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New Generation eBook-OPUS
New Generation eBook-OPUS
New Generation eBook-OPUS
New Generation eBook-OPUS
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New Generation eBook-OPUS
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New Generation eBook-OPUS

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This is a group project which ASTRI collaborated with Hong Kong Polytechnic University on eBooks for children education. The objective of OPUS is to design a tough and durable eBook for children 7 …

This is a group project which ASTRI collaborated with Hong Kong Polytechnic University on eBooks for children education. The objective of OPUS is to design a tough and durable eBook for children 7 years of age that allows children to learn to read.

OPUS is a new generation eBook which provide individual reading and reading experience sharing at the same time. Children are having their individual experience that mirrors each other until they start reading. Once they begin reading, they share experience of the same content and they get to exchange notes and thought with each other in the process to improve each other's experience.

CONTRIBUTION:
Concept Generation, Secondary Research, Primary Research (User interview &testing), Making Physical Prototype, Rendering Final 3D Model, creating Final Flash Demo, Designing Graphic Diagram in Final Project Log

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  • 1. eBOOKPROJECT REPORTHong Kong Polytechnic UniversitySchool of Design2009 | Master of Interaction design Next generation eBook - opus Team member: Cheng Wing Yin Ellena Shao Zhou Yi Joy Wang Zhi Wei Eva
  • 2. CONTENTSTeam members /021 Project Background /062 Project Objective /08RESEARCH3 Research Process / 12 7 Competitive Analysis / 32 7.1 Rationale /324 Persona / 14 7.2 Matrix of Competitor Comparison /33 4.1 Rationale /14 7.3 Advantages and Disadvantages /34 4.2 OPUS’ Persona /16 8 Design Objectives and Criteria / 365 Secondary Research / 18 5.1 Rationale /18 9 Design Opportunities / 40 9.1 Physical Freedom /426 Design Direction / 22 9.2 Pleasant Reading Experience /44 6.1 Physical /24 9.3 Communicate with Others /48 Psychological /24 Social /24 10 Visits & Interviews / 52 6.2 Design Direction /26 10.1 Rationale /52 10.2 First and Second visits /54 6.3 Ideas /30 10.3 Third visits /58 10.4 Fourth visits /62
  • 3. DESIGN11 Scenarios / 69 14 Interaction Models / 82 11.1 Rationale /69 14.1 Rationale /82 11.2 Scenarios /70 14.2 Evolution of Interaction Models /82 14.3 Interaction Models /8312 Brainstorm and Sketches / 72 12.1 Rationale /75 15 Information Architecture / 86 12.2 Re nement of Sketches /76 15.1 Rationale /87 15.2 Information Architecture /8813 Task Analysis / 78 13.1 Rationale /78 13.2 Envisioned /79 13.3 Task Analysis /80OPUS16 Final Design / 93 18 Acknowledgements /102 16.1 Interface /94 16.2 Physical Form /98 19 References /104 16.3 Technology /99 20 Appendix /10617 Lessons Learned /100
  • 4. ASTRI collaborated with Hong Kong Polytechnic University on eBooks for children education. ere are 4 projects altogether as part of a larger collaboration between AS- TRI and Hong Kong Polytechnic Univeristy: 1) A tough and durable “learning-to-read” eBook for children around 7 years old 2) A tough and durable generic subject eBook for grade 3 or 4 students 3) A very tough and durable science book for children around 11-12 years old6 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 5. 1 PROJECT BACK-GROUND MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 7
  • 6. PROJECT OBJECTI8 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 7. VE 2The project’s objective is to design a tough anddurable eBook for children 7 years of age thatallows children to learn to read. e workshop is designed to follow an iterative design process and have the students followthrough an entire design cycle. e workshop goes from understanding the design problem allthe way to creating a nal design. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 9
  • 8. 10 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 9. ESEARCH MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 11
  • 10. CO DE DE DE SE IN PE TE CO RS M SI SI SI GN GN GN PE RV ON N DA TI IE DI OB OP A TI W RY RE VE PO JE S& CT RE CT AN RT VI IO SE IV UN SI AL N ES AR TS YS IT AN CH IE S I S D CR IT ER IA Help the team understand the stakeholder’s activities Ensure that the direction was correct Refine the design and interactions Make sure the design’s usability and aesthetics are well done12 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 11. RESEARCHPROCESS 3The research process allows designers to start with avague and undetermined problem and re ningit to the nal product and interactions. rough the entire process, the design is re ned based on new ndings and insights. By testing ititeratively, the design had a chance to be improved step by step. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 13
