Earth unitreview
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Earth unitreview

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    Earth unitreview Earth unitreview Presentation Transcript

    • EARTH SCIENCE REVIEW
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEENCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVEFORCES Constructive forces build up the earth’s surface Destructive wear away earth’s surface
    • LAYERS OF EARTH Lithosphere- consists of crust and top of mantle  Separates into plates  Meets at plate boundaries Asthenosphere- located under lithosphere; what the lithosphere glides on top of
    • PANGEA All the continents were once joined together in a super continent Continents fit together like puzzle pieces
    • SEA FLOOR SPREADING Two oceanic plates moving away from each other (diverging) The ocean floors move like conveyor belts, moving the continents away from each other New crust is formed where the plates are spreading
    • SEA FLOOR SPREADING AND PLATETECTONICS Convection currents is the engine that drives the plates to move
    • TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARIES Convergent Divergent Transform
    • WHAT HAPPENS WHEN PLATESCOLLIDE? Oceanic/Oceanic- the older plate (more dense plate) will subduct Oceanic/Continental- oceanic plate subducts because it is more dense Continental/Continental- forms mountain ranges
    • DEFORMATIONS CAUSED BYSTRESS Anticlines Synclines Plateaus
    • TYPES OF FAULTS Strike- Slip Fault Reverse Fault Normal Fault
    • FOCUS AND EPICENTER Focus- point BENEATH Earth’s surface where rock under stress breaks to cause an earthquake Epicenter- point on the surface directly above the focus
    • SEISMIC WAVES P Waves- compress and expand the ground like an accordion (happen first) S Waves- vibrate from side to side and up and down Surface Waves- when waves reach the surface (cause most damage)
    • SCALES FOR MEASURINGEARTHQUAKES Mercalli Scale- rates earthquakes based on damage Richter Scale Moment Magnitude scale
    • RISK FACTORS FOR EARTHQUAKES Shaking Liquefaction Aftershocks Tsunamis
    • DEVICES TO MONITOR AND DETECTEARTHQUAKES tiltmeter
    • WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM? Convergent boundaries Divergent boundaries Hot spots
    • TYPES OF VOLCANOES Composite Shield Cinder cone
    • PARTS OF A VOLCANO
    • ACTIVITY OF VOLCANOES Active Dormant Extinct
    • MAGMA AND LAVA Magma is molten rock under the ground When magma reaches the Earth’s surface, it is called lava
    • SILICA AND MAGMA’S VISCOSITY Silica determines viscosity The more silica, the more viscous a substance is More silica magma is light colored and is too sticky to flow far Less silica magma flows readily and produces dark colored lava
    • HOW DOES TRAPPED GAS EFFECT AVOLCANO’S ERUPTION? As magma rises toward the surface, the pressure decreases and the dissolved gases begin to expand and exert an enormous force