Performance Audit of National Library India in Kolkata

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Performance Audit of National Library India in Kolkata

  1. 1. Established in 1836John MacFarlaneFirst LibrarianHarinath DeFirst Indian Librarian
  2. 2. • Receives books and periodicals under the Delivery of Books I and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954 • Separate Indian vernacular divisions for 15 languages, Pali & II Prakrit • Arabic, Persian, East Asian, Germanic, Romance languages,III Slavonic, West Asian and African collections • Physical, chemical, reprographic conservation & digitizationIV • Collection of approx. 2.50 million books, 88000 maps, 3000 V manuscripts, etc. • Reading rooms with 814 readers capacityVI • Total shelf space of 45 kmVII • Area of Belvedere Campus 30 acresVIII • Total area in buildings of approx. 63,000 sq. metresIX
  3. 3. I • Local membershipII • Inter Library LoanIII • Outstation MembershipIV • BibliographyV • ReprographyVI • ChildrenVII • Training & Guidance
  4. 4. 245 225 205Rs. In Million 185 165 145 125 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Allocated 143 153 170 198.5 201.8 256.7 Expended 129 151.7 167.8 191 189.8 231.7 http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/u nion_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  5. 5. Acquisition P E Conservation R Referral Library F State Archives O Books User Services R Digitization MManuscripts A Modernization NNewspapers C E JournalsLithographs O&M A HR U Finances D Estate I Thttp://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/union_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  6. 6. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives
  7. 7. Start-up
  8. 8. Audit Objectives
  9. 9. Acquisition
  10. 10. • From 2004-08, only 5-12% of books publishedI in six Indian vernaculars were received • In six other languages 20-26% only receivedII • No enforcement of ActIII • Penalties not imposedIV • UK & Australia: Legal deposit linked toV Copyright Act • Fines in South Africa, US & Canada plus jailVI terms
  11. 11. • Penal action against defaultingI publishers • Govt. of India to reformulateII rules under Section 8 of DB Act • Create and update database ofIII books published in India
  12. 12. • No specific book acquisition policy I • No user feedback • No panel of expertsII • In 13 of 27 cases expert selector not on panel • Expert visited only once to select 336 books • Purchase from vendors limited mostly (72%) toIII Kolkata-based vendors only • Less price discount of 5% obtained from vendorsIV • Delhi University Library obtains 15% price discount • British Library categorizes holding as ‘selective’, etc.V – ex. music acquisitions based on regional traditions
  13. 13. • Review gaps in holdingsI • Conduct market surveys forII price • Consult other publicly-fundedIII libraries for price discounts
  14. 14. • For 900 books received, onlyI 252 reciprocated • For 7335 books & microficheII received, no reciprocity at all
  15. 15. • Redouble effortsI for exchange
  16. 16. • 11 of 64 prominent research journals received under DB Act • Although Rs. 30 million spent of 745 foreign I journals, subscription list never updated nor relevance reviewed • Vendors not selected by competitive biddingII • No journal usage data available • Library does not monitor price rise owing to foreign exchange rate fluctuationIII • Despite 13 terminals in reading room, no online access or CD/DVD access available • IIT, Kharagpur, has e-access to over 7,000 journals withIV a Rs. 3 million budget
  17. 17. Introduce electronicand online access for users, including Wi- Fi zones
  18. 18. Processing
  19. 19. • Except four divisions, all others have adequate HR I • Four divisions have excess HR • Hindi division has 49014 unprocessed books in arrears • Despite processing software, shelf cards generatedII manually • E-data not shared between divisionsIII • Users deprived of 300,000 books • Other Kolkata-based publicly-funded libraries such asIV RKM & ISI have automated full process
  20. 20. • Review and rationalize HRI • All processes from purchase to cataloguing should beII automated • Effective steps to clear backlogIII of unprocessed books
  21. 21. • 5 foreign language divisions for holdings in 58I languages • Experts only in 5 languagesII • Books in other languages not processed forIII shelves • Unprocessed books loaned to usersIV • No experts or outsourcing of foreign languageV skills resorted to
  22. 22. Outsource foreignlanguage skills touniversities andother academicinstitutions
  23. 23. Preservation
  24. 24. • Except 12 alcoves, no consolidation of other rareI books • No Accession register maintainedII • No catalogues available for rare inventoryIII • Movement Register for documents sent to other Division do not have return dates recorded onIV them • Users unaware of rare collectionsV • Magna Carta at British Library digitized byVI Microsoft
  25. 25. Definition of ‘rare’ to berevisitedSingle Accession Registerfor all rare materielDigitize rare materiel
  26. 26. • Only 9141 documents digitized in a decade I • Although a million target set for next phase, no workII undertaken since early-2006 • 7000 unbound/damaged books not fit for flatbed scannersIII • Less than a per cent of old newspapers and journalsIV digitized • National Library of Norway digitized more than 300,000 photographs, 150,000 hours of radio broadcasts, 1,000,000V newspapers and 25,000 books in a decade • British Library and Microsoft digitized over 25,000,000VI pages spread over 100,000 books
  27. 27. • Collaborate with National Archives for National Policy for digitization andI preservation • Hire I-T personnelII
  28. 28. • No guidelines on conservation processI • No expert opinion sought • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before useII • No guidelines on conservation process • No expert opinion soughtIII • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before use • 155 books from a famous collection suffered damage owing to substandard/unsuitable binding chemicalsIV • Supervisory ‘preparatory’ unit not worked for over 15 years • Corrosive flour and copper sulphate used as glue • Available freezer dryer machines for disinfecting never used owing toV no available HR • No relation between field of training and deployment for trained HRVI