  • 12. PERSONA Rationale A persona is a representation of a typical user that will use the system. It in- cludes various information, such as demographics, interests, and life style, etc. e reason to have a persona is to design for a speci c person and avoid de- signing features that will not be used by the target users. By having a concrete person in mind, the design team can be more focused and the design will be more grounded on real scenarios.14 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 13. 4 BrainstormingMDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 15
  • 14. OPUS’s Persona Sit Read aloud Parents Teachers Sleep Read whisper Friends Relatives Walk around Read quite Toys Alone WH HOW OLearn new knowlege On the bus For interesting W H EN W HY Walking Hierarch Eating Pleasure Working Engage Bed time Boring Peter Spare time 7 years old Weekend PERSONA W AT HE WH RE Textbook Fairy Home Park Words Pictures Toilet Class Cartoon Craftbook Library Bookstore Reading room HOBBY PERSONALITY PET PEEVE 16 Hong Kong Polytechnic University Love cartoon Friendly Doing homework Make friends Curious Being alone Play games
  • 15. WHO - Peter is a 7 years old who likes to readWHAT - He enjoys reading story books workshopWHERE- He mainly reads at home or in school, but he would like to have the option to read anywhereWHEN - He wants to read books that he likes during his free timeWHY - He enjoys reading and wants to share his knowledge with friendsHOW - He likes to read a traditional storybook, but sometimes he reads on the family computer too. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 17
  • 16. SECOND- ARY RESEARCH18 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 17. 5RationaleSecondary research includes research that others have done prior to this proj-ect. It includes resources like books, journals, internet articles, and more. Itis used to give the design team a basic understanding of the issues and whatprevious work can they leverage and what areas require primary research.With a basic understanding of issues regarding designing for children physi-cally, psychologically, and socially, the design team can be better prepared toexploring the details in the right areas. e secondary research gave the teama preliminary view of the design directions. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 19
  • 18. 20 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 19. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 21
  • 20. DESIGN DIRECTI22 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 21. 6Based on the secondary research, the ndings werecategorized into three categories: physical,psychological, and social.ON MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 23
  • 22. ere are a total of three design directions for the eBook. For the physical aspect, it was determined that children have very rich movement and the physical form of the eBook must accommodate for the children’s movements. Psychologically, there are many di erences between children and adults. e eBook will have to keep in mind of the persona and how he can bene t from the design of the eBook. For the social aspect, studies have shown that students learn much better among peers (reference required). Reading has raditionally been a private activity and little interaction is shared among the children. is project wants to leverage the improved learning based on com- munication and make reading a social experience. With these directions determined, the design can be more fo- cused and the initial ideas of what the eBook can be began to be shaped.24 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 23. DESIGN DIRECTION > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 25
  • 24. Encourage interaction between parents and children Encourage parents to read with children Use with different people and environments Encourage children to communicate in groups and share infomation L IA Encourage children to ask questions and SOC develop critical thinking Relate the content of the book to the DE children’s social world in reality DIRE Teach the children rules that should understand and follow Readi Help the child understand the book better O GY Re di a ng Easy to use, Pr oc or else the children won’t be ess motivated to use it Emot Make the process of reading feel like a journey Emotionally attached to the eBook Allow the children to be involved in what they are reading Use the children’s own Allow children to look up words views to ask questions they are interested in learning26 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 25. Accommodate the children’s rich movements Allow children to use both hands Maintain the child’s health while using the eBook P Low cost hardware --accessibility HY SIC Multi-channel feedback (e.g. sound, touch, visual)ESIGN AL Hardware is light, easy to carry,ECTION and durable to encourage face-to-face interactioning for Interest PS YCHO Show all options available to s er the children. Don’t hide any items. th O Allow the children to express themselves through the eBook cetional Experien Provide a means to explore new books Design the eBook to be suitable for Motivate children by providing an the child’s personality appropriate reading level and rewards Provide encouragements and assistance Keep the children consistently to children interacting with the eBook Show to the users that they are respected (including children users) MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 27
