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Earth unitreview

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  • 1. EARTH SCIENCE REVIEW
  • 2. DIFFERENCE BETWEENCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVEFORCES Constructive forces build up the earth’s surface Destructive wear away earth’s surface
  • 3. LAYERS OF EARTH Lithosphere- consists of crust and top of mantle  Separates into plates  Meets at plate boundaries Asthenosphere- located under lithosphere; what the lithosphere glides on top of
  • 4. PANGEA All the continents were once joined together in a super continent Continents fit together like puzzle pieces
  • 5. SEA FLOOR SPREADING Two oceanic plates moving away from each other (diverging) The ocean floors move like conveyor belts, moving the continents away from each other New crust is formed where the plates are spreading
  • 6. SEA FLOOR SPREADING AND PLATETECTONICS Convection currents is the engine that drives the plates to move
  • 7. TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARIES Convergent Divergent Transform
  • 8. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN PLATESCOLLIDE? Oceanic/Oceanic- the older plate (more dense plate) will subduct Oceanic/Continental- oceanic plate subducts because it is more dense Continental/Continental- forms mountain ranges
  • 9. DEFORMATIONS CAUSED BYSTRESS Anticlines Synclines Plateaus
  • 10. TYPES OF FAULTS Strike- Slip Fault Reverse Fault Normal Fault
  • 11. FOCUS AND EPICENTER Focus- point BENEATH Earth’s surface where rock under stress breaks to cause an earthquake Epicenter- point on the surface directly above the focus
  • 12. SEISMIC WAVES P Waves- compress and expand the ground like an accordion (happen first) S Waves- vibrate from side to side and up and down Surface Waves- when waves reach the surface (cause most damage)
  • 13. SCALES FOR MEASURINGEARTHQUAKES Mercalli Scale- rates earthquakes based on damage Richter Scale Moment Magnitude scale
  • 14. RISK FACTORS FOR EARTHQUAKES Shaking Liquefaction Aftershocks Tsunamis
  • 15. DEVICES TO MONITOR AND DETECTEARTHQUAKES tiltmeter
  • 16. WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM? Convergent boundaries Divergent boundaries Hot spots
  • 17. TYPES OF VOLCANOES Composite Shield Cinder cone
  • 18. PARTS OF A VOLCANO
  • 19. ACTIVITY OF VOLCANOES Active Dormant Extinct
  • 20. MAGMA AND LAVA Magma is molten rock under the ground When magma reaches the Earth’s surface, it is called lava
  • 21. SILICA AND MAGMA’S VISCOSITY Silica determines viscosity The more silica, the more viscous a substance is More silica magma is light colored and is too sticky to flow far Less silica magma flows readily and produces dark colored lava
  • 22. HOW DOES TRAPPED GAS EFFECT AVOLCANO’S ERUPTION? As magma rises toward the surface, the pressure decreases and the dissolved gases begin to expand and exert an enormous force

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