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The rise of Militant Nationalism  from 1914-1939
Theme of the period <ul><li>The post WWI Period diminished the European imperialists ability to control their colonies and...
WWI and the Attack and the Nationalist Assault on European Colonial Order <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul>...
Corrosion of European power 1918- 1939 <ul><li>Before WWI, Europeans preached that they had the “White Man’s Burden” to ci...
Shift in perception of Europeans <ul><li>Senselessness of WWI </li></ul><ul><li>“ Has not the truth of already come home t...
The “Colonial” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh  Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German  Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd  British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
The Rise of Indian Nationalism
The Indian National Congress <ul><li>1885    The Indian National Congress   was founded in Bombay. </li></ul><ul><li>swar...
Bal Gangadhar Tilak   1856 - 1920
Jawaharlal Nehru 1889 - 1964
The Muslim League <ul><li>1905    partition of Bengal based on   religions and languages. </li></ul><ul><li>1906    crea...
Mohammed Ali Jinnah   1876 - 1948
Young Mohandas K. Gandhi,    1876 1869 - 1948
Gandhi with the London vegetarian society, 1890
Gandhi as a Young Barrister in Natal
Gandhi as a Lawyer in  Johannesburg, So. Africa
Gandhi and His Wife, Kasturba, 1915
Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>British occupied </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect, corrupt rule by ...
Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>1916 -Dinshawi incident </li></ul><ul><li>British hunting par...
Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>1913- Egyptian nationalist gained constitution and representa...
Europeans Carve Up the Ottoman Empire After WW1
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) <ul><li>Republican People’s Party Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>republicanism (National A...
Atatürk’s Reforms <ul><li>“ Turkify” the Islamic faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate the  Qur’an  into Turkish. </li></u...
Zionism Theodore Herzl 1860-1904 <ul><li>GOALS : The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral...
First Zionist Conference, 1897 <ul><li>Herzl writes  Der Judenstaat , or The Jewish State  in 1896. </li></ul><ul><li>Met ...
The Ottoman Empire in WW1
The Middle East in 1914
T. E. Lawrence  [1888-1935] “ Lawrence of Arabia,” The Legend Begins
Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 ....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions...
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
The Arab Revolt:  1916-1918
The Allied Advance Against   the Ottoman Turks Br. General Edmund Allenby
The British & Arab Armies Meet British Forces Lawrence  & Faisal’s Forces
British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary His Majesty’s Govern...
1.5 million:  A Portent of Future Horrors to Come! Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians
Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians 387,800 2,133,190 Total: 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European ...
Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!
The League of Nations Mandates
“ New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! <ul><li>Prince  Faisal     “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince  ...
Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 Modern Turkey Is Born.
The British in Palestine (1919-1947)
Essential Question:  How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for the on-going conflict betwee...
Palestine Was Part of the  Ottoman Empire
Jews & Arabs in Palestine,  1920   <ul><li>In 1920, there  was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>By ...
British  Mandate in Palestine Created July, 1922
Jewish Settlements:  The  Kibbutz  System <ul><li>First one founded in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Communal living. </li></ul>...
1929 Arab Riots  IZBAH AL-YAHUD!  [“Slaughter All the Jews!”] Jewish  4,944 1930 5,249 1929 2,178 1928 3,034 1927 13,855 1...
Palestine Arab Revolt:    1936-1939 The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler. <ul><li>An end t...
The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa <ul><li>Educated Africans initially loyal to Brits/French </li></ul><u...
The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa Britain doesn’t come through on all promises after war – jobs and publ...
The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa <ul><li>Attempts to create pan-African Movement </li></ul><ul><li>But…...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Decline Of European Colonial Power And Rise Of Nationalism

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Transcript of "Decline Of European Colonial Power And Rise Of Nationalism"

  1. 1. The rise of Militant Nationalism from 1914-1939
  2. 2. Theme of the period <ul><li>The post WWI Period diminished the European imperialists ability to control their colonies and led to a loss of their global power. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WWI and the Attack and the Nationalist Assault on European Colonial Order <ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul>
  4. 4. Corrosion of European power 1918- 1939 <ul><li>Before WWI, Europeans preached that they had the “White Man’s Burden” to civilize their colonies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Shift in perception of Europeans <ul><li>Senselessness of WWI </li></ul><ul><li>“ Has not the truth of already come home to you now when this cruel war has driven its claws into the vitals of Europe?” R.Tagore </li></ul>
  6. 6. The “Colonial” Fronts
  7. 7. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  8. 8. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  9. 9. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  10. 10. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  11. 11. The Rise of Indian Nationalism
  12. 12. The Indian National Congress <ul><li>1885  The Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay. </li></ul><ul><li>swaraj  “independence.” * the goal of the movement. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bal Gangadhar Tilak 1856 - 1920
  14. 14. Jawaharlal Nehru 1889 - 1964
  15. 15. The Muslim League <ul><li>1905  partition of Bengal based on religions and languages. </li></ul><ul><li>1906  creation of the Muslim League. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1876 - 1948
  17. 17. Young Mohandas K. Gandhi, 1876 1869 - 1948
  18. 18. Gandhi with the London vegetarian society, 1890
  19. 19. Gandhi as a Young Barrister in Natal
  20. 20. Gandhi as a Lawyer in Johannesburg, So. Africa
  21. 21. Gandhi and His Wife, Kasturba, 1915
  22. 22. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>British occupied </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect, corrupt rule by Turco-Egyptian and ayan, or landlords </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist leaders from effendi- urban middle class </li></ul>
  23. 23. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>1916 -Dinshawi incident </li></ul><ul><li>British hunting party shot wife of prayer leader </li></ul><ul><li>Violence broke out </li></ul><ul><li>British executed villagers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East <ul><li>1913- Egyptian nationalist gained constitution and representation in parliament </li></ul>
  25. 25. Europeans Carve Up the Ottoman Empire After WW1
  26. 26. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) <ul><li>Republican People’s Party Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>republicanism (National Assembly). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nationalism ( “Turkification” ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>populism (for the benefit of the people). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>statism (state-controlled economy). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secularism (free from religious control). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reformism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1924  abolished the caliphate. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Atatürk’s Reforms <ul><li>“ Turkify” the Islamic faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate the Qur’an into Turkish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Religious Affairs abolished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharia courts closed  new secular courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western-style clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbid the wearing of the fez  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western-style men’s suits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked the veiling of women. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Zionism Theodore Herzl 1860-1904 <ul><li>GOALS : The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland of Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from Western anti-Semitism. </li></ul>
  29. 29. First Zionist Conference, 1897 <ul><li>Herzl writes Der Judenstaat , or The Jewish State in 1896. </li></ul><ul><li>Met in Basel, Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates the First Zionist Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes an international Jewish organization. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Next Year in Jerusalem!” </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Ottoman Empire in WW1
  31. 31. The Middle East in 1914
  32. 32. T. E. Lawrence [1888-1935] “ Lawrence of Arabia,” The Legend Begins
  33. 33. Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 ....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
  34. 34. Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
  35. 35. The Arab Revolt: 1916-1918
  36. 36. The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks Br. General Edmund Allenby
  37. 37. The British & Arab Armies Meet British Forces Lawrence & Faisal’s Forces
  38. 38. British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine …
  39. 39. 1.5 million: A Portent of Future Horrors to Come! Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians
  40. 40. Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians 387,800 2,133,190 Total: 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia     Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey       16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
  41. 41. Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!
  42. 42. The League of Nations Mandates
  43. 43. “ New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! <ul><li>Prince Faisal  “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Abdullah  “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinct geographic regions]. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Saud  put on the throne of the newly-created Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pahlavi Family  put on the throne of a new Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal  leads a military/nationalist movement in Turkey. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 Modern Turkey Is Born.
  45. 45. The British in Palestine (1919-1947)
  46. 46. Essential Question: How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for the on-going conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in the Middle East today?
  47. 47. Palestine Was Part of the Ottoman Empire
  48. 48. Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920 <ul><li>In 1920, there was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs for every Jew. </li></ul>The Arabs felt that they were loosing control of their “country!”
  49. 49. British Mandate in Palestine Created July, 1922
  50. 50. Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System <ul><li>First one founded in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Communal living. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make the Desert Bloom!” </li></ul>
  51. 51. 1929 Arab Riots IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”] Jewish 4,944 1930 5,249 1929 2,178 1928 3,034 1927 13,855 1926 34,386 1925 13,892 1924 8,175 1923 8,685 1922 8,294 1921 8,223 1920 1,806 1919 Immigration 4,592 1941 10,643 1940 31,195 1939 14,675 1938 10,629 1937 29,595 1936 66,472 1935 45,267 1934 37,337 1933 12,533 1932 4,075 1931
  52. 52. Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936-1939 The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler. <ul><li>An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>An end to the transfer of lands to Jewish owners. </li></ul><ul><li>A new “general representative government.” </li></ul>Their Goals :
  53. 53. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa <ul><li>Educated Africans initially loyal to Brits/French </li></ul><ul><li>War changed all that </li></ul><ul><li>a. Rebellions due to forced recruitment/labor </li></ul><ul><li>b. Starvation to feed soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>c. Merchants suffer from shipping shortages </li></ul>
  54. 54. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa Britain doesn’t come through on all promises after war – jobs and public honors
  55. 55. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa <ul><li>Attempts to create pan-African Movement </li></ul><ul><li>But…started by African Americans or West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>At least pushed anti-colonial spirit </li></ul><ul><li>W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul>
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