India's urban population is increasing at a faster rate than its total population.The slum population is constantly increasing: it has doubled in the past two decades.
INTRODUCTION<br />Presently, Indian population is 1/6th of the world population. Accelerating urbanization is forcefully effecting the transformation of Indian society. Slightly more than 28% of the country’s population is urbanized, but unfortunately 21.68% (61.8 million) of the urban population lives in slum area. As per last NBO report total housing shortage was 19.4 million unit. In urban area the shortage is 6.6 million unit and 90% of these shortage hits poor and LIG people. It has become a very common urban scenario that thousands of dwellings made of straw, mud, tin etc and are squeezed into area of a small city block. In these cramped dwellings, often only an arm-span in width, entire family lives without running water, electricity etc. Few have beds, they sleep on scraps of cloth padding on dirty floor.<br />Need and justification for selection of the topic<br />The population is growing at a larger scale in india and most of its people live in urban areas. For a higher growth and to avail better job opportunities most of the people in villages are migrating towards cities or urban areas and slum areas are developed at a larger scale due to overcrowding and limited job opportunities.<br />Slums are characterized by overcrowding, kutcha or dilapidated structures, unhygienic conditions, grossly inadequate basic amenities, unplanned layouts and poor accessibility. These are generally house economically weaker sections of the community who are after engaged in causal service occupations.<br />Thus the resulting demand for such problems is housing. <br />
THE URBAN POOR<br />Meaning OfPoor - Having little or no wealth and few or no possessions.<br /> People with little or no wealth and possessions considered as a group.<br /> Lacking in a specified resource or quality. <br /> Not adequate in quality; inferior.<br /> Lacking in value; insufficient.<br />Key Issues For The Urban Poor<br />Jobs.<br />Living Conditions and Tenure Security.<br />Infrastructure And Services.<br />Risks.<br />Location, Mobility and Transport .<br />Inequality.<br />The Dwelling Units Of Urban Poor In An Urban Area Are Collectively Known As Slum.<br />
AFFORDABILITY<br />To be able to bear the cost of anything.<br />The extent to which something is affordable as measured by its cost relative to the amount that the purchaser is able to pay. <br />Affordability is for a household to pay no more than 30 percent of its annual income on housing.<br />Affordable Housing - dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed “affordable “to those that have a median income. <br />Factors AffectingAffordability<br />Household Income<br />Costs<br />the housing can be made affordable – this can be done by adopting measures which contributes to the low cost of construction.<br />
MEANING OF HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT<br />Surrounding Living Conditions.<br />Issues Causing The Greatest Problems.<br />Environmental Hazards.<br />
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES<br />To study and understand the physical and psychological needs and problems faced by the urban poor and to establish framework and guidelines for the rehabilitation based on Chhattishgari lifestyle and to improve the environmental conditions.<br />
SCOPE AND LIMITATION<br />To undertake study of a slum area after proper identification and considering the problems and nature of remedies needed.<br />The research work intends to suggest methods to manage sanitation, drinking water, drainage and waste generated in the slum area under study effectively.<br />Though the study and waste management system suggested will be focused to a particular slum area, it will be useful and may be possible to implement in other slum areas.<br />This development will continue as a process and not a project.<br />This will form a basis for other settlements to develop and upgrade their standard of living.<br />The project will incorporate all the services required at site level.<br />The final outcome of the project will be in the form of drawings and illustrations showing how the scheme will proceed towards development of infrastructure and services.<br />
THE DEFINITION OF “SLUM” <br />The National Definition of ‘Slum areas’ was set by the Slum Areas Improvement and Clearance act of 1956.1 It defines them as places where buildings:<br /> a) Are in any respect unfit for human habitation;<br /> b) Are by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light, sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to safety, health and morals.<br />The Census of India defines a slum as "a compact area of at least 300 in population or about 60-70 households of poorly built, congested tenements in an unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking proper sanitary and drinking water facilities."<br />
CONDITIONS OF “SLUM” <br />A lack of basic services<br />Substandard housing or illegal and inadequate building structures<br />Overcrowding and high density<br />Unhealthful living conditions and hazardous locations<br />Insecure tenure<br />Irregular or informal settlements<br />Poverty and social exclusion<br />Minimum settlement size<br />NOTIFIED SLUMS<br />Urban areas notified as slums by respective municipalities, corporations, local bodies or development authorities were treated as “notified slums”.<br />
CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN SLUMS, 2008-2009.<br /><ul><li>49, 000 slums in existence.
Location </li></ul>24% of them were located along nallahsand drains and 12% along railway lines.<br />About 57% of slums were built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies, state government, etc.<br /><ul><li>64% of notified slums - dwellings were pucca the non-notified ones being 50%.
For 95% slums, the major source of drinking water was either tap or tube well.</li></ul>Only 1% notified and 7% non-notified slums did not have electricity connection.<br />Poor road.<br />Affected by water logging .<br />Garbage disposal.<br />No proper sanitation, drainage facilities.<br />
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA<br />State Wise Projected Slum Population <br />From Year 2001& 2011<br />Population growth.<br />The slum population is doubled in the past two decades. <br />
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA<br />Type Of Structure Of Majority Of Houses<br /> <br />Source Of Drinking Water For Slum Dwellers<br />
High rates of mental illness and suicide</li></li></ul><li>CAUSES OF SLUMS<br />Decentralization<br />Economic condition <br />Education<br />Improper use of land <br />Industrialization<br />Lack of zoning <br />Migrants<br />Powers of local authority <br />Repairs and maintenance <br />
Undesirable Spots </li></li></ul><li>SCHEMES AND PROGRAMMES <br />Policy Of 'No Slums Cities‘ – 1970<br />Slum Upgrade Programmes - Infrastructure Development Was Encouraged. <br />Environmental Improvement of Urban Slums - 1972<br />National Slum Development Programme – 1996<br />ValmikiAmbedkarAwasYojana (VAMBAY), - 2001<br />Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) – 2005<br />
HOUSING CONDITION AND SLUM IN CHHATTISGARH<br />Chhattisgarh is getting a brand new capital city called Naya Raipur. <br />Raipur slums to be cleaned up. The slums in the Chhattisgarh capital will get a new look as the state government is working on a proposal to construct houses for the slum-dwellers under the Jawaharlal Nehru national urban renewal mission - a scheme floated by the union government.<br />27976 houses will be constructed for the slum dwellers in the Chhattisgarh with an estimated cost of Rs 392 crore.<br />Concrete houses <br />53 slums have been selected<br />
WHAT IS UPGRADING?<br />NOT ‘economic development’.<br />IS: Infrastructure + Tenure/Rights + Housing Improvements, At Minimum.<br />Improvements In Streets, Footpaths And Drainage Etc.<br />Health Issues .<br />School Facilities And Teacher Training To Increase Income Earning Opportunities .<br />Benefits Of Upgrading<br />Healthy And Secure Living Environment .<br />Tenure Security. <br />Social And Economic Benefits.<br />
Costs </li></li></ul><li>SEWERAGE SYSTEM<br />Pour-flush latrines<br />Communalbio-latrines<br />CommunalVIPlatrines<br /> Advantages<br />Produces methane gas <br />–cooking, hot water<br />Produces fertilizer<br />Income generation<br />Cheap<br />Limited environmental <br />impacts<br /> Advantages<br />Sense of ownership<br />Easy to maintain<br />Household toilet<br /> Advantages<br />Cheap<br />Easy to construct<br /> Disadvantages<br />Requires a lot of space<br />Lack of ownership<br />Pits must be vacuumed <br /> Disadvantages<br />Expensive<br />Requires water <br />No treatment<br />Environmental impacts <br />–esp. surface H2O <br />No income generation<br /> Disadvantage<br />Some maintenance<br />Requires skilled labor<br />
Local participation is critical. Communities decide services/needs.<br />Sustainability = services are affordable to community & local government.<br />Federations + NGOS – hold process together, make it sustainable. Govt + donors – help scale-up.<br />Community linked to City & Country-level strategies<br />Trust between professionals & locals is crucial. Outsider perspective & skills only useful if based on trust. <br />There are no magic solutions: each community must be addressed on its own merits.<br />