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International Trade Theories
 

International Trade Theories

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    International Trade Theories International Trade Theories Presentation Transcript

    • Theories of International Trade
    • Learning Objectives
      • To understand the traditional arguments of how and why international trade improves the welfare of all countries
      • To review the history and compare the implications of trade theory from the original work of Adam Smith to the contemporary theories of Michael Porter
      • To examine the criticisms of classical trade theory and examine alternative viewpoints of which business and economic forces determine trade patterns between countries
    • Evolution of Trade Theories
      • Mercantilism
      • Absolute advantage (Classical)
      • Comparative advantage
      • Factor Proportions Trade
      • International Product Cycle
      • New Trade Theory
      • National competitive advantage
    • Mercantilism: mid-16th century
      • A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure
        • Gold and silver are the currency of trade
      • Theory says you should have a trade surplus.
        • Maximize export through subsidies.
        • Minimize imports through tariffs and quotas
      • Flaw: restrictions, impaired growth
    • Defining mercantilism …
      • … trade theory holding that nations should accumulate financial wealth, usually in the form of gold ( forget things like living standards or human development ) by encouraging exports and discouraging imports
    • Theory of absolute advantage
      • Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations ( 1776) argued:
        • Capability of one country to produce more of a product with the same amount of input than another country
        • A country should produce only goods where it is most efficient, and trade for those goods where it is not efficient
      • Trade between countries is, therefore, beneficial
      • Assumes there is an absolute balance among nations
    • Theory of absolute advantage
      • … destroys the mercantilist idea since there are gains to be had by both countries party to an exchange
      • … questions the objective of national governments to acquire wealth through restrictive trade policies
      • … measures a nation’s wealth by the living standards of its people
    • Theory of absolute advantage PPF – Production Possibility Frontier
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    • Theory of comparative advantage
      • David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy ( 1817)
        • Extends free trade argument
        • Efficiency of resource utilization leads to more productivity
        • Should import even if country is more efficient in the product’s production than country from which it is buying.
        • Look to see how much more efficient. If only comparatively efficient, than import .
      • Makes better use of resources
      • Trade is a positive-sum game
    • Theory of comparative advantage
    • Comparative advantage and the gains from trade
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    • Comparative advantage: Bollywood
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    • Assumptions and limitations
      • Driven only by maximization of production and consumption
      • Only 2 countries engaged in production and consumption of just 2 goods?
      • What about the transportation costs?
      • Only resource – labour (that too, non-transferable)
      • No consideration for ‘learning theory’
    • Factor proportions theory
      • Heckscher (1919) - Olin (1933) Theory
      • Export goods that intensively use factor endowments which are locally abundant
        • Corollary: import goods made from locally scarce factors
          • Note: Factor endowments can be impacted by government policy - minimum wage
      • Patterns of trade are determined by differences in factor endowments - not productivity
      • Remember, focus on relative advantage, not absolute advantage
    • Factor proportions theory
      • … trade theory holding that countries produce and export those goods that require resources (factors) that are abundant (and thus cheapest) and import those goods that require resources that are in short supply
      • Example:
        • Australia – lot of land and a small population (relative to its size)
        • So what should it export and import?
    • Factor Proportions Trade Theory Considers Two Factors of Production
      • Labor
      • Capital
    • Factor Proportions Trade Theory
      • A country that is relatively labor abundant ( capital abundant ) should specialize in the production and export of that product which is relatively labor intensive ( capital intensive )
    • The Leontief Paradox
      • The Test:
      • Could Factor Proportions Theory be used to explain the types of goods the United States imported and exported?
      • The Method:
      • Input-output analysis
    • The Leontief Paradox
      • The Findings:
      • The U.S. exported labor-intensive products and imported capital-intensive products.
      • The Controversy:
      • Findings were the opposite of what was generally believed to be true!
    • Product life-cycle Theory R.Vernon (1966)
      • … trade theory holding that a company will begin by exporting its product and later undertake foreign direct investment as the product moves through its lifecycle
      • As products mature, both location of sales and optimal production changes
      • Affects the direction and flow of imports and exports
      • Globalization and integration of the economy makes this theory less valid
    • Product life cycle theory Fig 4.5
    • The Product Cycle and Trade Implications
      • Increased emphasis on technology’s impact on product cost
      • Explained international investment
      • Limitations
        • Most appropriate for technology-based products
        • Some products not easily characterized by stages of maturity
        • Most relevant to products produced through mass production
    • New trade theory
      • In industries with high fixed costs:
        • Specialization increases output, and the ability to enhance economies of scale increases
        • Learning effects are high. These are cost savings that come from ‘learning by doing’
    • New trade theory - applications
      • Typically, requires industries with high, fixed costs
        • World demand will support few competitors
      • Competitors may emerge because of “ First-mover advantage”
        • Economies of scale may preclude new entrants
        • Role of the government becomes significant
      • Some argue that it generates government intervention and strategic trade policy
    • Theory of national competitive advantage
      • The theory attempts to analyze the reasons for a nations success in a particular industry
      • Porter studied 100 industries in 10 nations
        • postulated determinants of competitive advantage of a nation based on four major attributes
          • Factor endowments
          • Demand conditions
          • Related and supporting industries
          • Firm strategy, structure and rivalry
    • Porter’s diamond
      • Success occurs where these attributes exist.
      • More/greater the attribute, the higher chance of success
      • The diamond is mutually reinforcing
    • Factor endowments
      • Factor endowments:- A nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry
      • Basic factor endowments
      • Advanced factor endowments
    • Basic factor endowments
      • Basic factors: Factors present in a country
        • Natural resources
        • Climate
        • Geographic location
        • Demographics
      • While basic factors can provide an initial advantage they must be supported by advanced factors to maintain success
    • Advanced factor endowments
      • Advanced factors: Are the result of investment by people, companies, government and are more likely to lead to competitive advantage
      • If a country has no basic factors, it must invest in advanced factors
    • Advanced factor endowments
      • communications
      • skilled labor
      • research
      • Technology
      • education
    • Demand conditions
      • Demand:
        • creates capabilities
        • creates sophisticated and demanding consumers
      • Demand impacts quality and innovation
    • Related and supporting industries
      • Creates clusters of supporting industries that are internationally competitive
      • Must also meet requirements of other parts of the Diamond
    • Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry
      • Long term corporate vision is a determinant of success
      • Management ‘ideology’ and structure of the firm can either help or hurt you
      • Presence of domestic rivalry improves a company’s competitiveness
    • Determinants of Competitive Advantage in nations Fig 4.8 Government Company Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries Factor Conditions Chance Two external factors that influence the four determinants.
    • Porter’s Theory-predictions
      • Porter’s theory should predict the pattern of international trade that we observe in the real world
      • Countries should be exporting products from those industries where all four components of the diamond are favorable, while importing in those areas where the components are not favorable
    • Implications for business
      • Location implications :
        • Disperse production activities to countries where they can be performed most efficiently
      • First-mover implications:
        • Invest substantial financial resources in building a first-mover, or early-mover advantage
      • Policy implications:
        • Promoting free trade is in the best interests of the home-country, not always in the best interests of the firm, even though, many firms promote open markets
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    • India in the global competitiveness report