2. DEFINITION A pallet , sometimes inaccurately called a skid (a skid has no bottom deck boards), is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader or other jacking device. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies. Goods or shipping containers are often placed on a pallet secured with strapping, stretch wrap or shrink wrap and shipped. While most pallets are wooden, pallets also are made of plastic, metal, and paper. Each material has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others
3. Containerization Containerization for transport has spurred the use of pallets because the shipping containers have the smooth, level surfaces needed for easy pallet movement. Most pallets can easily carry a load of 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). Today, over half a billion pallets are made each year and about two billion pallets are in use across the United States alone. Pallets make it easier to move heavy stacks. Loads with pallets under them can be hauled by forklift trucks of different sizes, or even by hand-pumped and hand-drawn pallet jacks. Movement is easy on a wide, strong, flat floor: concrete is excellent. The greatest investment needed for economical pallet use is in the construction of commercial or industrial buildings. Passage through doors and buildings must be possible. To help this issue, some later pallet standards (the euro pallet and the U.S. Military 35 in × 45.5 in/889 mm × 1,156 mm) are designed to pass through standard doorways. Organizations using standard pallets for loading and unloading can have much lower costs for handling and storage, with faster material movement than businesses that do not. The exceptions are establishments that move small items such as jewelry or large items such as cars. But even they can be improved. For instance, the distributors of costume jewelry normally use pallets in their warehouses and car manufacturers use pallets to move components and spare parts.
4. Standardization and regulation Dimensions In a pallet measurement the first number is the stringer length and the second is the deck board length. Square or nearly square pallets help a load resist tipping. Two-way pallets are designed to be lifted by the deck boards. In a warehouse the deck board side faces the corridor. For optimal cubage in a warehouse, the deck board dimension should be the shorter. This also helps the deck boards be more rigid. Four-way pallets, or pallets for heavy loads, or general-purpose systems that might have heavy loads are best lifted by their more rigid stringers. A warehouse has the stringer side facing the corridor. For optimal cubage in a warehouse, the stringer dimension should be the shorter. Pallet users want pallets to easily pass through buildings, stack and fit in racks, forklifts, pallet jacks and automated warehouses. To avoid shipping air, pallets should also pack tightly inside intermodal containers and vans. No universally accepted standards for pallet dimensions exist. Companies and organizations utilize hundreds of different pallet sizes around the globe. While no single dimensional standard governs pallet production, a few different sizes are widely used.
5. The International Organization forStandardization (ISO) sanctions sixpallet dimensions Types of pallets Although pallets come in all manner of sizes and configurations, all pallets fall into two very broad categories: "stringer" pallets and "block" pallets. Various software packages exist to assist the pallet maker in designing an appropriate pallet for a specific load, and to evaluate wood options to reduce costs.
6. 1)48" × 40" galvanized steel pallet. Galvanized steelpallets are fireproof and rust resistant2)Pallets being used in a warehouse in Finland.
7. The classic wooden pallet
8. INGERSOLL Make SKIDS
9. A plastic pallet with ninelegs, which can be lifted from allfour sides
10. SHRINK WRAPPING & STRECHWRAPPING The Process used for Unitizing Packaging loads in Industry . In Shrink Wrapping , Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC or Polyethylene film of 50-350micron thickness is used to wrap the loads arranged over a Pallet & then heated by a Portable hot air gun or some heat source at temperature of 350 degrees. Advantages: *Can be used for Articles almost of All shapes. *Stable Pallet loads formed.* Protects Unitized load from dust dirt and even moisture.
11. STRECH WRAPPING STRECH WRAPPING: Cost effective Method of Unitizing Pallet Loads. Here High Stretchable Polyethylene film is wrapped under Tension round the Loads. Advantages: *Costs Less * Requires less Energy. * Holds Piece Loads Together * can be used for Heat Sensitive Products.
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13. A dolly is a small trailer that can be coupled to a truck or trailer so as to support a semi-trailer. The dolly consists of a bogie equipped with a kingpin and a fifth wheel, to which the semi-trailer is coupled. This dolly needs its own rear lights and a registration plate. Some Americans call the whole dolly a bogie. A tow dolly is little more than two wheels, an axle and a tow-hitch, used to tow a Front-wheel drive suspension car behind a recreational vehicle or other larger vehicle. It is designed to tow a vehicle with the front wheels on the tow dolly. Tow dollies are legal in all 50 states and Canada. In the U.S. and Canada brakes are required on any loaded car tow dolly. There are two basic types of dolly: Converter dolly, equipped with between one and three axles and designed to connect to a towbar on the rear of the truck or trailer in front. There are two variants of this: An A-dolly has a single drawbar with a centred coupling. A C-dolly has two separate couplings side-by-side. Low loader dolly, equipped with a gooseneck type drawbar that attaches to the fifth-wheel coupling on the rear of a prime mover to distribute the mass on the fifth wheel on the dolly between the prime mover and the wheels of the dolly. These are predominantly fitted with two axles.