  29. 29. • Need for immediate conservation policy I • Greater coordination between divisions and laboratory • Preparatory unit be reconstitutedII • Outsource binding in situ to professional binding firms • Establish in-house training divisionIII • Introduce more technical know-how • Sponsor university training on preservation inIV association with universities
  30. 30. Environment
  31. 31. • Air-conditioning switched off after working hours - high humidity in Kolkata not neutralized I • No power back up available for air conditioningII • No monitoring of temperature by maintenance engineers of CPWDIII • No termite survey done after 2003IV
  32. 32. • Sanskrit books lying bundled since 1961 – dust that is I corroding the collection • Old newspapers kept in non-AC godown in centralII business district • 64 of 83 fire extinguishers have no residual shelf lifeIII • National Library of Sri Lanka and British Library haveIV 24-hour temperature control • National Library of Sri Lanka also holds courses inV preservation and advises other repositories
  33. 33. Climate controlshould be ensuredRegular fire responsedrills essential
  34. 34. Control Systems
  35. 35. • Except one, no division maintainedI record of books sent to other divisions • No acknowledgement of receiptsII • Several months taken forIII unbundling, sorting & accession • Shelf shortage – books dumped inIV various locations
  36. 36. • Norms of stock verification not available I • Physical verification not carried out regularlyII • Imperial Collection shows significant differences fromIII various sources • Verification done in 2 of 39 divisionsIV • No census of books - some not returned even after 20V years • Books issued on verbal instructions of librarianVI
  37. 37. • Functional CCTV not availableI • No frisking of visitors/baggage X-rayII • No dedicated security for rare booksIII division • No boundary wall demarcating library andIV non-library areas • Easy access to campus over boundary wallV
  38. 38. • Annual verification plan I • RFID (bar coding) of holdingsII • CCTV systemIII • Visitor frisking & baggage X-rayIV • Automated monitoring of movement of booksV • British Library has CCTV with pan, tilt and zoomVI
  39. 39. Reader Services
  40. 40. • Low footfall in 10 reading facilities I • No electronic cataloguing – uncataloged books issued despite 13 terminals being available but withoutII networking • No value added services, eg. Courier delivery for usersIII at their homes • No foreign language expert in 53 languagesIV • Divisions without an assistant – even part-time ones notV available – users remained unserved
  41. 41. • No system to identify prize winning books I • Journals not on display • Old books displayedII • No publicity, conferences, seminars, etc. • Books requisitioned but not found in stacksIII • Reading rooms closed before scheduled time • User feedback not consideredIV • British Library segregates users and offers matchingV services
  42. 42. • 58% of books requisitioned by users not returned by I previous borrower even two years from date of issue • Despite available VIRTUA application, OPAC globalII standard not implemented • No remote services on web siteIII • In situ personal search for titles only recourse for usersIV • National Libraries in Australia, France, Egypt, Finland andV Japan OPAC-enabled • Ask a Librarian in US Library of CongressVI
  43. 43. In 2007, National Library of Russiaconducted 462 topical exhibitions, 936exhibitions of recent acquisitions, 813guided tours, 32 readerconferences, brought out 48publications
  44. 44. User Group Target Group In situ Services Remote Services Research Higher Reading rooms, Online library catalogs, Education, bookshop, subject resources Governments, publishing Writers servicesBusiness Biz R&D, hi-tech Advisory services, Document supply, industries, conferences, science & technology media, science corporate services information services, parks reprographicsEducation Teachers, Exhibitions, school Online education pages students, lifelong tours, bookshop on web site, curriculum learners, resources, online bookshopLibrary & Other libraries, Training, visits, Bibliographic services,Information information exhibitions, tours library catalogs, societies documents supply, librarianship service, virtual reference libraryPublic Exhibitions, event Web resources, online s, tours, bookshop bookshop
  45. 45. Bibliographic Services
  46. 46. • 2002 proposal to convert 2.5 million bibliographic records into machine readable cataloging limited to only 7% of I holdings up to 2008 • Duplicative effort in conversion as US Library of Congress already retro converted these documentsII • Even records uploaded are not validated • Indian National Bibliography (INB) of Central Reference Library (CRL) not completed even on the same campusIII owing to books not sent to them by National Library • Duplicate cataloging by INB and Library divisionIV • Separate cataloging vendors for INB and National Library • National Library paid Rs. 1.30 million more than CRL forV the same job
  47. 47. • Greater synergy of activities with Central ReferenceI Library • National Library should be nodal agency for allII bibliographic activity
  48. 48. Weak internal controlsAcquisiton Verification Preservation Conservation Outmoded Practices Digitization Cataloguing O&M Fire Security
  49. 49. • Legislation not enforced/enforceable I • Transparent & Competitive Bidding • No exchange programs with librariesII • No online journal subscriptions • No rationalization of processing HRIII • Large backlog of accession • Rare manuscripts not digitizedIV • No online digitized holdings • Inadequate I-T HRV • No conservation policy • No coordination between functional divisionsVI • Inadequate climate control, fire control and CCTV • Inadequate stock verificationVII • No bar coded holdings
  50. 50. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives

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