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Performance Audit of National Library India in Kolkata
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Performance Audit of National Library India in Kolkata

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PowerPoint presentation of India's SAI's performance audit report on the National Library, India in Kolkata

PowerPoint presentation of India's SAI's performance audit report on the National Library, India in Kolkata

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  • 1. Established in 1836John MacFarlaneFirst LibrarianHarinath DeFirst Indian Librarian
  • 2. • Receives books and periodicals under the Delivery of Books I and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954 • Separate Indian vernacular divisions for 15 languages, Pali & II Prakrit • Arabic, Persian, East Asian, Germanic, Romance languages,III Slavonic, West Asian and African collections • Physical, chemical, reprographic conservation & digitizationIV • Collection of approx. 2.50 million books, 88000 maps, 3000 V manuscripts, etc. • Reading rooms with 814 readers capacityVI • Total shelf space of 45 kmVII • Area of Belvedere Campus 30 acresVIII • Total area in buildings of approx. 63,000 sq. metresIX
  • 3. I • Local membershipII • Inter Library LoanIII • Outstation MembershipIV • BibliographyV • ReprographyVI • ChildrenVII • Training & Guidance
  • 4. 245 225 205Rs. In Million 185 165 145 125 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Allocated 143 153 170 198.5 201.8 256.7 Expended 129 151.7 167.8 191 189.8 231.7 http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/u nion_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  • 5. Acquisition P E Conservation R Referral Library F State Archives O Books User Services R Digitization MManuscripts A Modernization NNewspapers C E JournalsLithographs O&M A HR U Finances D Estate I Thttp://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/union_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  • 6. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives
  • 7. Start-up
  • 8. Audit Objectives
  • 9. Acquisition
  • 10. • From 2004-08, only 5-12% of books publishedI in six Indian vernaculars were received • In six other languages 20-26% only receivedII • No enforcement of ActIII • Penalties not imposedIV • UK & Australia: Legal deposit linked toV Copyright Act • Fines in South Africa, US & Canada plus jailVI terms
  • 11. • Penal action against defaultingI publishers • Govt. of India to reformulateII rules under Section 8 of DB Act • Create and update database ofIII books published in India
  • 12. • No specific book acquisition policy I • No user feedback • No panel of expertsII • In 13 of 27 cases expert selector not on panel • Expert visited only once to select 336 books • Purchase from vendors limited mostly (72%) toIII Kolkata-based vendors only • Less price discount of 5% obtained from vendorsIV • Delhi University Library obtains 15% price discount • British Library categorizes holding as ‘selective’, etc.V – ex. music acquisitions based on regional traditions
  • 13. • Review gaps in holdingsI • Conduct market surveys forII price • Consult other publicly-fundedIII libraries for price discounts
  • 14. • For 900 books received, onlyI 252 reciprocated • For 7335 books & microficheII received, no reciprocity at all
  • 15. • Redouble effortsI for exchange
  • 16. • 11 of 64 prominent research journals received under DB Act • Although Rs. 30 million spent of 745 foreign I journals, subscription list never updated nor relevance reviewed • Vendors not selected by competitive biddingII • No journal usage data available • Library does not monitor price rise owing to foreign exchange rate fluctuationIII • Despite 13 terminals in reading room, no online access or CD/DVD access available • IIT, Kharagpur, has e-access to over 7,000 journals withIV a Rs. 3 million budget
  • 17. Introduce electronicand online access for users, including Wi- Fi zones
  • 18. Processing
  • 19. • Except four divisions, all others have adequate HR I • Four divisions have excess HR • Hindi division has 49014 unprocessed books in arrears • Despite processing software, shelf cards generatedII manually • E-data not shared between divisionsIII • Users deprived of 300,000 books • Other Kolkata-based publicly-funded libraries such asIV RKM & ISI have automated full process
  • 20. • Review and rationalize HRI • All processes from purchase to cataloguing should beII automated • Effective steps to clear backlogIII of unprocessed books
  • 21. • 5 foreign language divisions for holdings in 58I languages • Experts only in 5 languagesII • Books in other languages not processed forIII shelves • Unprocessed books loaned to usersIV • No experts or outsourcing of foreign languageV skills resorted to
  • 22. Outsource foreignlanguage skills touniversities andother academicinstitutions
  • 23. Preservation
  • 24. • Except 12 alcoves, no consolidation of other rareI books • No Accession register maintainedII • No catalogues available for rare inventoryIII • Movement Register for documents sent to other Division do not have return dates recorded onIV them • Users unaware of rare collectionsV • Magna Carta at British Library digitized byVI Microsoft
  • 25. Definition of ‘rare’ to berevisitedSingle Accession Registerfor all rare materielDigitize rare materiel
  • 26. • Only 9141 documents digitized in a decade I • Although a million target set for next phase, no workII undertaken since early-2006 • 7000 unbound/damaged books not fit for flatbed scannersIII • Less than a per cent of old newspapers and journalsIV digitized • National Library of Norway digitized more than 300,000 photographs, 150,000 hours of radio broadcasts, 1,000,000V newspapers and 25,000 books in a decade • British Library and Microsoft digitized over 25,000,000VI pages spread over 100,000 books
  • 27. • Collaborate with National Archives for National Policy for digitization andI preservation • Hire I-T personnelII
