INTRODUCTION Presently, Indian population is 1/6th of the world population. Accelerating urbanization is forcefully effecting the transformation of Indian society. Slightly more than 28% of the country’s population is urbanized, but unfortunately 21.68% (61.8 million) of the urban population lives in slum area. As per last NBO report total housing shortage was 19.4 million unit. In urban area the shortage is 6.6 million unit and 90% of these shortage hits poor and LIG people. It has become a very common urban scenario that thousands of dwellings made of straw, mud, tin etc and are squeezed into area of a small city block. In these cramped dwellings, often only an arm-span in width, entire family lives without running water, electricity etc. Few have beds, they sleep on scraps of cloth padding on dirty floor. Need and justification for selection of the topic The population is growing at a larger scale in india and most of its people live in urban areas. For a higher growth and to avail better job opportunities most of the people in villages are migrating towards cities or urban areas and slum areas are developed at a larger scale due to overcrowding and limited job opportunities. Slums are characterized by overcrowding, kutcha or dilapidated structures, unhygienic conditions, grossly inadequate basic amenities, unplanned layouts and poor accessibility. These are generally house economically weaker sections of the community who are after engaged in causal service occupations. Thus the resulting demand for such problems is housing.
THE URBAN POOR Meaning OfPoor - Having little or no wealth and few or no possessions. People with little or no wealth and possessions considered as a group. Lacking in a specified resource or quality. Not adequate in quality; inferior. Lacking in value; insufficient. Key Issues For The Urban Poor Jobs. Living Conditions and Tenure Security. Infrastructure And Services. Risks. Location, Mobility and Transport . Inequality. The Dwelling Units Of Urban Poor In An Urban Area Are Collectively Known As Slum.
AFFORDABILITY To be able to bear the cost of anything. The extent to which something is affordable as measured by its cost relative to the amount that the purchaser is able to pay. Affordability is for a household to pay no more than 30 percent of its annual income on housing. Affordable Housing - dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed “affordable “to those that have a median income. Factors AffectingAffordability Household Income Costs the housing can be made affordable – this can be done by adopting measures which contributes to the low cost of construction.
MEANING OF HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT Surrounding Living Conditions. Issues Causing The Greatest Problems. Environmental Hazards.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study and understand the physical and psychological needs and problems faced by the urban poor and to establish framework and guidelines for the rehabilitation based on Chhattishgari lifestyle and to improve the environmental conditions.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION To undertake study of a slum area after proper identification and considering the problems and nature of remedies needed. The research work intends to suggest methods to manage sanitation, drinking water, drainage and waste generated in the slum area under study effectively. Though the study and waste management system suggested will be focused to a particular slum area, it will be useful and may be possible to implement in other slum areas. This development will continue as a process and not a project. This will form a basis for other settlements to develop and upgrade their standard of living. The project will incorporate all the services required at site level. The final outcome of the project will be in the form of drawings and illustrations showing how the scheme will proceed towards development of infrastructure and services.
THE DEFINITION OF “SLUM” The National Definition of ‘Slum areas’ was set by the Slum Areas Improvement and Clearance act of 1956.1 It defines them as places where buildings: a) Are in any respect unfit for human habitation; b) Are by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light, sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to safety, health and morals. The Census of India defines a slum as "a compact area of at least 300 in population or about 60-70 households of poorly built, congested tenements in an unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking proper sanitary and drinking water facilities."
CONDITIONS OF “SLUM” A lack of basic services Substandard housing or illegal and inadequate building structures Overcrowding and high density Unhealthful living conditions and hazardous locations Insecure tenure Irregular or informal settlements Poverty and social exclusion Minimum settlement size NOTIFIED SLUMS Urban areas notified as slums by respective municipalities, corporations, local bodies or development authorities were treated as “notified slums”.
CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN SLUMS, 2008-2009.
49, 000 slums in existence.
24% of them were located along nallahsand drains and 12% along railway lines. About 57% of slums were built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies, state government, etc.
64% of notified slums - dwellings were pucca the non-notified ones being 50%.
For 95% slums, the major source of drinking water was either tap or tube well.
Only 1% notified and 7% non-notified slums did not have electricity connection. Poor road. Affected by water logging . Garbage disposal. No proper sanitation, drainage facilities.
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA State Wise Projected Slum Population From Year 2001& 2011 Population growth. The slum population is doubled in the past two decades.
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA Type Of Structure Of Majority Of Houses
Source Of Drinking Water For Slum Dwellers
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA Sewerage System And Drainage Facility Availability of Latrine Facility
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA Electric Connection Available Garbage Collection
THE STATE OF SLUMS IN INDIA
HEALTH RISKS TO SLUM DWELLERS
Contaminated water (cholera , typhoid, etc)
Inadequate disposal of human wastes
Wastewater and garbage
Insects, pests (e.g. rats) and parasites in homes
Insufficient living spaces, poor ventilation and overcrowding
Children at risk from traffic, unsafe or contaminated sites
Indoor air pollution
No or inadequate health care and advice
No emergency services
High rates of mental illness and suicide
CAUSES OF SLUMS Decentralization Economic condition Education Improper use of land Industrialization Lack of zoning Migrants Powers of local authority Repairs and maintenance
Land Hard to Find/Conflicts
Costs More to Rebuild than Upgrade
SCHEMES AND PROGRAMMES Policy Of 'No Slums Cities‘ – 1970 Slum Upgrade Programmes - Infrastructure Development Was Encouraged. Environmental Improvement of Urban Slums - 1972 National Slum Development Programme – 1996 ValmikiAmbedkarAwasYojana (VAMBAY), - 2001 Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) – 2005
HOUSING CONDITION AND SLUM IN CHHATTISGARH Chhattisgarh is getting a brand new capital city called Naya Raipur. Raipur slums to be cleaned up. The slums in the Chhattisgarh capital will get a new look as the state government is working on a proposal to construct houses for the slum-dwellers under the Jawaharlal Nehru national urban renewal mission - a scheme floated by the union government. 27976 houses will be constructed for the slum dwellers in the Chhattisgarh with an estimated cost of Rs 392 crore. Concrete houses 53 slums have been selected
APPROACHES TO SLUMS Relocation Demolition/Clearance + Redevelopment Up gradation Denial
WHAT IS UPGRADING? NOT ‘economic development’. IS: Infrastructure + Tenure/Rights + Housing Improvements, At Minimum. Improvements In Streets, Footpaths And Drainage Etc. Health Issues . School Facilities And Teacher Training To Increase Income Earning Opportunities . Benefits Of Upgrading Healthy And Secure Living Environment . Tenure Security. Social And Economic Benefits.
PLANNING ASPECTS INFRASTRUCTURE HOUSING Physical Infrastructure Social Infrastructure
SEWERAGE SYSTEM Pour-flush latrines Communalbio-latrines CommunalVIPlatrines Advantages Produces methane gas –cooking, hot water Produces fertilizer Income generation Cheap Limited environmental impacts Advantages Sense of ownership Easy to maintain Household toilet Advantages Cheap Easy to construct Disadvantages Requires a lot of space Lack of ownership Pits must be vacuumed Disadvantages Expensive Requires water No treatment Environmental impacts –esp. surface H2O No income generation Disadvantage Some maintenance Requires skilled labor
Local participation is critical. Communities decide services/needs. Sustainability = services are affordable to community & local government. Federations + NGOS – hold process together, make it sustainable. Govt + donors – help scale-up. Community linked to City & Country-level strategies Trust between professionals & locals is crucial. Outsider perspective & skills only useful if based on trust. There are no magic solutions: each community must be addressed on its own merits.