collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for     looking at new ideas in this process. New ideas of as...

creation and knowledge embedding on software process
capability”, Ravichandran T. and Rai A. (2003); IEEE
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Sliit Research Symposium 2008 Shanta R Yapa & Prof Ilkka Kauranen Formatted


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This article describes how the Capability Maturity Model Integration can be supplemented by a new innovation model in promoting innovations within organizations

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Sliit Research Symposium 2008 Shanta R Yapa & Prof Ilkka Kauranen Formatted

  1. 1. > FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) < 1 Striking the Right Balance between Process Efficiency and Innovativeness; Supplementing Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMi) with a Novel Innovation Process Model Shanta R Yapa (Doctoral Candidate), Ilkka Kauranen Ph D Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand The Capability Maturity Model Integration is increasingly used in the software industry to successfully improve process efficiency. However, striking the right balance between process efficiency and innovativeness still remains to be a major challenge. This article shows how innovativeness can be enhanced in the CMMi environment. The CMMi is supplemented with a novel innovation process model. Two of the process areas of the CMMi model are discussed. Index Terms- Capability Maturity Models, Innovation process, Software I.INTRODUCTION striking the right balance between process efficiency and C innovativeness by supplementing CMMi with a novel apability Maturity Model Integration (CMMi) allows Innovation Process Model. Two of the CMMi process areas software firms to institutionalize best practices for process are discussed. efficiency. In implementation of such a model, all process areas of operation are studied in detail. In order to ensure Reaching process efficiency and innovativeness parallel is a continuous improvement, the same processes are studied again well-known challenge for the management of all as and when appropriate. Process efficiency improvement has organizations. A delicate balancing act between play and become an important paradigm for managing software discipline, ad hoc practices and established processes, development [1]. The CMMi model helps software firms to creativity and efficiency is required for high levels of ensure efficiency of all software processes. innovativeness [3]. Innovations are widely accepted as one of the most CMMi covers a wider scope of activities in an organization important factors for organizations in sustaining their and promoting innovativeness is not the main aim of the competitiveness [2]. Managing the innovation process within model. It is expected that this model leaves room for increased firms from idea generation to successful commercialization innovativeness if the model is supplemented with a model that demands a comprehensive understanding of the various stages specifically aims at enhancing innovativeness. The question of the process, determinants and best practices of successful whether organizations implementing CMMI are more organizations. The software industry is no exception to these innovative than other organizations is not discussed in this requirements. Since a flexible environment encourages article. innovations more than a controlled environment, the management should decide on the degree of control imposed on various processes of the organization. II. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMi) It has become a dynamic challenge for organizations to CMMi for development is a collection of best practices that maintain a balance between innovativeness and efficiency as emphasizes the work necessary to build and maintain the total organizations continue to grow and develop, with most product or service in its lifecycle from conception through companies tending to oscillate between innovativeness and delivery and maintenance. It can be implemented as a efficiency enhancing modes [3]. The CMMi model makes a continuous representation or a staged representation. Under software firm to build well established, documented, and the staged representation there are five maturity levels: communicated processes and practices. It also requires that all employees adhere to these processes and practices. In order 1. Initial to exploit the well defined processes and practices in 2. Managed promoting innovations the managers and key people involved 3. Defined in software projects should have a thorough understanding of 4. Quantitatively managed the innovation process to trigger innovation opportunities and 5. Optimizing facilitate them from idea to commercialization. The CMMi Version 1.2 of 2006 defines a process area as a cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented The objective of the present article is to help firms in
  2. 2. 2 collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for looking at new ideas in this process. New ideas of assembling, making improvement in that area. There are 22 process areas use of alternate components and reusable components need to classified under the following 4 categories: (1) project be evaluated for technical feasibility and commercial viability. management, (2) process management, (3) engineering and (4) As shown in the five stage model ideation is followed by support in CMMi. synthesizing where the new idea is mixed, compared, evaluated with existing and available technologies before III. A five stage Innovation Process Model leveraging is done. Leveraging involves evaluation of the synthesized idea for its commercial viability. This includes resource availability, affordability, pricing, profitability, Managing innovations has been accepted as an important payback etc. and challenging activity in today’s business firms. However, lack of understanding of the innovation process and the The two last stages of the five stage model, namely complexity of available models tend practicing managers to application and modification, are equally important in each consider innovations as accidental, the process a black box successive phase of building prototypes. Prototypes (virtual, and their interference a gambling [4]. rapid, or physical) are constructed, evaluated, improved, and reconstructed based on knowledge gained in the evaluation Recently a novel innovation model has been developed so process. As the CMMi model suggests, for software firms that practicing managers could make use of the model in there is great potential for innovations to follow the iterative promoting innovations. This model is based on extensive steps of constructing, evaluating, improving and insight into best practices in software industry as well as on reconstructing. Such innovations can bring results if managed existing innovation models, including technology push properly understanding the various stages of the process. models, market pull models, the coupling theory, interactive models, and stage gate theory. As part of ongoing testing of “The degree of virtual versus physical prototyping required this novel model, the merits of the model in supplementing depends on the functionality of the design tools, the CMMi are analyzed in this present article. complexity of the product, and its associated risk. There is a high probability that the product, integrated in this manner, In the innovation model, the process of innovation is will pass product verification and validation. For some disintegrated into several meaningful stages namely products and services, the last integration phase will occur Imagination (or Ideation), Synthesizing, Leveraging, when they are deployed at the intended operational site” [5]. Application and Modification. Imagination requires seamless The five stage innovation process model also emphasizes the and free thinking that is not constrained by boundaries of need of feedback and modifications as the last stage of the existing knowledge, work practices and mindsets. innovation process. The product integration process in the Synthesizing is the process of using existing knowledge in the CMMi model thus gives software firms an enormous industry to make use of the concept developed in stage one. opportunity provided that they consciously address the first Leveraging is the specific use of the new concept now step of the innovation process model namely ideation. If no synthesized with existing knowledge and resource availability new idea is fed the likely result in the end is the planned of the firm. Once the specific use is identified, the new outcome. Product and process innovations necessarily begin concept can be applied. This may include laboratory testing, with new ideas. trial delivery, prototyping or commercial production using the new process or product technology. Through continuous The Reusable Repository generally prepared by most feedback the necessary modifications can be done. CMMi certified software firms can be of immense value as a quick guide for ideas in input alternatives in commencing the IV. Process areas selected product integration process. Only two process areas have been selected for the B. Requirement Development discussion in this present article, namely product integration and requirements development. Three types of requirements namely customer requirements, product requirements and product component requirements A. Product Integration which address various needs of relevant stakeholders are described in this process which comes under Maturity level 2 Product integration is not necessarily a one off assembly of and under the category of engineering. The requirements may fabricated components according to the finalized design. It can include those pertinent to various product lifecycle phases also be an iterative process where components are assembled (such as acceptance testing criteria), product attributes (safety, and evaluated and the process repeated so that more reliability, maintainability etc), and also constraints caused by components are assembled and evaluated incrementally. This the selection of design solutions (such as integration of process may commence with analyses and simulations (e.g., commercial off-the-shelf products). threads, rapid prototypes, virtual prototypes, and physical prototypes) and steadily progress through increasingly more All development projects have requirements. Requirements realistic incremental functionality until the final product is are the basis for design. Idea generation, synthesizing and achieved [5]. Software firms can promote innovations by
  3. 3. > FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) < 3 leveraging can help to come up with a better design by technically feasible and commercially viable. To know when evaluating alternatives. The development of requirements as to leave hierarchy out of the process and when to bring it back mentioned in the CMMi (2006) includes the following again [3] is a typical challenge faced by an organization with activities: established practices and the innovation model introduced can certainly help the managers to make right decisions in this  Elicitation, analysis, validation, regard. and communication of customer needs, expectations, and Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMi) emphasizes constraints to obtain customer resource mobilization, technical evaluation of suggestions, requirements that constitute an prototyping, feedback and modifications in most of the understanding of what will satisfy processes. The entry criterion, inputs, outputs and exit are also stakeholders defined. In certain processes, such as Organizational  Collection and coordination of Innovation and Deployment, the necessity of promoting new stakeholder needs ideas is highlighted. Relaxing the established procedures and  Development of the lifecycle thereby shifting from controls to flexibility in order to requirements of the product encourage innovations is a challenge to the managers. The  Establishment of the customer proposed innovation model would give practicing software requirements engineers and managers a clear cut idea of the innovation  Establishment of initial product process that would supplement CMMi to promote and product component innovativeness in the industry. requirements consistent with customer requirements Appendix 1 The five stage innovation process model can assist software Process Area Category Maturity Level teams in elicitation, analysis and validation. Two regularly cited objectives of software process innovations are reducing Causal Analysis & Resolution Support 5 Configuration Management Support 2 development costs through improved developer productivity Decision Analysis & Support 3 and improving end user satisfaction with the resulting Resolution software by reducing software defects [6]. Throughout the Integrated Project Project Management 3 phases of the product lifecycle the requirements are identified Management Measurement & Analysis Support 2 and refined. Design decisions, subsequent corrective actions, Organizational Innovation & Process Management 5 and feedback during each phase of the product’s lifecycle are Deployment analyzed for impact on derived and allocated requirements. In Organizational Process Process Management 3 the case of an iterative product lifecycle the use of the Definition Organizational Process Focus Process Management 3 proposed five stage model will enable the software teams to Organizational Process Process Management 4 come up with innovative solutions in iterations. Performance Organizational Training Process Management 3 Product Integration Engineering 3 V. Conclusion Project Monitoring & Project Management 2 Controlling Project Planning Project Management 2 A CMMi certified organization is well set to promote Process & Product Quality Support 2 innovations as the vital processes are identified, documented Assurance and implemented replicating best practices. Triggering Quantitative Project Project Management 4 innovation in such an environment is relatively easy. A proper Management Requirements Development Engineering 3 understanding of the innovation process covering the various Requirements Management Engineering 2 stages of the process and the determinants at each stage would Risk Management Project Management 3 help practicing mangers to promote innovations with Supplier Agreement Project Management 2 confidence. Management Technical solution Engineering 3 Validation Engineering 3 A major input through the proposed innovation model is the Verification Engineering 3 importance placed on imagination or ideation as the first step of the process which invites continuous input changes. An established process would ensure the anticipated outcome, be The Process Areas under CMMi it a tangible product or a service with minimum deviations. In (Source: CMMi Version 1.2, 2006) order to have improved and novel products from such a system, a conscious effort in changing the inputs is necessary. Innovation in a way is changing factor prepositions for References creating better value. Knowing the process would certainly help managers to promote innovativeness easily in an [1] “Structural analysis of the impact of knowledge environment which is conducive to nurture new ideas that are
  4. 4. 4 creation and knowledge embedding on software process capability”, Ravichandran T. and Rai A. (2003); IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 50 (3) pp 270– 284. [2] “Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change”, Tidd, J., Bessant, J., Pavitt, K., (2002); second ed. Wiley, Chichester. [3] “A leader’s guide to create an innovation culture, Startegy & Leadership”, Leavy Brian (2005); Vol 33 No 4 pp 38-45, Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, ISSN 1087-8572 [4] “Innovate to Get Ahead in Turbulent Times”, Yapa Shanta Rajapaksha (2008); Convention Volume, 20th Annual Convention, Association of Professional Bankers of Sri Lanka, September 12, 2008;ISBN 978-955-1095-05-5, pp 271-292. [5] CMMI for Development Version 1.2, CMMI Product Team (2006); Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University [6] “A business case for software process improvement revised”, McGibbon T (1999); DACS State-of-the-Art Report, Rome Laboratory, September 1999, http://www.dacs.dtic.mil/techs/roispi2.