New England Colonies Rhode Island Connecticut Massachusetts New Hampshire
New England Climate and Physical Features Rocky Soils Short farming season Subsistence farming Bad farming conditions Great harbors for port Cities like Boston
New England Economic Comparative Advantage Commercial businesses ($$$) Fishing Shipping manufacturing
New England Why colonies were started Religious freedom Pilgrims, Puritans fled England for Massachusetts
The New England Colonies Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut
Rhode Island Founded: 1636 by Roger Williams and others, at Providence Major Industry: Agriculture (livestock, dairy, fishing), Manufacturing (lumbering) Major Cities: Providence Colony Named for: Dutch for "red island" Became a State: May 29, 1790
Connecticut Founded: 1636 by Thomas Hooker and others, at Hartford Major Industry: Agriculture (wheat, corn, fishing) Major Cities: Hartford, New Haven Colony Named for: from an Algonquin word, quinnehtukqut, "beside the long tidal river" Became a State: February 6, 1788
Massachusetts Founded: 1630 by John Winthrop and others, at Massachusetts Bay Major Industry: Agriculture (fishing, corn, livestock), Manufacturing (lumbering, shipbuilding) Major Cities: Boston, Quincy, Plymouth, Salem, Lexington, Concord Colony Named for: Massachusetts tribe (word means "large hill place") Became a State: February 6, 1788
New Hampshire Founded: 1638 by John Wheelwright and others Major Industry: Agriculture (potatoes, fishing), Manufacturing (textiles, shipbuilding) Major Cities: Concord Colony Named for: county of Hampshire in England Became a State: June 21, 1788
Middle Colonies Delaware Pennsylvania New York New Jersey
Middle Colonies Climate and Physical Features Good Soil Longer growing seasons than New England Ok Harbors
Middle Colonies Economic Comparative Advantage Known as the “Breadbasket” Grew crops like wheat and corn Provided food for other colonies Some shipping and manufacturing
Middle Colonies Why colonies were started Religious Freedom Make money through trade (New York and New Jersey)
The Middle Colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware
Delaware Founded: 1638 by Peter Minuit and others Major Industry: Agriculture (fishing), Manufacturing (lumbering) Major Cities: Wilmington Colony Named for: named for the Delaware tribe and for an early governor of colonial Virginia, Lord de la Warr Became a State: December 7, 1787
Pennsylvania Founded: 1682 by William Penn and others, at Philadelphia Major Industry: Agriculture (wheat, corn, cattle, dairy), Manufacturing (textiles, papermaking, shipbuilding) Major Cities: Philadelphia, Lancaster, York Colony Named for: William Penn and sylvania, Latin for "forest" Became a State: December 12, 1787
New York Founded: 1626 by Peter Minuit and others, on Manhattan Island Major Industry: Manufacturing (shipbuilding, iron works), Agriculture (cattle, grain, rice, indigo, wheat) Major Cities: New York City, Albany Colony Named for: Duke of York Became a State: July 26, 1788
New Jersey Founded: 1664 by English colonists Major Industry: Manufacturing (ironworking, lumbering) Major Cities: Trenton, Princeton Colony Named for: Isle of Jersey in England Became a State: December 18, 1787
Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
Southern Colonies Climate and Physical Features Great Soil Warm Weather Very long growing seasons Bad harbors
Southern Colonies Economic Comparative Advantage Focused on farming cash crops Large plantation farms for tobacco, cotton, and indigo Almost no shipping
Southern Colonies Why colonies were started Almost all were started to make money by growing cash crops Maryland was started for religious freedom Georgia A place for criminals/ debtors
Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
Maryland Founded: 1633 by Lord Baltimore and others, at Baltimore Major Industry: Manufacturing (shipbuilding, iron works), Agriculture (corn, wheat, rice, indigo) Major Cities: Baltimore, Annapolis Colony Named for: Queen Henrietta Maria of England Became a State: April 28, 1788
Virginia Founded: 1607 by John Smith and others, at Jamestown Major Industry: Plantation agriculture (tobacco, wheat, corn) Major Cities: Jamestown, Williamsburg, Richmond Colony Named for: England's "Virgin Queen," Elizabeth I Became a State: June 25, 1788
North Carolina Founded: 1653 by Virginia colonists Major Industry: Plantation agriculture (indigo, rice, tobacco) Major Cities: Raleigh Colony Named for: from Carolus, the Latin word for "Charles," Charles I of England Became a State: November 21, 1789
South Carolina Founded: 1663 by English colonists Major Industry: Plantation agriculture (indigo, rice, tobacco, cotton, cattle) Major Cities: Charleston Colony Named for: from Carolus, the Latin word for "Charles," Charles I of England Became a State: May 23, 1788
Georgia Founded: 1732 by James Oglethorpe and others Major Industry: Agriculture (indigo, rice, sugar) Major Cities: Savannah Colony Named for: England's King George II Became a State: January 2, 1788
Reasons why the colonies began God – Religious Freedoms The Puritans and the Pilgrims fled from England to the colonies Glory – Wanted the fame of starting a new country Gold – People could make lots of money in the colonies especially on plantations
The Development of Democratic Ideas
Magna Carta-1215 1st document to limit power of English rulers Kings and queens must obey the law too! Major step toward constitutional government Where? - England
Colonial Government – 1600s The governor of colony represented King Colonists voted for members of a legislature (assembly)
DISCUSS: In colonial government, assemblies controlled the salary of the governor. How is this an examples of Montisqieu’s separation of power?
Virginia House of Burgesses-1619 1st representative assembly in America Beginning of representative government Where? South
Mayflower Compact - 1620 1st document to establish self-government, popular sovereignty and rule of law in the colonies Where? New England
New England Town Meetings - 1629 Meeting for townspeople to express themselves openly Helped further direct democracy as self-government in the colonies One vote/one person Where? New England
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- 1639 1st written constitution in the American colonies Began a pattern of the colonists securing guaranteed rights. constitution = a written plan for government Where? New England
Maryland Toleration Act - 1649 1st document to recogonize religious freedom in the colonies model for the 1st Amendment of the Constitution Where? Southern
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Governor William Berkeley agreed to keep settlers from taking Native American land. Nathaniel Bacon disagreed strongly and led attacks on colonial government Rebellion against an oppressive government Where? South
English Bill of Rights (1689) List of rights for the English citizens Where? England Discuss Today where can US citizens look to find rights that are given?
Peter Zenger Trial - 1734 First case to protect the idea of freedom of the press in the colonies Where? Middle
Enlightenment Thinkers Ideas They argued that the laws of nature also applied to human life and society.
John Locke (England) Viewpoints
All humans have “natural rights”
In order to have their “natural rights” protected, humans give up certain freedoms to Government
If gov’t does NOT protect your Rights, citizens can OVERTHROW it!!!
DISCUSS: When you go through airport security, what freedoms might you give up? Which one of your “natural rights” is the government protecting?
Baron de Montesquieu (France) Viewpoints Believed too much power in one place is dangerous for others Introduced “Separation of Powers” between branches of government Ex: England’s Government King-enforced laws Parliament-made laws Judges-interpreted laws
DISCUSS: What might happen if Police Officers were the ones who determined the people they arrested guilty instead of judges or juries?
Jean Jacques Rousseau (France) Viewpoints Humans will destroy themselves if they don’t give up some freedoms Humans create a “social contract” with government to protect themselves
Discuss: How are speed limits examples of the social contract?
Voltaire (France & England) Viewpoints Believed in Civil Liberties Trial by Jury of peers Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech
DISCUSS: Voltaire once said:“I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your RIGHT to say it.”What do you think he meant by that?