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  • 1. Elizabethan Alchemy By: Shannon Padfield
  • 2. What is Alchemy?
    • Alchemy is a form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages.
    • It refers both to an early philosophical and spiritual discipline.
    • This form of chemistry was mostly the main precursors of modern sciences.
    Mahy., Margaret. Alchemy . New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 2003. Hudson, John. The History of Chemistry . New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992.
    • Morgan, Bruce T. Distilling Knowledge: alchemy, chemistry, and the scientific revolution . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • 3. Viewing Alchemy
    • Alchemy developed an amazing language of emblematic symbolism.
    • About four thousand printed books were issued from the 16 th century to the late 18 th centuries.
    • Its influence can often be seen in the work writer, poets, and artists if the time
    http://www.alchemywebsite.com/introduction.html
  • 4. Alchemical Symbols
    • Alchemical symbols were first used by the Greeks, Syriac, and Egyptian writers around the 5 th and 6 th centuries.
    • They were used to signify most elements and compounds during the 18 th century.
    • The symbols were mostly common through the 17 th century, but some are still used today.
    http://www.purplehell.com/riddletools/alchemy.htm Autumn Winter Spring Summer
  • 5. Famous Alchemists
    • Geber was an Arabian alchemist who was well known by the Europeans and popularized the idea of the Philosopher’s Stone.
    • Paracelsus was a Swiss alchemist who invented the word alcohol and his own branch of alchemy called Spagyric alchemy.
    • Isaac Newton was one of the last known alchemist and was said to turn lead into gold.
    http://www.alchemywebsite.com/introduction.html
  • 6. Spiritual Aspects
    • The main mistake someone makes when approaching spiritual alchemy is when they come to it with preconceived theories.
    • The second approach runs the risk of subjecting the materials being examined to the unexpressed criteria.
    • Instead, one should try to become intimately familiar with the with the pre-modernist worldview.
    http://www.angelfire.com/ga2/splitskull2/index.html
  • 7. The Art of Alchemy
    • This divine art and science can be practiced only by those who are in the possession of the divine power.
    • The external manipulations required for the production, should be taught to anybody capable of reasoning.
    • If such a person would accomplish they would be without life, not knowing what the true reason of life is.
    http://www.angelfire.com/ga2/splitskull2/index.html
  • 8. Alchemy Back Then
    • It was perceived for transforming a common substance into something valuable.
    • Medieval alchemists were referred to as quacks for believing that they could turn lead into gold.
    • The overall goal of alchemy was to make sense of the nature of matter.
    http://www.alchemywebsite.com/introduction.html
  • 9. Alchemy Now
    • Nowadays, people hope they could try to make healing remedies though they are few with the ability to do so.
    • Most people who take an interest in alchemy use it as a source of philosophical and esoteric ideas.
    • Another group of people see alchemy as a part of depth psychology.
    http://www.alchemywebsite.com/introduction.html
  • 10. Elizabethan Science and Exploration
    • By: Cesar Medina
  • 11. Elizabethan Science
    • The Middle Ages were not ignorant of science, but its study naturally received a great boost of mathematics, physics, astronomy, and medicine.
    • The invention of printing also fostered the scientific revival.
    • The pioneers of Renaissance science were mostly Italians, French, English, German, and other countries took up the work too.
    http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-science-technology.htm
  • 12. Famous Scientists
    • Copernicus (1473-1543)-was a Pole who was the founder of modern astronomy.
    • Galileo(1564-1642)-was an Italian scientist who made one of the first telescopes.
    • Kepler(1571-1630)-was a German scientist who worked out the mathematical laws which govern the movements of the planets.
    Gribbin., John R. The Scientists : A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors . New York: Random House, 2003.
  • 13. Inventions
    • 1450: Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press with movable type in Germany.
    • 1510: Leonardo da Vinci designs the horizontal water wheel.
    • 1510: Peter Henlein invented the pocket watch.
    • 1565: Conrad Gesner invented the pencil.
    • 1583: Leonard and Thomas Digges invented the telescope.
    • 1589: William Lee invented the knitting machine.
    • 1590: Dutchmen, Hans, & Zacharias Janssen invent the compound microscope.
    • 1593: Galileo invents a water thermometer.
    http://www.erasofelegance.com/history/elizabethanscience.html Gribbin., John R. The Scientists : A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors . New York: Random House, 2003.
  • 14. Elizabethan Exploration
    • Exploration was a means of pushing the boundaries of known lands.
    • Away from home, the explorers found new civilizations, wide oceans, and exotic goods.
    • Growing curiosity, desire to enhance military, and demand for goods linked exploration and trade.
    Horwitz, Tony. A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World . New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2008. http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm
  • 15. Famous Explorers
    • Sir Francis Drake(1542-1596)-was famous for his voyage around the world between 1577-1580.
    • Sir Humphrey Gilbert(1539-1583)-was famous for the discovery of Newfoundland.
    • John Davis(1550-1605)-was famous for his voyages to the Canadian Arctic and Asia.
    http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm Horwitz, Tony. A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World . New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2008.
  • 16. Expeditions
    • In 1577, Sir Francis Drake set off for the Americas. His real goal was to sail around the world. He managed to navigate the globe in his ship, the Golden Hind, returning to England in 1580.
    • On April 27, 1584, Captain Philip Amadas and Captain Arthur Barlowe set sail and commanded the two barks that made the first English Voyage to Roanoke Island. On their way back to England, they brought with them two Indians Wanchese and Manteo.
    • In April of 1534, Jacques Cartier lead his first voyage to North America from Saint Malo. When he reached Newfoundland, Cartier sailed inland, going 1,000 miles up the St. Lawrence River. Named Canada “Kanata.” This voyage lasted 137 days.
    http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm Horwitz, Tony. A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World . New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2008.
  • 17. Motives for Exploration
    • Scientific curiosity, led men to set forth on voyages of discovery.
    • The crusading spirit thrilled at the thought of spreading Christianity among barbarous people.
    • In all epochs of exploration, adventurers sought in different lands opportunities to acquire mostly power, fame, and wealth.
    http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm
  • 18. How it affected the future
    • There were countless scientists of the Elizabethan Era and they all contributed to our modern-day life and knowledge.
    • The amazing inventions and discoveries that all the genius inventors and scientists of that time made have helped and continue helping us because of the quality and great range of help the invention or discovery provides for us.
    • The great explorers of the Age of Exploration have been very brave and valiant for all their journeys and voyages that helped us discover more about the continents of the world.
    http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm
  • 19. Work Cited
    • Mahy., Margaret. Alchemy . New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 2003.
    • Hudson, John. The History of Chemistry . New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992.
    • Morgan, Bruce T. Distilling Knowledge: alchemy, chemistry, and the scientific revolution . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2005.
    • http://www.alchemywebsite.com/introduction.html
    • http://www.purplehell.com/riddletools/alchemy.htm
    • http://www.angelfire.com/ga2/splitskull2/index.html
    • Horwitz, Tony. A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World . New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2008.
    • Boerst, William J. Galileo Galilei and the Science of Motion . Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds Pub., 2004.
    • Gribbin., John R. The Scientists : A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors . New York: Random House, 2003.
    • http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-science-technology.htm
    • http://www.erasofelegance.com/history/elizabethanscience.html
    • http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm