History of Art School of Architecture Karpagam University
PREHISTORY - 2.5 million BCE to 800 BCE <ul><li>Prehistoric timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Prehistoric timeline dominated by Old Stone Age or Paleolithic era </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000-200,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Paleolithic (200,000-30,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Paleolithic (40,000-10,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Mesolithic Era (In Europe, 10,000 - 4,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Era (In Europe, 4,000 - 2,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze Age (In Europe, 3000 BCE - 1200 BCE) Iron Age (In Europe, 1500 BCE - 200 BCE) </li></ul>http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/prehistoric-art.htm
Human Evolution: From Axes to Art <ul><li>1.5 million BCE and 500,000 BCE the humans developed into Archaic Homo sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic Homo sapiens species that created the Bhimbetka petroglyphs and cupules in the Auditorium cave situated at Bhimbetka in India, and at Daraki-Chattan. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic Homo sapiens - Homo sapiens – Neanderthal Man </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthal sculptors (or their contemporaries) created </li></ul><ul><li>the famous figurines known as the Venus of Berekhat Ram and the Venus of Tan-Tan , </li></ul><ul><li>as well as the ochre stone engravings at the Blombos cave in South Africa , </li></ul><ul><li>and the cupules at the Dordogne rock shelter at La Ferrassie. </li></ul>
<ul><li>About 100,000 BCE, "anatomically modern man" emerged from somewhere in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Painters and sculptors belonging to modern man </li></ul><ul><li>They were responsible for the glorious cave painting in France and the Iberian peninsular, </li></ul><ul><li>the miniature "Venus" sculptures </li></ul><ul><li> ivory carvings of the Swabian Jura, found in the caves of Vogelherd, Hohle Fels, and Hohlenstein-Stadel. </li></ul>Human Evolution: From Axes to Art
Cupule and meander petro glyph on a boulder at the Auditorium Cave, Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh, India. (c.290,000-700,000 BCE) Rock Art from Bhimbetka - 7000 BCE
Palaeolithic Period - (c.2,500,000 - 10,000 BCE) <ul><li>The first and oldest form of art was rock carving (petroglyphs) (the Lower Palaeolithic). </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by engravings, sculpture (in stone, ivory, bone and wood), cave painting, relief sculpture, ceramic pottery and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>bronze and gold sculpture, along with other metallurgical crafts (Upper Palaeolithic) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000-200,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Paleolithic (200,000-30,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Paleolithic (40,000-10,000 BCE) </li></ul>
The Venus of Berekhat Ram Lower Palaeolithic period 230,000-700,000 BCE. Venus of Tan-Tan (200,000-500,000 BCE) Lower Palaeolithic period
Sketch of Cupules found on slab over tomb at La Ferrassie Cave Middle Palaeolithic period One of the engraved stones at Blombos dating from about 70,000 BCE - sub-Saharan Africa Blombos Cave Snail Beads (75,000 BCE)
These venus figurines , mostly only a few inches in height, depicted obese female figures with enlarged breasts, bellies, hips and thighs Upper Palaeolithic period Venus of Gagarino Venus of Dolni Vestonice (26,000 BCE) First work of ceramic art Venus of Monpazier (30,000 BCE) Venus of Laussel (23,000 BCE) First bas-relief sculpture. Venus of Lespugue (23,000 BCE)
Venus of Willendorf c. 24,000-22,000 BCE 4 3/8 inches (11.1 cm) high
Bison bull and cow, modeled in clay in the rotunda of the Tuc d'Audoubert, Ariege, France
<ul><li>The expression "cave painting" usually refers to drawing, stencil art and painting on the walls and ceilings of prehistoric caves. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called "parietal art". </li></ul><ul><li>Began during the Aurignacian period (around 30,000 BCE) but reached a highpoint during the late Magdalenian culture ( Upper Palaeolithic period . </li></ul>Cave Painting Cave Painting from Grotte Chauvet 30,000 BCE. Works from "Hall of the Bulls" Lascaux 17,000 BCE.
Chauvet Cave Paintings Chauvet is one of the few prehistoric painted caves to be found preserved and intact, right down to the footprints of animals and humans. Located at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc in France Horses Heads from Chauvet Cave 30,000 BCE. Fighting Animals from Chauvet 30,000 BCE. <ul><li>300 paintings and engravings </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike most other caves, Chauvet is not a pictorial showcase of daily Stone Age life. </li></ul><ul><li>contains an abundance of abstract geometric symbols </li></ul><ul><li>quantity of red-ochre hand stencils and handprints. </li></ul>
Lascaux Cave Paintings - France Cave Painting in "Hall of the Bulls“ 17,000 BCE Painting of Auroch in "Hall of the Bulls” <ul><li>The cave murals at Lascaux have been dated to the Solutrean-Magdalenian period (19,000–8,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>What makes the prehistoric painting at Lascaux so different, is the huge scale of some of the animal pictures, and their exceptionally realistic portrayal. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the bulls (aurochs) in the Cave of the Bulls is 17 feet (5.2 m) wide - the biggest animal image ever found in a Stone Age cave. </li></ul><ul><li>there are some 2,000 figurative pictures, including 900 animal forms </li></ul>
A Cave Mural of Lascaux located in the Shaft of the Dead Man (15,000 BCE) <ul><li>Display chambers include </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Hall of the Bulls, </li></ul><ul><li>the Shaft of the Dead Man, </li></ul><ul><li>the Lateral Passage, </li></ul><ul><li>the Painted Gallery, </li></ul><ul><li>the Chamber of Engravings, </li></ul><ul><li>and the Chamber of Felines. </li></ul>In the animal picture category, horses are most popular (360 images), followed by stags (90 images), cattle and bison. The vitality and power of the figures is enhanced by their bold outlines filled with areas of soft colour, as well as the use of Egyptian-style combined frontal and side views no images of human figures at Lascaux. except - a prone stick-like figure, in the Shaft of the Dead Man. two basic categories of abstract art: simple shapes composed of dots or line work, and more elaborate drawings of quadrangles, triangles, circles and pentagons.
Lascaux, France, early period, 15,000-13,500 BC (Dun Horse)
Altamira Cave Paintings - northern Spain <ul><li>Altamira is the only painted cave in which signs of domestic human habitation Magdalenian period (16,000-8,000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>300 metres in length and consists of a series of twisting channels and chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of extraordinary realism and colours. </li></ul><ul><li>main ceiling display features a herd of multi-coloured bison in different poses. </li></ul><ul><li>no accompanying flora, vegetation or landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>number of abstract images and geometric shapes, and human hand stencils, and sculpted humanoid masks. </li></ul>Painting of a Bison (c.15,000 BCE)polychrome Cave Painting from Altamira (c.15,000 BCE) Painting of a Bison (c.15,000 BCE)
Bisons, from the Caves at Altamira, circa 15000 BC
Bison with turned head, from La Madeleine, Dordogne, France, ca. 12,000 B.C. A relief carving of a bison on a reindeer antler, approx. 4" long.
Northern Australian Aborigines cave art 40,000 BCE
Mesolithic period The Mesolithic is a transitional era between the hunter-gatherer culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, and the farming culture of the Neolithic. Artworks created during the Mesolithic period reflect the arrival of new living conditions and hunting Ceramic art was also developed, notably by the Jomon culture - an early highpoint of Japanese Art Chinese pottery begins during the Mesolithic period. example Cuevas de las Manos (Cave of the Hands) (c.9500 BCE) Paintings on Pachmari Hills (9000–3000 BCE) Thinker of Cernavoda (c.5,000 BCE)
Cueva de las Manos - Río Pinturas – Santa Cruz, Argentina Cave art, executed between 13,000 and 9,500 years ago. It takes its name (Cave of the Hands) from the stencilled outlines of human hands in the cave,
The Neolithic era <ul><li>Mesolithic Era ends in Europe, superceded by the Neolithic (New Stone Age) </li></ul><ul><li>The major art form of the Neolithic art was ceramic pottery. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk production begins in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Art was still, almost without exception, created for some functional purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>There were more images of humans than animals, and the humans looked more, well, human . </li></ul><ul><li>It began to be used for ornamentation . </li></ul><ul><li>In the cases of architecture and megalithic constructions, art was now created in fixed locations . </li></ul><ul><li>temples, sanctuaries and stone rings were built, gods and goddesses were provided with known destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, the emergence of tombs provided unmoving, "visit-able" resting places for the dearly departed - another first. </li></ul>
Jiahu (ca. 7000–5700 B.C.) Six complete bone flutes excavated from Jiahu. Fragments of thirty flutes were discovered in the burials at Jiahu and six of these represent the earliest examples of playable musical instruments ever found. The flutes were carved from the wing bone of the red-crowned crane, with five to eight holes capable of producing varied sounds in a nearly accurate octave. The Jiahu archaeological site in eastern China.