Individualization and Personalization SPED 478: Educational Interventions Shannon Kludt
Strategies for dealing with students with depression: Don't ignore depressed students. It shows that you don't care and invites the students to give up, guaranteeing their failure. Draw them out in class discussion and do whatever it takes to stimulate their minds so that they don't, in turn, learn to ignore you. Let them know that you care, but without getting too personal. Help them to update any missing assignments, or set up extra study time - whether they accept your efforts or not all depends upon the severity of the depression . The fact that you've proven you care can make all the difference in the world. Never give up on the student - regardless of how long they haven't wanted to put forth any effort in your class. Students can tell when a teacher no longer believes in them and expects them to fail, and it only ends up making the situation worse than necessary.
Classroom accommodations for students with ADHD Seating -Seat the student with ADD/ADHD away from windows and away from the door. -Put the student with ADD/ADHD right in front of your desk unless that would be a distraction for the student. -Seats in rows, with focus on the teacher, usually work better than having students seated around tables or facing one another in other arrangements. Information delivery -Give instructions one at a time and repeat as necessary. -If possible, work on the most difficult material early in the day. -Use visuals: charts, pictures, color coding. -Create outlines for note-taking that organize the information as you deliver it
Classroom accommodations for students with ADHD continued: Student work -Create a quiet area free of distractions for test-taking and quiet study. --Create worksheets and tests with fewer items; give frequent short quizzes rather than long tests. -Reduce the number of timed tests. -Test the student with ADD/ADHD in the way he or she does best, such as orally or filling in blanks. -Show the student how to use a pointer or bookmark to track written words on a page. -Divide long-term projects into segments and assign a completion goal for each segment. -Let the student do as much work as possible on computer. -Accept late work and give partial credit for partial work. Organization -Have the student keep a master notebook, a three-ring binder with a separate section for each subject, and make sure everything that goes into the notebook has holes punched and is put on the rings in the correct section. -Provide a three-pocket notebook insert for homework assignments, completed homework, and “mail” to parents (permission slips, PTA flyers). -Color-code materials for each subject. -Allow time for student to organize materials and assignments for home. Post steps for getting ready to go home. -Make sure the student with ADD/ADHD has a system for writing down assignments and important dates and uses it.
Teaching techniques for students with ADHD: Starting a lesson -Signal the start of a lesson with an aural cue, such as an egg timer, a cowbell or a horn. (You can use subsequent cues to show much time remains in a lesson.) -List the activities of the lesson on the board. -In opening the lesson, tell students what they’re going to learn and what your expectations are. Tell students exactly what materials they’ll need. -Establish eye contact with any student who has ADD/ADHD.
Teaching techniques for students with ADHD continued: Conducting the lesson -Keep instructions simple and structured. -Vary the pace and include different kinds of activities. Many students with ADD do well with competitive games or other activities that are rapid and intense. -Use props, charts, and other visual aids. -Have an unobtrusive cue set up with the student who has ADD/ADHD, such as a touch on the shoulder or placing a sticky note on the student’s desk, to remind the student to stay on task. -Allow a student with ADD/ADHD frequent breaks. -Let the student with ADHD squeeze a Koosh ball or tap something that doesn’t make noise as a physical outlet. -Try not to ask a student with ADD/ADHD perform a task or answer a question publicly that might be too difficult.
Teaching techniques for students with ADHD continued: Ending the lesson -Summarize key points. -If you give an assignment, have three different students repeat it, then have the class say it in unison, and put it on the board. -Be specific about what to take home.
Strategies for working with students with ODD: Decide which behaviors you are going to ignore. Most children with ODD are doing too many things you dislike to include all of them in a behavior management plan. Thus, target only a few important behaviors, rather than trying to fix everything. Make this student a part of any plan to change behavior. If you don't, you'll become the enemy. Provide consistency, structure, and clear consequences for the student’s behavior. Praise students when they respond positively. Establish a rapport with the ODD child. If this child perceives you as reasonable and fair, you'll be able to work more effectively with him or her. Avoid making comments or bringing up situations that may be a source of argument for them. Never raise your voice or argue with this student. Regardless of the situation do not get into a "yes you will" contest. Silence is a better response. Do not take the defiance personally. Remember, you are the outlet and not the cause for the defiance- unless you are shouting, arguing or attempting to handle the student with sarcasm. Avoid all power struggles with this student. They will get you nowhere. Thus, try to avoid verbal exchanges. State your position clearly and concisely and choose your battles wisely.
Strategies for working with students with ODD continued: Always listen to this student. Let him/her talk. Don't interrupt until he/she finishes. Address concerns privately. This will help to avoid power struggles as well as an audience for a potential power struggle. In the private conference be caring but honest. Tell the student calmly what it is that is causing problems as far as you are concerned. Be sure you listen as well. In this process, insist upon one rule- that you both be respectful. When decisions are needed, give two choices or options. State them briefly and clearly. Students with ODD are more likely to complete or perform tasks that they have chosen. This also empowers them to make other decisions. Give the ODD student some classroom responsibilities. This will help him/her to feel apart of the class and some sense of controlled power. If he/she abuses the situation, the classroom responsibilities can be earned privileges. When you see an ODD child getting frustrated or angry, ask if a calming down period would help. But don't force it on him/her. Rather than sending the student down to the office for this cooling down period, it may be better to establish an isolated “calming down” place in the classroom so he/she can more readily re-engaged in classroom activity following the cooling down period. Ask parents what works at home.
Instructional strategies and classroom accommodations for the ODD student: Establish clear classroom rules. Be clear about what is nonnegotiable. Post the daily schedule so the student will know what to expect. Make sure academic work is at the appropriate level. When work is too hard, students become frustrated. When it is too easy, they become bored. Both reactions lead to problems in the classroom. Pace instruction. When the student with ODD completes a designated amount of a non-preferred activity, reinforce his/her cooperation by allowing him/her to do something they prefer or find more enjoyable or less difficult. Systematically teach social skills, including anger management, conflict resolution and how to be assertive in an appropriate manner. Discuss strategies that the student may use to calm him/ or herself down when they feel their anger escalating. Do this when the student is calm. Select materials that encourage student interaction. Students with ODD need to learn to talk to their peers and to adults in an appropriate manner. All cooperative learning activities must be carefully structured, however. Minimize downtime and plan transitions carefully. Students with ODD do best when kept busy. Allow the ODD student to redo assignments to improve their score or final grade. Structure activities so the student with ODD is not always left out or is the last person picked
Resources: (2008). What is AIMSweb? Retrieved July 13, 2009, from AIMSweb Web site: www.aimsweb.com (2009). Scholastic READ 180: Proven reading intervention software program. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from Scholastic Web site: http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/read180/ Hardy, S. D. (2005). Retrieved July 13, 2009, from Research-based math interventions for middle school students with disabilities (pdf) Web site: edtech.wku.edu/~nwheeler/new_math_presentation.ppt Jaffe-Gill, , E., Flores Dumke, L., Segal, R., de Benedictis, L., Smith, M., & Segal, J. (2007, September). ADD/ADHD in the classroom. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Helpguide.org Web site: http://helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_teaching_strategies.htm Johnson, K. (2007). A response to intervention (RTI) model for mathematics: Description, illustration and some data (pdf) . Retrieved July 13, 2009, from WizIQ Education Online Web site: http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/562-A-Response-to-Intervention-RTI-Model-for-Math
Resources continued: Madison, A. (2009, January 9). Depression in school: A student's trial. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Healthy place: America's mental health channel Web site: http://www.healthyplace.com/depression/children/depression-in-school-a-students-trial/menu-id-68/ Mooney, P., Pierce, C.D., & Ryan, J.B. (2008). Evidence-based teaching strategies for students with EBD. Beyond Behavior, 22-29. Understanding ODD. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Suffolk Public Schools Web site: http://www.spsk12.net/departments/specialed/odd.htm Valore, Thomas. "Creating cohesive groups in Re-ED settings: The classroom meeting." Long, N. J., Morse, W. C., Fecser F. A. & Newman, R. G. (Ed.). (2007). Conflict in the classroom (6th Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed., Inc.. Wright, Jim (2009). School-wide strategies for managing defiance/non-compliance. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from jimwright online Web site: http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionista/interventionista_intv_list.php?prob_type=defiance__non_compliance