prospects & constraints in vety Laparoscopy in surgery
Welcome To Major Credit
Shahnawaz ahmad bhat
Div. of surgery & radiology
Prospects and Constraints
Veterinary Laparoscopic Surgery
• Uses of laparoscopy.
• Why to use laparoscopy?
• Current status.
An endoscopic procedure designed for the
visual examination, surgical procedures
and biopsy of the peritoneal cavity & its
organs using specialized instrument called
Also called Minimally invasive surgery, Key
hole surgery 0r Band-Aid surgery.
• Done under general anesthesia or
sedation & local infiltration.
• Anesthetic induction need same
procedures as in conventional surgery viz.
fasting(24-48hrs), water holding(8-12hrs) ,
preanesthesia & fluid administration.
• Ketamine-diazepam or xylazine are
recommended for G.A.
• Isoflurane for avian laparoscopy.
• 1-1.5cm incisions used.
• Veress needle used for
• Needle placement checked by;
• Pressure maintained automatically by
• Should be less than 15mm Hg.
Goats/sheep – 8-10mm Hg
Dogs – 10-12mm Hg
Horses – 12-15mm Hg.
Gas flow rate 2 L/minute.
• Laparoscope(small animals 2.7-5mm &
large animals 10mm).
• Light source(xenon & halogen).
• Fibreoptic cable.
• Digital video camera.
• Video capturing systems with floppy & CD.
• Medical grade colour monitor.
Uses of laparoscopy
Diagnosis of diseases;
by biopsy i.e. histopathology.
by direct visualization of body cavities
Surgical treatment of diseases.
Why to use laparoscopy?
• Less post-operative morbidity/pain.
• Shorter hospital stay & recovery period.
• GIT functions rapidly returned to normal.
• Few intra-abdominal adhesions
• Less contamination of surgical field
• Less invasive
• Stress indicators increase less & return to
base value rapidly indicating less stress to
Sterilization of small animals
Common clinical practice in western
Both single port & 2 port techniques used.
Post surgical activity measured by
25% decrease in LapOVE.
62% decrease in OOVE.
William T.N.Culp et al 2009
Laparoscopic mesh incisional hernioplasty
8-16% horses affected after median celiotomy.
Open hernioplasty-seroma,wound or mesh
infection, fistula & recurrence.
Laparoscopic mesh incisional hernioplasty
Less soft tissue trauma
Lower recurence rates
Good cosmetic result
Laparoscopic embryo transfer
For genetically superior animals
Mares in athletic performance or unable to
Done with a specially designed embryo transfer
Non-surgical method-50-60% success rate
Laparoscopic method-80-90% success rate.
Squires EL et al 1999
Laparoscope with a specialized embryo transfer
Laparoscopic ovum pick-up(LOPU)
For obtaining invitro fertilized zygotes in the
production of transgenic goats or reproductive
rescue of aged goats of high genetic value.
As a source of cytoplasm in nuclear transfer (NT)
Baldassarre H 2007
Prepubertal propagation of superior
animals & transgenic cloned goats.
The pregnancy and transgenesis rates
similar to the rates obtained when using in
Baldassarre H et al 2003
Gasless Laparoscopy in bovines
Diagnosis of traumatic reticuloperitonitis.
• Primary advantage of LUS - ability to image
beyond tissue boundaries.
• Additionally, the ability to place the transducer
directly against an organ allows the use of
higher frequency devices which provide better
• Used for staging of neoplasm
Laparoscopy in radiology
• Contrast radiographic studies of biliary
tract (cholecystocholangiography) & urinary tract
have become common technique.
• Contrast agent (Iohexol , Meglumine
iodipamide) directly injected into gall
bladder or urinary bladder under
Laparoscopic fetal surgery(fetoscopy)
• Corrective procedures on fetus at a much
earlier age when the wounds heal without
• Fetuses treated for congenital conditions
like cleft lips, obstructive uropathy, severe
congenital diaphragmatic hernia etc.
• Successful operations performed in
bitches, sows & ewes.
Roman M Sydorak 2001
• In traditional procedures the surgeon exposes
the whole operative site in order to interpret its
broader anatomical context.
• video-guided MIS - lack of a wide field of
• Many Surgeons doubt that patient safety can be
warranted using only a key hole perspective.
• Robotic surgery has been touted as a solution to
underdeveloped nations, whereby a single
central hospital can operate several remote
machines at distant locations.
• The potential for robotic surgery has strong
military interest, providing mobile medical care
while keeping trained doctors safe from battle.
• Allows a physician to see directly inside a
patient, using augmented reality (AR).
• AR combines computer graphics with images
of the real world. This uses laparoscopic
range imaging, a video see-through head-
mounted display (HMD), and a high-
performance graphics computer to create live
images that combine computer-generated
imagery with the live video image of a patient.
• Gas embolism.
• Incisional hernias.
• Tumor implantation at trocar sites.
• Lack of tactile feedback.
• Loss of depth perception due to 2
dimensional view on monitor.
• Restricted range of motion & FoV.
• Electrosurgical burns.
• Time consuming.
• Cost of equipment.
• Long procedural learning curve.
• High skill level needed.
• Lack of skilled assistance.
• Cumbersome maintenance of equipments.
• Lack of will from surgeons to use the
With the development of skills,
research and advancement in
technology time is not far when
laparoscopic surgery will replace many
of the traditional surgical procedures in
veterinary sciences as well like human
"Someday in the future, people will look
back at a regular surgical incision as
something archaic and barbaric’’
Dr. Paul A. Wetter,
Chairman of the
Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons