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  • 1. Copyright © 2000-2002 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference GuideDisclaimer 2Instance 3Database 6Database Utilities 7Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments 8Logfiles 9Tables, Constraints & Triggers 10Views, Synonyms & Sequences 12Clusters 12Index-organized Tables 13Indexes 13Temporary Segments 14Undo Management 14Users, Privileges, Resources & Policies 15Auditing 16Net Services 16Recovery Manager 18Distributed DB, Replication, Heterogenous Services,Advanced Queuing & Data Warehousing 20Real Application Clusters 22Globalization Support 24SQL*Plus 25Data Types (PL/SQL & Database) 26SQL, PL/SQL & Java 28Embedded SQL 32SQLJ 34Label Security 35Performance 35Architecture 36 www.larsditzel.de
  • 2. 2 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Disclaimer This document is nothing official by Oracle ers for input data are enclosed in brackets <> Corporation. Oracle holds all rights on its with corresponding default values underlined. documentation. Certain terms are registered A comma followed by an ellipsis inclosed in trademarks. The major goal of this quick ref- square brackets [, …] indicates that the pre- erence guide is compaction, not clarity. Some ceding syntactic element may be repeated. An syntax options only work under certain circum- ellipsis without preceding comma … indicates stances, some options exclude each other. This that the corresponding syntactic elements have behaviour is intentionally not reflected to avoid been specified beforehand. proliferation of similar statements. Be aware of Each section commonly starts with dynamic your actions! The author disclaims liability for performance views and static data dictionary errors within this document and subsequent views (only DBA variants listed) and – oc- mistakes that might harm your database. In casionally – tables. Initialization parameters case of uncertainties please refer to Oracle’s follow as well as database packages and im- original documentation, which comprises sev- portant files or processes. Then comes a list eral hundred megabytes meanwhile, or contact of performance tuning measures and desup- Oracle Customer Support. Suggestions and ported or deprecated features. The main part corrections to improve this guide are welcome. of each section is comprised of SQL statements This reference uses a modified Backus-Naur grouped by functionality. The final section may Form syntax which is adapted from the Oracle state utilities if any exist. online documentation. Optional parts are Changes from Release 8i to 9i are colored enclosed in square brackets [], a list of items is blue for new features or red for obsolete fea- enclosed in curly braces {}, alternatives within tures. Outdated syntax has not been removed brackets or braces are separated by a vertical most of the time as one eventually comes bar |. Keywords appear in regular style and across databases running older releases of are not case-sensitive in most OS. Placehold- Oracle Server. Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management • Ringstraße 23a • 65824 Schwalbach • Germany Phone/Fax +49 (6196) 889739-0/5 • Mobile +49 (173) 6530050 • info@larsditzel.de www.larsditzel.de Copyright © 2000-2002 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management
  • 3. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 3Instance Background Processes (v$bgprocess) cess, v$px_process_sysstat, v$pq_sesstat, Tuning/Contention ARC<n>, CJQ0, J<nnn>, CKPT, DBW<n>, v$pq_slave, v$pq_sysstat, v$pq_tqstat, Buffer cache: «Cache Hit Ratio» (v$sysstat) DIAG, DMON, EMN0, LCK<n>*, LGWR, v$execution, v$mls_parameters, deptree, or per pool (v$buffer_pool_statistics) LMD0*, LMON*, LMS<n>*, LNSV, LSP0, session_context 1 – («physical reads» / («db block gets» + MRP0, NSV0, PMON, QMN<n>, RECO, «consistent gets»)) < 90–95% -> increase RLAP, RSM0, SMON, RFS<n> Parameters (init<sid>.ora) «db_block_buffers» or «buffer_pool_keep», BSP<n>*, SNP<n> << obsolete spfile, ifile, instance_name, service_names, «buffer_pool_recycle» * RAC processes Shared pool: «Shar. Cursors» db_block_size, sga_max_size, db_cache_size, Failure of LGWR (Err 470), CKPT (470), DBW<n> (471), ARC<n> (473), SMON (474) or RECO (476) db_keep_cache_size, db_recycle_cache_size, (v$librarycache) gethitratio for SQL AREA lead to termination of instance by PMON. Failure of db_<n>k_cache_size, db_cache_advice, < 99% PMON leads to termination of instance by DBW<n> shared_pool_size, log_buffer, large_pool_size, (Err 472). Library cache: sum(reloads) / sum(pins) > 1% Failed SNP<n> processes are restarted by PMON. java_pool_size, shared_pool_reserved_size, (v$librarycache) pre_page_sga, sessions, processes, user_dump_ Dict. cache: sum(getmisses) / sum(gets) > dest, background_dump_dest, max_dump_ 15% (v$rowcache) -> increase «shared_ Foreground Processes file_size, local_listener, remote_listener, pool_size» D<nnn>, S<nnn>, P<nnn> mts_service, circuits, dispatchers, max_dis- LRU latch: «cache buffers lru chain» patchers, shared_servers, max_shared_servers, (v$latch) sleeps / gets > 1% -> increase Views & Tables shared_server_sessions, dbwr_io_slaves, «db_block_lru_latches» (max. CPU * 6 or v$fixed_table, v$fixed_view_definition, remote_os_authent, os_authent_prefix, BUFFERS / 50) v$indexed_fixed_column, v$instance, v$sga, dml_locks, enqueue_resources, parallel_auto- Redo buffer: «redo%retries» (v$sysstat) v$sgastat, v$pgastat, v$session, v$process, matic_tuning, parallel_min_servers, paral- PGA: «%ga memory%» (v$sysstat), «sorts%» v$bgprocess, v$version, product_compo- lel_max_servers, parallel_min_percent, paral- (v$sysstat), sorts (v$sqlarea), «work- nent_version, v$license, v$option, v$access, lel_adaptive_multi_user, parallel_threads_ area%» (v$sysstat, v$sesstat), v$pgastat, v$timer, v$parameter, v$parameter2, per_cpu, parallel_execution_message_size, par- v$sql_workarea, v$sql_workarea_active, v$spparameter, v$system_parameter, allel_broadcast_enabled, oracle_trace_enable, pga_%_mem (v$process) v$system_parameter2, v$obsolete_parameter, oracle_trace_collection_{name | path | size}, v$sql, v$sqlarea, v$sqltext, v$sqltext_with_ oracle_trace_facility_{name | path}, java_ soft_sessionspace_limit, java_max_sessions- Deprecated Features newlines, v$sql_cursor, v$sql_bind_data, v$sql_bind_metadata, v$sql_shared_memory, pace_size, lock_sga, shared_memory_address, v$mts v$sql_plan, v$sql_workarea, v$sql_work- hi_shared_memory_address, object_cache_op- db_block_buffers, buffer_pool_keep, buf- area_active, v$librarycache, v$rowcache, timal_size, object_cache_max_size_percent, fer_pool_recycle, mts_circuits, mts_dispatch- v$rowcache_parent, v$rowcache_subordi- serial_reuse, session_max_open_files, timed_ ers, mts_max_dispatchers, mts_servers, nate, v$open_cursor, v$object_dependency, os_statistics, cursor_sharing, drs_start mts_sessions v$db_object_cache, v$shared_pool_reserved, utlbstat.sql, utlestat.sql v$bh, v$cache, v$subcache, v$buffer_pool, Packages v$buffer_pool_statistics, v$db_cache_advice, DBMS_SYSTEM Desupported Features v$filestat, v$sysstat, v$sesstat, v$mystat, set_sql_trace_in_session v$recent_bucket, v$current_bucket, db_ v$statname, v$waitstat, v$latch, v$latchname, DBMS_SESSION block_lru_latches, use_indirect_data_buffers, v$latchholder, v$latch_parent, v$latch_chil- set_sql_trace db_block_lru_extended_statistics, db_block_ dren, v$event_name, v$system_event, DBMS_SHARED_POOL lru_statistics, lock_sga_areas, shared_pool_re- v$session_event, v$session_wait, v$circuit, keep, unkeep, sizes served_min_alloc, parallel_server_idle_time, v$queue, v$shared_server, v$shared_serv- DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO parallel_transaction_resource_timeout, paral- er_monitor, v$dispatcher, v$dispatcher_rate, set_module, set_action, set_client_info, lel_min_message_pool, mts_rate_log_size, v$reqdist, v$queue, v$lock, v$enqueue_lock, read_module, read_client_info mts_rate_scale, mts_max_servers v$locked_object, v$global_blocked_locks, v$session_connect_info, v$session_longops, v$system_cursor_cache, v$session_cur- Files sor_cache, v$session_object_cache, v$sess_io, dbmspool.sql, prvtpool.plb, catparr.sql, v$bsp, v$px_session, v$px_sesstat, v$px_pro- utldtree.sql Database locks (v$lock) CU cursor bind, DF data file, DL direct cache, RT redo thread, SC system commit modes loader parallel index creation, DM data- number, SM smon, SN sequence number, 0 - none, 1 - null (NULL), 2 - row share base mount, DR distributed recovery, DX SQ sequence number enqueue, SS sort seg- (SS), 3 - row exclusive (SX), 4 - share (S), distributed transaction, FS file set, HW ment, ST space transaction, SV sequence 5 - share row exclusive (SSX), 6 - exclu- space management operation, IN instance number value, TA generic enqueue, TS sive (X) number, IR instance recovery, IS instance temporary segment (ID2=0) or new block user types and names state, IV library cache invalidation, JQ allocation (ID2=1), TT temporary table, TM dml enqueue, TX transaction job queue, KK redo thread kick, L[A-P] UN user name, US undo segment ddl, enqueue, UL user-defined lock library cache lock, MM mount defini- WL being-written redo log, XA instance tion, MR media recovery, N[A-Z] library registration attribute lock, XI instance system types and names cache pin, PF password file, PI/PS parallel registration lock BL buffer hash table, CF control file trans- operation, PR process startup, Q[A-Z] row action, CI cross-instance call invocation, www.larsditzel.de
