CARBON ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

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Cut out in Carbon Emisson is one of the most important topic amongst all the countries.This presentation emphasis on methods by which Carbon emssion can be reduce..

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CARBON ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

  1. 1. Carbon Abatements Methods
  2. 2. Carbon Emissions? <ul><li>These are the emissions of the carbon dioxide gas in excess released in our atmosphere from various human/non human activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities includes various activities like burning of fossil fuels, usage of cfc,s , burning of forested area for land acquisition etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Non human activities includes volcanic eruptions, geothermal energy, forest fires etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to these emissions the concentration of carbon increases very abruptly causing very serious problems like global warming, ozone depletion etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is the gradual increase in the earth's average temp. due to a phenomenon called Green house effect. </li></ul><ul><li>This effect is caused due to excessive emissions of green house gases like methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (Nox),water vapours etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth has been hottest in at least 400 years, and possibly even the last 2,000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies indicate that the average global surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.5-1.0°F (0.3-0.6°C) over the last century. </li></ul><ul><li>This warming is largely attributed to the increase of greenhouse gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere. </li></ul>Global Warming?
  4. 6. Effects Of Global Warming? <ul><li>Melting of polar ice caps & glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising of sea level leading to submergence of low lying areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction of rare species like arctic fox, polar bear, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Raising the earth’s avg. temperature very rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving rise to numerous skin diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven precipitation leading to frequent flash floods on one region & severe draughts at another region. </li></ul>
  5. 7. IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING
  6. 11. <ul><li>Conservation And Efficiency : - The chief danger at regarding global warming, is the excess emission of carbon dioxide due to the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of the tropical forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Saving And Extending The Forests : - Tragically, at present great areas of tropical forests are being destroyed by fire, bulldozing and chainsaws. Temperate forests are also being damaged, by industrial pollution. Stopping this is an essential priority, for forests are a major source of important materials, they perform vital functions, and their destruction adds to the build up of CO2 in the atmosphere . </li></ul>Remedial Measures for Global Warming
  7. 12. Remedial Measures for Global Warming contd. <ul><li>Take Personal Action : - Climate change may be a big problem, but there are many little things we can do to make a difference. If we try, most of us can do our part to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that we put into the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Deflecting heat away from the Earth’s surface with solar shields or satellites with movable reflectors - The idea was inspired by the cooling effects of large volcanic eruptions such as Mt. Pinatubo in 1991—that blast sulphate particles into the stratosphere. These particles reflect part of the sun’s radiation back into space, reducing the amount of heat that reaches the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequestration - the storage of CO2 either deep underground or deep in the ocean. Some of the nation’s largest utilities, which are also “washing” coal to filter out impurities, are working on ways to capture the CO2 they emit and store it miles below the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean fertilization - this entails scattering iron powder throughout the world’s seas, providing nutrients to boost the amount of phytoplankton that thrive in the water ’s upper layers. Through photosynthesis, these plants absorb CO2, which in theory stays with them when they die and fall to the ocean floor . </li></ul>Technological solutions for global warming
  9. 14. <ul><li>Engineered weathering - This entails replacing some of the oceans’ carbonic acid with hydrochloric acid. This, the theory goes, accelerates the underwater storage of CO2 otherwise destined for the atmosphere. According to Harvard Earth and Planetary Science Ph.D. Kurt Zenz House, engineered weathering “dramatically accelerates a cleaning process that nature herself uses for greenhouse gas accumulation . </li></ul>
  10. 16. What can I do as an individual?
  11. 18. 1)Reduce,Reuse,Recylce[3 R’s] <ul><li>whenever you can, recycle paper , plastic , newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. </li></ul><ul><li>By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. </li></ul>
  12. 19. 2) Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning <ul><li>Setting your thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in summer could save </li></ul><ul><li>about 2,000 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>of carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>each year. </li></ul>
  13. 20. 3) Change a Light Bulb <ul><li>CFLs last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. </li></ul><ul><li>If every family in India replaces one regular light bulb with a CFL, it would eliminate 900 billion pounds of greenhouse gases, the same as taking 27.5 million cars off the road. </li></ul>
  14. 21. 4) Drive Less Drive Smart <ul><li>Less driving means fewer emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the environment. </li></ul>
  15. 22. It is storing CO2 or using it in ways that prevent its release into the air.
  16. 24. Scope <ul><li>The global carbon cycle involves important couplings between climate, atmospheric CO2 and the terrestrial and oceanic biospheres. </li></ul><ul><li>The current transformation of the carbon cycle due to changes in climate and atmospheric composition is widely recognized as potentially dangerous for the biosphere and for the well-being of humankind, and therefore monitoring, understanding and predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the context of the whole biosphere (both terrestrial and marine) is a challenge to the scientific community. </li></ul><ul><li>This demands interdisciplinary research and new approaches for studying geographical and temporal distributions of carbon pools and fluxes, control and feedback mechanisms of the carbon-climate system, points of intervention and windows of opportunity for managing the carbon-climate-human system. </li></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>Lack of consumer awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher initial costs for implementation of newer technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of industry incentives. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of effective policy . </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>provide convenient and cheap transportation infrastructure to encourage citizens to use public transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation and conservation programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of public. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow tax incentives for environment-friendly choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow industry incentives to encourage adoption of environment-friendly technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower capital costs for adoption of new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide incentive and encouragement for Research & Development funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification of international policy: Such as Kyoto Protocol </li></ul>Constraints of carbon management
  18. 26. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and Education are tools to overcome the constraints. However, there is a continuous demand for new, cheaper and more efficient technologies to deal with greenhouse emissions. Technological advances, be it in areas of science or engineering, are ultimately enabled by education, awareness and, policy. </li></ul>
  19. 27. SOLUTION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE <ul><li>Try to employ alternatives when possible i.e. plant-derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Energy-efficient buildings and improved cement-making processes . </li></ul><ul><li>Improved agricultural practices along with paper recycling and forest management. </li></ul><ul><li>While purchasing wood products, such as furniture or flooring, buy used goods or, failing that, using sustainably harvested wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Unplugging or switching off those appliances which consume more energy like televisions, stereo equipment, computers, battery chargers etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing energy-efficient gadgets can also save both energy and money—and thus prevent more greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>
  20. 28. Solution for energy crisis ! <ul><li>Cheap ways to convert solar energy directly into electricity, which can be used to convert water into fuel, like hydrogen, that can be turned back into electricity on demand. </li></ul><ul><li>What we need is something as basic as paint that is engineered to capture electrons from the sun and make the electrons march into our utility lines. </li></ul>
  21. 29. Remedial Action <ul><li>Save more : - save transportation fuel by moving closer to work, use mass transit, or switch to walking, cycling or some other mode of transport that does not require anything other than human energy </li></ul><ul><li>Consume less : -The easiest way to cut back on greenhouse gas emissions is simply to buy less stuff. Whether by employing a reusable grocery sack, cutting back on consumption results in fewer fossil fuels being consumed around the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Think green when making purchases . </li></ul><ul><li>Be efficient : - </li></ul><ul><li>Good driving & good car maintenance, such as making sure tires are properly inflated can limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing food items that balance nutrition, taste and ecological impact IS ANOTHER WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved agricultural practices along with paper recycling and forest management balancing the amount of wood taken out with the amount of new trees growing could quickly eliminate this significant chunk of emissions. </li></ul>
  22. 30. Ozone depletion!! <ul><li>Ozone layer : - it is a layer surrounding the earth’s atmosphere that restricts sun’s harmful radiation & protects the earth from it’s harmful effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone layer is getting depleted mostly from carbon compounds like chloro flouro carbons i.e. cfc’s. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Ways to Protect the Ozone Layer <ul><li>Minimize high altitude aircraft flights (oxygen reduction and water vapor deposition) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize rocket flights (water vapor deposition) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen, discourage deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease / control releases of high temperature steam / moisture to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate production and release of known ozone depleting chemicals (such as CFCs and HCFCs) where remotely possible. Subsidize production of safer alternatives where possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish controls to assure that new compounds to be used in high volume, are surveyed for effect on ozone. </li></ul>
  24. 32. !!!Personal Actions!!! <ul><li>Using &quot;Ozone-Friendly&quot; products. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure technicians repairing your refrigerator or air conditioner recover and recycle the old CFCs so they are not released into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle air conditioning units should regularly be checked for leaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask about converting your car to a substitute refrigerant if the a/c system needs major repair . </li></ul><ul><li>Help start a refrigerant recovery and recycling program in your area if none already exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace halon fire extinguishers with alternatives (e.g. carbon dioxide or foam). </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest school activities to increase awareness of the problem and to initiate local action . </li></ul>
  25. 33. !!Solutions for ozone protection!! <ul><li>Destroying the CFC's molecules when they are in the troposphere with high-powered infrared lasers located on mountainsides. </li></ul><ul><li>Another possible plan developed was to chemically stop substances from developing into ozone depleting substances. This would be done by dumping about 50,000 tons of ethane or propane into the Antarctic stratosphere each spring. These chemicals would transform active ozone-depleting chlorine into non-ozone depleting HCL. </li></ul>
  26. 34. Carbon Abatement Technologies[CAT]
  27. 35. - Carbon abatement technologies are a group of innovative technologies that enable the large plants to operate with substantially reduced CO2 emissions. This means that they can be part of the solution to climate change, whilst still making a major contribution to the security of electricity supply. -For example, Carbon abatement technologies have the potential to reduce carbon emissions from fossil-fuel power stations by up to 90% and have significant export potential. What are Carbon abatement technologies ?
  28. 36. <ul><li>-It is focusing on the development of technologies which will offer significant improvements: </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of conversion processes to reduce the amount of fuel consumed and associated CO2 emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies which significantly reduce emissions from process industries (such as petrochemicals, cement and </li></ul><ul><li>metals production). </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel switching to lower carbon alternatives such as co-firing with </li></ul><ul><li>biomass or waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon capture technologies, CO2 transport, storage and use. </li></ul>Focus of Carbon abatement technologies
  29. 37. <ul><li>- Two key CAT technologies for reducing emissions: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved efficiency in existing power generation, using technologies which can reduce emissions by up to 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) which has the potential to reduce emissions by up to 85%. </li></ul>CAT Strategy
  30. 38. Carbon Sink <ul><li>A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period </li></ul><ul><li>The main natural sinks are:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.Absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans via physicochemical and biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>2.Photosynthesis by terrestrial plants </li></ul><ul><li>Natural sinks are typically much larger than artificial sinks. </li></ul><ul><li>The main artificial sinks are:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.Landfills . </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Carbon Capture and Storage proposals. </li></ul>
  31. 39. -Farmland is in general a carbon source; there are proposals for improvements in farming practices to reverse this. The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration . Public awareness of the significance of CO2 sinks has grown since passage of the Kyoto Protocol , which promotes their use as a form of carbon offset .
  32. 40. Carbon capture and storage <ul><li>Carbon capture and storage (CCS) , alternatively referred to as Carbon capture and sequestration , is a means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming , based on capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants , and storing it in such a way that it does not enter the atmosphere. It can also be used to describe the scrubbing of CO2 from ambient air as a geo-engineering technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon capture and storage&quot; has also been used to describe biological capture and subsequent storage of atmospheric CO2, such as the burial of &quot; biochar &quot;—the end product of &quot; pyrolysis &quot;, the decomposition of organic material by heat in the absence of oxygen. However, the term is more conventionally applied to non-biological methods of capturing carbon dioxide from combustion at the source. </li></ul>
  33. 42. Iron/Ocean fertilization <ul><li>Iron fertilization is the intentional introduction of iron to the upper ocean to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom. </li></ul><ul><li>This is intended to enhance biological productivity , which can benefit the marine food chain and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron is a trace element necessary for photosynthesis in all plants, however it is highly insoluble in sea water and is often the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Large phytoplankton blooms can be created by supplying iron to iron-deficient ocean waters. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of ocean labs, scientists and businesses are exploring it as a means to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide in the deep ocean, and to increase marine biological productivity which is likely in decline as a result of climate change </li></ul>
  34. 44. What is carbon trading? <ul><li>Carbon trading is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing incentives for achieving reductions in emissions of </li></ul><ul><li>pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as </li></ul><ul><li>emission trading . </li></ul><ul><li>Overall goal of an emissions </li></ul><ul><li>trading </li></ul><ul><li>plan is to minimize </li></ul><ul><li>the cost of meeting a </li></ul><ul><li>set emissions target. </li></ul>
  35. 45. <ul><li>In economics, carbon trading is a form of emissions trading that allows a country to meet its carbon dioxide emissions reduction commitments, often to meet Kyoto Treaty requirements, in as low a cost as possible by utilizing the free market. It is a means of privatizing the public cost or societal cost of pollution by carbon dioxide . </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon trading is the term applied to the trading of certificates representing various ways in which carbon-related emissions reduction targets might be met. Participants in carbon trading buy and sell contractual commitments or certificates that represent specified amounts of carbon-related emissions that either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• are allowed to be emitted; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• comprise reductions in emissions (new technology, energy efficiency, renewable energy); or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• comprise offsets against emissions, such as carbon sequestration (capture of carbon in biomass). </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. Carbon Credit <ul><li>The primary purpose of the Protocol was to make developed countries pay for their ways with emissions while at the same time monetarily rewarding countries with good behaviour in this regard. Since developing countries can start with clean technologies, they will be rewarded by those stuck with „dirty‟ ones. </li></ul><ul><li>This system poises to become a big machine for partially transferring wealth from wealthy, industrialized countries to poor, undeveloped countries. </li></ul><ul><li>A CER or carbon Credit is defined as the unit related to reduction of 1 tonne of CO2 emission from the baseline of the project activity. </li></ul>
  37. 47. <ul><li>Let us say that India decided to invest in a new power station, and has decided on a particular technology at the cost of X crore. An entity from an industrialized country (which could even be a company) offers to provide India with slightly better technology, which costs more (say Y crore), but will result in lower emissions. The industrialized country will only pay the incremental cost of the project – viz. Y minus X. In return, the „investing‟ country will get certified emission reductions‟ (CERs), or credits, which it can use to meet its Kyoto commitments </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very good deal indeed – but for the investing country. Not only do they sell developing countries their technology, but they also meet their Kyoto commitments without lifting a finger to reduce their domestic emissions. Countries like the US can continue to pollute at home, so long as it makes the reductions elsewhere. </li></ul>
  38. 48. How buying carbon credits can reduce emissions? <ul><li>Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air. Emissions become an internal cost of doing business and are visible on the balance sheet alongside raw materials and other liabilities or assets . </li></ul><ul><li>By way of example, consider a business that owns a factory putting out 100,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in a year. </li></ul><ul><li>So the factory is given a quota of say 80,000 tonnes per year. The factory either reduces its emissions to 80,000 tonnes or is required to purchase carbon credits to offset the excess. </li></ul><ul><li>One seller might be a company that will offer to offset emissions through a project in the developing world, such as recovering methane from a swine farm to feed a power station that previously would use fossil fuel. So although the factory continues to emit gases, it would pay another group to reduce the equivalent of 20,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere for that year. </li></ul>
  39. 50. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)  <ul><li>The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets . </li></ul>
  40. 51. -> Type of projects, which are being applied for CDM and which can be of valuable potential, are: 1) Energy efficiency projects - – Increasing building efficiency (Concept of Green Building/LEED Rating), e.g.- Technopolis Building Kolkata – Increasing commercial/industrial energy efficiency (Renovation & Modernization of old power plants) – Fuel switching from more carbon intensive fuels to less carbon intensive fuels; and – Also includes re-powering, upgrading instrumentation, controls, and/or equipment 2) Transport – – Improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency by the introduction of new technologies – Changes in vehicles and/or fuel type, for example, switch to electric cars or fuel cell vehicles (CNG/Bio fuels) – Switch of transport mode, e.g. changing to less carbon intensive means of transport like trains (Metro in Delhi); and – Reducing the frequency of the transport activity
  41. 52. <ul><li>3) Methane recovery - </li></ul><ul><li>Animal waste methane recovery & utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Installing an anaerobic digester & utilizing methane to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Coal mine methane recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Collection & utilization of fugitive methane from coal mining; </li></ul><ul><li>Capture of biogas </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill methane recovery and utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture & utilization of fugitive gas from gas pipelines; </li></ul><ul><li>Methane collection and utilization from sewage/industrial waste treatment facilities . </li></ul><ul><li>4) Industrial process changes - </li></ul><ul><li>Any industrial process change resulting in the reduction of any category greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>
  42. 53. Thank You

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