  • 26. 28 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 27. IDEAS >MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 29
  • 28. Encourage interaction between parents and children Encourage parents to read with children ID Use with different people and environments Encourage children to communicate Setup to obtain the personality and in groups and share infomation reading levelof the child to make the reading material more appropriate. Encourage children to ask questions and develop critical thinking Create a schedule that the children can follow Relate the content of the book to the to advance their reading. children’s social world in reality Teach the children rules that should Provide an avatar in the understand and follow eBook that can be a companion to the child and provide guidance Less information on one page. Clear and simple visual icons. Allow children to write their own stories to increase their involvement Help the child understand the book better Extra resources for children to learn more. E.g. an encyclopedia with images and sound built in Easy to use, or else the children won’t be motivated to use it Make the process of reading feel like a journey Emotionally attached to the eBook Allow the children to be involved in what they are reading Use the children’s own views to ask questions Allow children to look up words they are interested in learning30 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 29. Accommodate the children’s rich movements Allow childrenDEAS to use both hands Maintain the child’s health while using the eBook Provide different modes Low cost hardware that allow the eBook to be --accessibility used alone, with parents, with peers, or with teachers. Multi-channel feedback (e.g. sound, touch, visual) Create some accessories with the eBook that the children can interact with. Hardware is light, easy to carry, and durable to encourage face-to-face interaction Provide personalized plastic protective cover for durability and attractive- ness of the eBook. Contain speakers to talk to the children. Provide small games during loading. Show the loading progress and option to cancel. Show all options available to Provide a toolbox for children the children. Don’t hide any items. to express themselves through dairies, pictures, etc. Allow the children to express themselves through the eBook Provide a means to explore Design the eBook to new books be suitable for the child’s personality Motivate children by providing an appropriate reading level and rewards Provide encouragements and assistance to children Keep the children consistently interacting with the eBook Show to the users that they are respected (including children users) MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 31
  • 30. COMPET- ITIVE ANALYSIS 7 Rationale By understanding the existing competition for eBooks, it gives the team a view of which areas are ful lled and which area requires a better design solution.32 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 31. Matrix of Competitor Comparison ere were two main competitors identi ed for the project. e rst group is existing eBooks thatis mainly geared towards adults. e second group is the existing learn-to-read toys for children.It was identi ed that the eBooks can hold a high volume of content, but the fun factor is really low.On the opposite spectrum, the toys are fun to read and suitable for children, but parents must buya new toy in order to teach their children new content. e solution is an eBook for children thatis more fun to use than existing toys and has a high volume of content. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 33
  • 32. Advantages & Disadvantages e advantages and disadvantages of the existing eBooks were evaluated. is provides insight for opportunities and pitfalls that the current project should consider. + Light, thin, and portable (Kindle/Sony) + Usage with both hands (Kindle) + Provides highlighting and annotations (Sony) + Touch screen (Sony) + Large amount of books (K/S) + Books are never out of print (K/S) + Simulates real paper (K/S) + Large amount of content available (K) + Simple to use and add additional books(K) + Shop for new books anywhere (K) + Free wireless internet (limited to USA) (K) + Low book prices (K) + Supports PDF (S) + Front and back lights available (S) + Doesn’t need to be recharged o en (S)34 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 33. - Lack of touch screen (Kindle)- Opinion of many users that is it not attractive (Kindle)- Screen has refresh lag (1 second for each page turn).(Sony)- ebook is only “borrowed” (K)- ebooks cannot be read on computer (K)- Low resolution small screen (6 in)(S)- Cannot search book text(S)- Cannot jump to page(S) MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 35
