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Gps in protection scheme

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Gps in protection scheme

1. 1. GPS (Global Positioning System) and its application in protection scheme Submitted by: J Shanthan Balaji Reddy (10QA1A0248)
2. 2. OVER VIEW INTRODUCTION TRANSMISSIUON SYSTEM FAULT LOCATION TRAVELING WAVE FAULT THEORY FAULT LOCATION USING GPS ADVANTAGES CONCLUSION
3. 3. INTRODUCTION  A new technique for the protection of systems. transmission  Relays are installed at each bus bar in a transmission network.  Relay contains a fault detection system together with a communication unit.  Relay determine the location of the fault.
4. 4. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM GENERATION TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTION
5. 5. LOCATION OF FAULT Save time and resources for the electric utility industry. Determine “distance to fault” from a transmission line end. Aid in fast restoration of power. Communication systems can retrieve fault location information.
6. 6. WHAT IS TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION? Faults on the power transmission system cause transients that propagate along the transmission line as waves. These waves have a propagation velocity & characteristic impedance , travel from fault location towards line ends
7. 7. The location of faults is accomplished by precisely time-tagging wave fronts as they cross a known point typically in substations at line ends. Fault location can then be obtained by multiplying the wave velocity by the time difference in line ends.
8. 8. TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION THEORY Traveling wave fault locators make use of the transient signals generated by the fault. Unlike other fault location systems, the traveling wave fault locator is unaffected by load conditions. Precisely synchronized clocks are the key element in the implementation of this fault location technique. The required level of clock accuracy has only recently been available at reasonable cost with the introduction of the Global Positioning System.
9. 9. BENEFITS OF TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION Early fault locators used radar.  Radar equipment is typically mobile or located at substations and requires manual operation.  Traveling wave fault locators are becoming popular where higher accuracy is important.  GPS-based sub microsecond timing system has proven reliable in several utility traveling wave projects.
10. 10. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAULT
11. 11. FAULT LOCATION USING GPS Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit. Originally intended for military applications Allows precise determination of location, velocity, direction and time.
12. 12. HOW GPS WORKS? GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day .  Transmit signal information to earth. Receivers take this information and calculate the user's exact location.  Accurate 3-D location require four satellites.
13. 13. OPERATION OF THE FAULT LOCATION SYSTEM(FLS) USING GPS A fault locator remote is coupled to each end of line via CPT. FL is synchronized to the common timing standard of UTC from GPS. Fault resulting produces travelling waves(transients). The FL remote time tag the transient arrival times.
14. 14. By knowing the line length L and the time-of –arrival difference (tb - ta ) distance X can be calculated from the FL equation: X=[L-C(tb - ta )]/2 ta & tb are end A and end B arrival time c-velocity of light
15. 15. ADVANTAGES Protection of transmission line using GPS is extremely accurate. Economical. Fast response. Reliability & availability
16. 16. CONCLUSION  Uses a dedicated fault detector to extract transient signal and GPS system to time tag these signals.  Travelling time of the transient signal from the point of fault to the adjacent substation is used to determine the fault position.  Proposed technique is able to offer a high accuracy in fault location.  Unlike traditional protection schemes , this technique offers a new concept in network protection.
17. 17. REFERENCES  Zhiqian Q Bo Weller, Tom Lomas and Miles A, Redfern “Positional Protection of Transmission system Using global Positioning System” IEEE Trans. On Power delivery, vol15 no 4 oct 2008  http://www.howstuffworks.com/gps  http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/gps
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