PRESENTATION ON :
SUBMITTED BY :RAJEEV KUMAR MANDAL
ROLL NO. :- 11001184098
(B.TECH), 3rd year
3.THEORIES OF OPERATIONS OF TURBINES
4.CLASSIFICATIONS OF TURBINES
1.INTRODUCTION:The device in which the kinetic ,potential or
intermolecular energy held by the fluid is
converted in the form of mechanical energy
of a rotating member is known as a turbine .
Also , defined as all machines in which hydraulic energy
is transferred into mechanical energy (in the form of
rotating shaft ) ,or in some other moving parts are
known as ‘turbines’ or hydraulic motors.
Some historical facts
The first „turbine” was made by
Hero of Alexandria in the second
In the end of XVIII century the
Industrial Revolution began (in
1770 first reciprocating piston
steam engine invented by Thomas
Newcomen and invented by James
Watt started its work).
The first steam turbines were
constructed in 1883 by Dr Gustaf
de Laval and in 1884 by sir Charles
In1896 Charles Curtis received a
patent on impulse turbine
In 1910 was created radial turbine .
2.TURBINE:.A simple design of a turbine contain as rotor
assembly, which is the moving part, having shaft
or drums with blades attached to them. The
movement of the blades, which is caused by
the flow of fluids, creates rotational energy
which is imparted to the rotor. Some example of
turbine impulse , Reaction etc.
2.Theories of operations of turbines
A flowing or working fluid contains kinetic as well as
potential energy and the fluid may be compressible as well as
incompressible. The energy of these fluids is trapped by
turbines in several ways.
Impulse turbines- The impulse generated by
changing the direction of flow of high velocity fluid
or gas jet is used to spin the turbine. This leaves
the fluid flow with a decreased amount of kinetic
energy. The fluid or gases in the turbine blades
have no pressure change and the entire pressure
drop takes place in the stationery blades. The fluid
is accelerated using a nozzle, which changes its
pressure head to velocity head. This is done before
Reaction turbines- A torque is developed
in these turbines when they react to the gas
or the fluid pressure or the mass. When the
gas or fluid passes through the turbine rotor
blades, the pressures in the system changes.
The turbine must be fully immersed in the
flowing fluid and the pressure casement is
also provided for a working fluid. The primary
function of the working fluid is to contain and
direct the working fluid. It also maintains the
functions imparted by the draft tubes in water
turbines. This concept is used in most steam
turbines including the Francis turbine.
Cross-flow turbine:Also known as BankiMichell turbine, or
type of impulse
modified form of the
type of widely used
variation of the
For generation of electricity in thermal
power plants, steam turbines are used
Coal fuel oil or nuclear power provides
the primary source of energy. In initial
times, the steam turbines were used as
Classification of steam turbines
A . Inlet steam pressure:high pressure (p>6.5MPa)
B . Intermediate:pressure(2.5MPa<p<6.5MPa)
C . Low-pressure:(p<2.5MPa)
Advantages of turbines
Large power achieved by relatively
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