  • 34. DESIGN OBJEC- TIVES & CRITERIA 836 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 35. Based on the previous research, wecreat the design criteria. > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 37
  • 36. th ers The eBook shall encourage interaction o with others because children i th learn better with peers. w on ati L nic IA mu SOC Improve com OBJEC &CRITE Improve English & habits by readin OLO GY e ing exper ienc The design of the eBook shall co provide motivation to38 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 37. Giv ec hil dr en The eBook shall give the children the ability to read an unlimited amount of content m at anytime, anywhere, P or and with anyone they chose. ep HY hys ica SIC l freeCTIVE AL dom to use it ERIA reading skillng for pleasure PS YC Ple asan t reaonsider children’s emotion, read, easy to use MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 39
  • 38. DESIGN OPPORT Current issues were identi ed and design opportunities were suggested based on the speci c is- sue. Any new issues that can be created by the new design opportunity are also explored to avoid creating a new problem when solving an existing one. is allowed the team to understand what the user lacks in the present and design an eBook with an improved experience. 1 Provide Freedom 2 Pleasant Reading Experience 3 Communicate with Others40 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 39. UNITIES 9 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 41
  • 40. Provide Freedom --Give children more physical freedom to use it CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES Can only read and write on the book --Provide di erent interactions on the eBook eBook issues to be addressed: Accessory can be lost Shortage of battery Each book only contains one story --Store various books on the book eBook issues to be addressed: Small screen space Tired to read---- make sure they don’t read too much Can’t modify the physical book --Allow children to manipulate content of the eBook eBook issues to be addressed: Durable physical form42 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 41. CURRENT SCENARIO NEW SCENARIO 1 Peter had an interesting class about dinosaurs in the morning. He found the topic really interesting and wanted to nd out more with his best friend Steve. 2He had lunch with Steve and they wanted toread about dinosaurs together, but they don’thave access to any books about dino- 2saurs. ...so Peter took out his eBook and they read about dinosaurs and learned the names of a dozen of dinosaurs together by the end of lunch. 3So they played hide and seek instead. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 43
  • 42. Pleasant Reading Experience --Consider children’s emotion, provide motivation to read, easy to use CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES e avatar’s emotion will signify when the children should read. Two avatars can act as the ‘angel’ and ‘devil’ exemplars. Help create plan habitually. Assists in re ection of the book. Encourage children to ask questions. • Make the text for the bottom text smaller and emphasize the “Avatar can help” instead? We didn’t really use avatar in the nal design • For the Current and New scenarios, can we do something similar to the above? E.g. arrows that points sideways to the other side of the ap, and identify “current scenario” and “new scenario” beside the arrow? eBook issues to be addressed: Avatar should not be intrusive. Must be easy to use.44 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 43. Can’t nd answers to their questions--Built-in encyclopedia and dictionary can help nd the answer.Bored with the content--Switch from text to pictures or animations eBook issues to be addressed: Make sure that children still read -- text follow the pictures and cartoon.Passively absorbing the content--Create stories using pictures and the eBook turned it into text. At the end, there is a game for Peter to see if he learned what was in his story. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 45
  • 44. 1 A er school, Peter is deciding if he should watch television, play games or read. 2 He decides that he wants to start reading Harry Potter because his friend said it’s interesting. However, there are too much text and too di cult for him.46 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 45. 3 So he gave up and went to watch TV. CURRENT SCENARIO NEW SCENARIO 3He picked up his eBook and sees what his avatar, Jerry, has in store for him.--Jerry reminded Peter that he planned to read Harry Potter today, so Peter started reading it with Jerry.--Jerry asked questions throughout the story and looked up answers in the encyclopedia with Peter.He turned the book into an animation that reads the story with him. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 47
  • 46. Communicate with others --Encourage interaction with others because studies have shown that children learn better with peers CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES Di cult to nd friends to read together --Provide a list to show friends that are available to read Display of book(s) that friends want to read eBook issues to be addressed: Make sure that they are reading and not chatting Di cult to nd a book to read --A list of books that friends recommends Di erent stage and speed of reading between children --Provide mini-reading-games around 10-15 min about previous reading while the faster friend waits48 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 47. Can’t nd answers to the questions--Encourage asking friends or group discussions through eBookCan’t share book with too many people--Provide a remote control to allow more children to view it. Each children has one eBook and they read the same story together remotely. Can’t communicate with friends in small screen --Connect eBook into one big screen MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 49
  • 48. 1 Later that day, Peter found a book about dinosaurs and wanted to go nd Steve to read. 2 But his mom thinks it’s too late.50 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 49. CURRENT SCENARIO 3 So Peter stayed home and read a book about dinosaurs alone. 3...So Peter went on his eBook to see if Steve was available to readwith him. He saw that Steve was free and also wanted to read dinosaurs, so he contacted Steve and they read dinosaurs together. NEW SCENARIO MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 51
  • 50. VISITS & INTER- VIEWS Rationale ere were 4 visits altogether. e interviews and visits provided the chance for the team to observe the be- havior and perspectives of the children and teachers. Being able to talk with the users and experts gave a lot of insights. e primary research and feed- back provided by the students and teachers greatly improved the design by allowing the design team to make informed decisions. e visits are done throughout the entire design process and provided more insghts during the design iterations.52 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 51. 10MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 53
  • 52. First visit Methodology e rst visit was a home visit to a family and the team had the chance to interview a girl and her parents about her reading habits and daily life. is provided a chance for the team to look at the artifacts, understand her reading level, capabilities of a child around 7 years old, and see the interests of the child. During the rst visit, the child’s home life was understood. e child’s life was very busy and she had many choices of what to learn. She showed that she was very excited in reading, which pro- vided some more input to the persona as a child who is intrinsically interested in reading.54 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 53. Second visit Methodology e second visit was at the school. e team prepared questions for the stu-dents and requested that the children draw how their dream eBook wouldlook. e teachers were also interviewed separately to understand how theymotivate children to learn and what materials are being taught in class.It was obvious that the children are excited by technology, as demonstratedby their usage of the rst generation eBooks from ASTRI. ey are also verycreative and comfortable with advanced technology such as portable gameconsoles. is gave the design team con dence that more advanced technol-ogy could be used and children are capable of learning complex interactivedesigns. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 55
  • 54. Insights 1 A lot of pictures in textbooks 2 All their books are di erent sizes 3 Love using their existing eBook 4 Familiar with portable game consoles56 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 55. Solutions1 Same amount of pictures and text ratio in reading2 Doesn’t need to follow standard A4 sizes3 Acceptance of technology with learning4 Can design more complex interactions MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 57
  • 56. 58 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 57. Third visit MethodologyBy the third visit, the paper prototypes and a foam model of the physical pro-totype were tested. e bene t of using a low delity prototype is to test the interaction modeland not be concerned with the aesthetics at the moment. Once the interac-tion model of the eBook is con rmed, the team can go onto creating moredetailed designs. During the usability test, we tested to see how they wouldinteract with the eBook and if they would be able to operate and understandthe concepts. e children were tested in pairs of two to encourage more communicationbetween each other, since children have the tendency to be shy and not thinkaloud during a usability test. To test both the physical prototype and work owat the same time, the paper prototype was slotted into a clear lm attached tothe physical prototype. When the children touches the screen, the facilitatorwould manually remove the appropriate screens, so that the proper screenwould be showing a er every action performed by the children. e interac-tion model was the main area of focus during this visit. By testing the paperprototype with the physical prototype, the design team can observe how thechildren would hold onto the eBook during usage and if that changes over-time due to fatigue or other unanticipated reasons. e children were very capable in understanding the work ow. ey werealso highly intrigued by the game portion of the eBook. Having seen that, itwas important for the eBook to encourage the children to learn new material rst before they go onto the games and test their knowledge. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 59