  • 28. • No guidelines on conservation processI • No expert opinion sought • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before useII • No guidelines on conservation process • No expert opinion soughtIII • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before use • 155 books from a famous collection suffered damage owing to substandard/unsuitable binding chemicalsIV • Supervisory ‘preparatory’ unit not worked for over 15 years • Corrosive flour and copper sulphate used as glue • Available freezer dryer machines for disinfecting never used owing toV no available HR • No relation between field of training and deployment for trained HRVI
  • 29. • Need for immediate conservation policy I • Greater coordination between divisions and laboratory • Preparatory unit be reconstitutedII • Outsource binding in situ to professional binding firms • Establish in-house training divisionIII • Introduce more technical know-how • Sponsor university training on preservation inIV association with universities
  • 30. Environment
  • 31. • Air-conditioning switched off after working hours - high humidity in Kolkata not neutralized I • No power back up available for air conditioningII • No monitoring of temperature by maintenance engineers of CPWDIII • No termite survey done after 2003IV
  • 32. • Sanskrit books lying bundled since 1961 – dust that is I corroding the collection • Old newspapers kept in non-AC godown in centralII business district • 64 of 83 fire extinguishers have no residual shelf lifeIII • National Library of Sri Lanka and British Library haveIV 24-hour temperature control • National Library of Sri Lanka also holds courses inV preservation and advises other repositories
  • 33. Climate controlshould be ensuredRegular fire responsedrills essential
  • 34. Control Systems
  • 35. • Except one, no division maintainedI record of books sent to other divisions • No acknowledgement of receiptsII • Several months taken forIII unbundling, sorting & accession • Shelf shortage – books dumped inIV various locations
  • 36. • Norms of stock verification not available I • Physical verification not carried out regularlyII • Imperial Collection shows significant differences fromIII various sources • Verification done in 2 of 39 divisionsIV • No census of books - some not returned even after 20V years • Books issued on verbal instructions of librarianVI
  • 37. • Functional CCTV not availableI • No frisking of visitors/baggage X-rayII • No dedicated security for rare booksIII division • No boundary wall demarcating library andIV non-library areas • Easy access to campus over boundary wallV
  • 38. • Annual verification plan I • RFID (bar coding) of holdingsII • CCTV systemIII • Visitor frisking & baggage X-rayIV • Automated monitoring of movement of booksV • British Library has CCTV with pan, tilt and zoomVI
  • 39. Reader Services
  • 40. • Low footfall in 10 reading facilities I • No electronic cataloguing – uncataloged books issued despite 13 terminals being available but withoutII networking • No value added services, eg. Courier delivery for usersIII at their homes • No foreign language expert in 53 languagesIV • Divisions without an assistant – even part-time ones notV available – users remained unserved
  • 41. • No system to identify prize winning books I • Journals not on display • Old books displayedII • No publicity, conferences, seminars, etc. • Books requisitioned but not found in stacksIII • Reading rooms closed before scheduled time • User feedback not consideredIV • British Library segregates users and offers matchingV services
  • 42. • 58% of books requisitioned by users not returned by I previous borrower even two years from date of issue • Despite available VIRTUA application, OPAC globalII standard not implemented • No remote services on web siteIII • In situ personal search for titles only recourse for usersIV • National Libraries in Australia, France, Egypt, Finland andV Japan OPAC-enabled • Ask a Librarian in US Library of CongressVI
  • 43. In 2007, National Library of Russiaconducted 462 topical exhibitions, 936exhibitions of recent acquisitions, 813guided tours, 32 readerconferences, brought out 48publications
  • 44. User Group Target Group In situ Services Remote Services Research Higher Reading rooms, Online library catalogs, Education, bookshop, subject resources Governments, publishing Writers servicesBusiness Biz R&D, hi-tech Advisory services, Document supply, industries, conferences, science & technology media, science corporate services information services, parks reprographicsEducation Teachers, Exhibitions, school Online education pages students, lifelong tours, bookshop on web site, curriculum learners, resources, online bookshopLibrary & Other libraries, Training, visits, Bibliographic services,Information information exhibitions, tours library catalogs, societies documents supply, librarianship service, virtual reference libraryPublic Exhibitions, event Web resources, online s, tours, bookshop bookshop
  • 45. Bibliographic Services
  • 46. • 2002 proposal to convert 2.5 million bibliographic records into machine readable cataloging limited to only 7% of I holdings up to 2008 • Duplicative effort in conversion as US Library of Congress already retro converted these documentsII • Even records uploaded are not validated • Indian National Bibliography (INB) of Central Reference Library (CRL) not completed even on the same campusIII owing to books not sent to them by National Library • Duplicate cataloging by INB and Library divisionIV • Separate cataloging vendors for INB and National Library • National Library paid Rs. 1.30 million more than CRL forV the same job
  • 47. • Greater synergy of activities with Central ReferenceI Library • National Library should be nodal agency for allII bibliographic activity
  • 48. Weak internal controlsAcquisiton Verification Preservation Conservation Outmoded Practices Digitization Cataloguing O&M Fire Security
  • 49. • Legislation not enforced/enforceable I • Transparent & Competitive Bidding • No exchange programs with librariesII • No online journal subscriptions • No rationalization of processing HRIII • Large backlog of accession • Rare manuscripts not digitizedIV • No online digitized holdings • Inadequate I-T HRV • No conservation policy • No coordination between functional divisionsVI • Inadequate climate control, fire control and CCTV • Inadequate stock verificationVII • No bar coded holdings
  • 50. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives