would gradually reduce rates over ten years<br />Force Bill: authorized the Pres to use force in order to collect tariff<br />
  90. 90. Bank Crisis<br />Jackson distrusted the Bank of the US (BUS)<br />Blamed it for the Panic of 1819<br />First great economic crisis (caused by 80% drop in mfg in 1817)<br />2nd BUS requires payment from states in specie<br />State banks begin to fail<br />
  91. 91. Why a crisis?<br />Following the War of 1812 more money was in circulation than gold in reserves<br />There was a huge public debt and land was being sold to pay debts- but bank notes being used to purchase the land were virtually worthless<br />Falling cotton prices<br />
  92. 92. Jackson and the BUS<br />Earlier renewal sought for BUS charter.<br />Political issue w/ Clay trying to discredit Jackson in 1832 election. AJ won.<br />Jackson vetoed the bank renewal in 1832<br />Unconstitutional<br />Harmful to nation<br />Only served the wealthy<br />AJ w/drew federal money from BUS and placed it in state banks or “pet banks”<br />Wildcat banks- unreliable too much paper money in circulation<br />
  93. 93. Specie Circular<br />Bank notes were virtually worthless and people used them to purchase land from the government<br />AJ issued an order to require all land purchased from the federal government to be paid for in specie<br />People rushed to banks to redeem paper money for specie resulting in banks, which had ltd specie, to suspend redemption of bank notes<br />Many banks stopped accepting paper currency<br />Panic of 1837<br />
  94. 94. 1836, BUS no longer<br />
  95. 95. Whigs<br />Birth of a new party<br />
  96. 96. Election of 1840<br />“Tippecanoe and Tyler, too” vs “Van, Van, the used-up man”<br />Dem. Van Buren runs against Whig William Henry Harrison<br />Harrison won, John Tyler (chosen to bring in Southern votes) was his VP<br />Harrison dies one month into office<br />Tyler= “His Accidency”<br />HUS 235<br />

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