  • 58. Insights 1 Reading is private activity, children share their thoughts. 2 No concept of looking up dictionary. 3 More pro cient in Chinese 4 Ask parents if they have questions. 5 Focus on games60 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 59. Solutions1 Discuss after nish reading2 Link words to pictures directly3 Chinese in UI and explanations4 Keep allowing children to ask questions at the end5 Remove game from homepage MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 61
  • 60. Fourth visit is was the nal visit and the work ow and features were fairly stable. From this visit, we understood that children do not understand tabs, and it would help if items that they see on one screen are persisted to the next one. While the overall work ow was understood, they children did not understand how some of the features were represented and required some explanation before they can continue on their tasks. Methodology In the fourth visit, a high delity prototype was created and a more re ned physical form was also available. e high delity prototype provided insight to the usability of the design and how children understood the controls used. Once again, the children were tested in pairs and they walked through a Flash prototype by completing some prede ned tasks. e main focus of this visit was about the interface design and ease of use.62 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 61. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 63
  • 62. Insights Didn’t understand why there is a book 1 beside friend Not interested in friend’s reading 2 progress 3 Directly to games after reading 4 Hold eBook from bottom corners 5 Children pro cient in using pens 6 Didn’t understand tabs Didn’t understand ask parents later Didn’t understand “calling” feature Only understood next and previous arrows Con rmed all children understood reading aloud Put eBook on lap or table while reading 12 Smaller sizes did not a ect task64 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 63. Solutions1 Allow children to select books together Removed progress, but can talk and share2 notes anytime Automatically allow children to discuss book3 before allowing them to play games Made bottom corners larger. Earphones on4 the bottom to avoid cables tangling5 Provide pen to take notes and draw during reading6 Go to Home for navigate Simplify wording to “ask questions” Simplify metaphor to knocking for communication Removed pagination Keep reading aloud Earphone is indented12 Selected smaller size for physical freedom MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 65
  • 64. 66 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 65. ESIGN MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 67
  • 66. 1168 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 67. SCE-NARIOSRationaleScenarios provide an easy method to describe the eBook’s context of use. ese are high level scenarios that provide the context but not the actual us-age of the eBook. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 69
  • 68. Peter goes home a er school. ere are many activities that he could do and it is hard to choose.70 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 69. He decides to read with Steve, his best friend. ey read astory together and discussed it. ey played some games thatare related to the story and had lots of fun. e children im-proved their eading skills just by having fun and enjoyingthemselves. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 71
  • 70. BRAIN- STORM & SKETCH 1 Rationale 2 Re nement of Sketches72 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 71. ES 12 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 73
  • 72. 74 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 73. Rationale e brainstorming process provides a chance to generate design ideas. By goingthrough the brainstorming process, it provides a chance for creative ideas to beborn and those ideas can be re ned a er the braining storming session. e sketches were a rough and quick means for the team to contemplate aboutpossible physical forms. Given the roughness and amount that was generated, theteam can openly critique all of the designs and improve those with potential.Brainstorming sessions happened throughout the entire design process withmore general brainstorms in the beginning and more detailed idea generation atthe end. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 75
  • 74. Re nement of Sketches76 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 75. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 77
  • 76. 13 TASK ANALY- SIS Rationale e task analysis involves steps that the user will have to take before reading, during reading, and a er reading. By understanding all the steps and decisions that a user have to take to nish the task makes the design more grounded based on the user’s behavior.78 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 77. Current • Children may read alone or with di erent companions • Books may be misplaced or not available and the child cannot read the book • Reading process is linear and rigid • Questions may not be answeredEnvisioned• Simpli ed process of nding a book• e children can decide on how to reading• Children can read at a comfortable pace while still sharing their experience with a friend• Simple access to answers to understand content better > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 79
  • 78. 80 De to cid Re re e N Ho Pr ob bo ld a ad de d o le Y ok on vi n m Y to ce s? Re ? N Fo Re un coad c boad d bonfir ove ok a an sw ok m c r to ? er is or Y ? re reHong Kong Polytechnic University tri ct N Op ev en ed St o bo W W re p ok i i Al ad Ob fri th adth on i Co en ul e? ng un tain d ? ts ? ? Y Y Y re ntin a di der an un din ue c s s W W W Y pa tio tan we i de g w rs it re na d b r a i Al o Fin Fin a fri th adth N ta h nt ry, o nd en ne to d fr to d p b o lk t nd ou s, as ok d ul ts ? re ien re ar ok o Y Y Y in t in k ( ? ? ad d ad en sh g te in by rn g t el Ad et Kn f (o d b .e sit Si tc to t in ow Di Pa Th pt oo io k ) g to g th w s r Re et et e ha bo cus a ben boink N na m he he bo t ok s w l) ark r oot ch ok ab anad n d ex Pa r Sc ok is to hi k o to out lo t Re an re ch os re w ok pa ad to ren bo ad es ad hi clo at ge to ch t re ok thr ch se g et ild ad s ou gh bo he Br r Y ok Di ow sc co s us nt e sb en Pu oo t ba t b k De Fo ck o o to cid to und on k re e w re b to ad h ad o o sh (if ich ? k N el Re f an ad ap ch pl ap Fin Y Fin d ne ica te lo xt bl r an d ish ok p e) ot ed at ag he re e rb ad oo ing Ge k tb oo k Current Reading Process Before R During R After Re
  • 79. eading Reading Reading De Pr ob to cid le re e m Y ad s? Ge N Us te Bo re e eB ok so o St ur ok ar ce ’’s te s Bo W W New Reading Process ok Fo i i Al un fri th adth o ne d en ul ? d Y Y Y an ? ts sw ? Y er St o ? W W re p Pr i i Al N ad Di e fri th adth on f N i Si ng spfere t to st vie en d ul e? ? g or w ? ts y ? Y ee nt et d? he Co r Se Y Ob Re Fin re ntin m N a un tain to d p to lect ot re st Y un din ue de a Au re ar Us el ad en ad or de g w d e t y Y rs nsw y? rs it io N ta e ta h nd r ? to eBo Y Y nd ou bo and Fa ge ok in t st th Se Pa eB g ok pl er c er fri arch a sren ay hi eB en f N paook to t se ge bo s g ld o d( or r y le o am to ok s) ct km Re es ch rea s ild d ar ks ad s Ag ne boree xt Co Pa St ok on Tu pa n a r n ge re tin to ren aprt fr to a of ad ue ch t re pr om re fe ild ad op ad Bo to s ge ria ok t he te r se ct io Fin Re n i sh ad Process ed ne St re xt ar a tr di pa ea ng ge d in g QuestionMDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook81
  • 80. Rationale e interaction model describes the relationship between di erent aspects of the eBook. By examining the relationship between them, the interaction that has to happen becomes apparent and clear. Evolution of Interaction Models On the nal interaction model, the children are having their individual experi- ence that mirrors each other until they start reading. Once they begin reading, they share their experience of the same content and they get to exchange notes and thought with each other in the process to improve each other’s experience.82 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 81. 14INTER-ACTION MODEL > MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 83
  • 82. Encourage & reminds Stores Interacts with ebook Distance Goes on Read & Share Allow users to communicate Distance Goes on Interacts with ebook Encourage & reminds Stores84 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 83. Storesn Interacts withn Stores MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 85
  • 84. 15 INFOR- MATION ARCHI- TECTURE86 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 85. Rationale e information architecture provides a holistic view of what the eBook in-volves. All features are listed out in their hierarchical order. By seeing how theeBook is organized, it gives a better sense of what the children can do on theeBook. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 87
  • 86. Save Notes Send Notes Finished reading Avatar Grant Award Discussion Settings Skins Internet Friends’ My Awards Awards Awards News88 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 87. Take Notes Read Talk with Friend Read Wait Together All Books* Friends Recommend Call Friend Added Books Select Friend Recommend &Questions My Books Select Book HOME My My Report Word Bank My ExercisesGames Exercises My Games Optional Steps MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 89
  • 88. 90 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 89. PUSMDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 91
  • 90. 92 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 91. 16FINALDESIGN MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 93
  • 92. Interface e interface creates a simple and interactive means for the children to learn to read. During the interviews, it was apparent that the students are comfort- able with using a pen while interacting with a digital device. erefore OPUS uses a pen that allows drag and drop on many of the features. e interface also wants to create a sense of discovery for the children, therefore the infor- mation does not show up until the children ‘discovers’ it. On demand and in context assistance provides the least interruption to the children’s reading experience. If they don’t understand the content or don’t know how to pronounce a word, they can nd on without leaving the context of what they are currently reading. ey can also write and exchange notes at any point during their reading.94 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 93. 8:30 PM Doraemon and I take plane to make a snow man. We play baseball and read a book together. 8:30 PM 8:30 PMToday wants to to M cdou 8:30 PM MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 95
  • 94. 96 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 95. The games focus on testing if the childrenunderstood the content.1) Examines if the children remembered the content2) Examines if the children can apply the content3) Examines if the children can use the content in a new contextOnce the children understand the content, their reading level is automaticallyadjusted and more challenging material will be provided in the future. e actual appearance of the interface is customizable by the children to in-crease their sense of attachment to the OPUS. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 97
  • 96. Physical Form e corners of the form is larger and rounded because the usability tests found that is where children tends to hold the eBook. e rubber around the edges makes the eBook more tough and durable as well as provides a more aesthetically pleasing appearance.98 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 97. TechnologyWi-Fi3GMulti-touch screenStylusWebcamMicrophoneSpeakersEarphone outletsUSB connection MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 99
  • 98. 19 REFER- ENCE104 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 99. [1] Click and Jane---What are kids learning to read when they learn to read online?Virginia He ernanNew York Times Magazine; Feb 1, 2009; Alumni - Research Librarypg. 13[2] Defending Young Children’s Play as the Ladder to LiteracyCharles H. WolfgangTobie S. Sanders[3] Learning to read words (EPS Prize Lecture)Kate Nation, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK e Quarterly Journal of Experiemental Psychology, Psychology Press[4] Promoting Reading: Using eBooks With Gi ed and Advanced ReadersChristine L Weber; Terence W CavanaughGi ed Child Today; Fall 2006; 29, 4; Alumni - Research Librarypg. 56[5] PUBLISHING; eBooks catching on with children; Undaunted by technology,young readers are embracing digital storytelling.Alana Semuels. Los Angeles Times.Los Angeles, Calif.: Dec 25. 2008. pg. C. 1[6] e Dimensions of Reading Attitudes for Turkish ChildrenAnn W. Engin & Fred H. WallbrownUniversity of South Carolina and Kent State University e Journal of Social Psychology, 1983, 120, 169-181.[7] e e cacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergentstory understandingMaria T. De Jong & Adriana G. BusLeiden University, Leiden, the NetherlandsReading Research Quarterly. Vol. 39, No. 4. October/November/December 2004 MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 105
  • 100. 20 APPENDIX DESIGN 10 Vists and interviews / Low delity interface106 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 101. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 107
  • 102. 108 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 103. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 109
  • 104. 110 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 105. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 111
  • 106. DESIGN 14 Interaction Model / Original Interaction Model 1. Provide Freedom -- Give children more physical freedom to use it112 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 107. 2. Pleansant Experience-- Provide pleasant reading experience MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 113
  • 108. 3. Communicate with friends -- Improve communication with others114 Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 109. OPUS 16 Final Design / Physcial Form Original Physical FormMDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook 115
  • 110. 2009 . 10 - 2010. 22009.10-2010.1

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