  • 4. 4 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Instance (cont.) Parameters | false}, remote_os_roles = {true | false}, repli- Session Scope Dynamic Init. Parameters show parameter[s] <string> cation_dependency_tracking = {true | false}, alter session set <param> [=] <value>; alter system set <param> [=] <value> rollback_segments = (<rbs> [, …]), row_lock- cursor_sharing = {similar | exact | force}, [comment ‘<text>’] [deferred] ing = {always | default | intent}, serial_reuse = db_block_checking, db_create_file_dest = [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] {disable | select | sml | plsql | all}, session_max_ ‘<dir>’, db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5> = [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; open_files = <10>, sessions = <(1.1*proc)+5>, ‘<dir>’, db_file_multiblock_read_count = <8>, sga_max_size = <n>, shadow_core_dump global_names = {true | false}, hash_area_size alter system reset <param> = {partial | full}, shared_memory_address = = <n>, hash_join_enabled = {true | false}, [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] <0>, shared_pool_reserved_size = <5%SP>, log_archive_dest_<1-10> = {location = <path> [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; shared_server_sessions = <n>, spfile = <file>, | service = <serv>} [optional | mandatory] sql92_security = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true [[no]reopen [=<300>]] [arch | lgwr] [synch | Static Initialization Parameters | false}, tape_asynch_io = {true | false}, thread async = <n>] [[no]affirm] [[no]delay [= <30>]] active_instance_count = <n>, audit_file_dest = <n>, transactions_per_rollback_segment = [[no]dependency] [[no]alternate [= <dest>]] = <dir>, audit_trail = {none | false | db | true | <5>, undo_management = {manual | auto}, [[no]max_failure [= <n>] [[no]quota_size os}, background_core_dump = {full | partial}, util_file_dir = <dir> [= <n>] [[no]quota_used] [[no]register [= bitmap_merge_area_size = <1m>, blank_trim- <loc>]], log_archive_dest_state_<1-10> = {en- ming = {true | false}, buffer_pool_{keep | Dynamic Initialization Parameters able | defer | alternate}, log_archive_min_suc- recycle} = {<n> | (buffers: <n>, lru_latches: aq_tm_processes = <n>, archive_lag_target = ceed_dest = <1>, max_dump_file_size = {<n> <n>} << deprecated, circuits = <n>, cluster_data- <n>, background_dump_dest = ‘<dir>’, back- | unlimited}, nls_calendar = ‘<cal>’, nls_comp base = {true | false}, cluster_database_instances up_tape_io_slaves = {true | false}, control_file_ = {binary | ansi}, nls_currency = <curr>, = <n>, cluster_interconnects = <ip>[:<ip>…], record_keep_time = <7>, core_dump_dest = nls_date_format = ‘<fmt>’, nls_date_lan- commit_point_strength = <n>, compatible ‘<dir>’, db_{2|4|8|16|32}k_cache_size = <0>, guage = <lang>, nls_dual_currency = <curr>, = <x.x.x>, control_files = (“<file>” [, …]), db_block_checking = {true | false}, db_block_ nls_iso_currency = <terr>, nls_language = cpu_count = <n>, create_bitmap_area_size checksum = {true | false}, db_cache_advice <lang>, nls_length_semantics = {byte | char}, = <8m>, cursor_space_for_time = {true | = {on | ready | off }, db_cache_size = <48m>, nls_nchar_conv_excp = {true | false}, nls_nu- false}, db_block_buffers = <n> << deprecated, db_{keep | recycle}_cache_size = <0m>, meric_characters = <sep>, nls_sort = {binary | db_block_size = <2048>, db_domain = dispatchers = ‘{ (protocol = <prot>) | (descrip- <ling>}, nls_territory = <terr>, nls_time_for- <str>, {db | log}_file_name_convert = (‘prim’, tion = (address =…) ) | (address = (protocol mat = ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_format = ‘stdby’ [, …]), db_files = <200>, db_name = = <prot>) (host = <node>) (port = <port>) ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, <str>, db_writer_processes = <1>, dblink_en- )} (connections = <n>) (dispatchers = <1>) nls_time_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, object_cache_ crypt_login = {true | false}, dbwr_io_slaves = (index = <n>) (listener = <list>) ( {pool | max_size_percent = <10>, object_cache_op- <0>, disk_asynch_io = {true | false}, distrib- multiplex} = {1 | on | yes | true | both | ({in | timal_size = <n>, optimizer_index_caching uted_transactions = <n>, gc_files_to_locks out} = <n>) | 0 | off | no | false | <n>}) (ticks = = <0>, optimizer_index_cost_adj = <100>, = ‘<f#>[-<f#>]=<n>[!<B>][r][each][: …]’ << <15>) (service = <serv>) (presentation = {ttc | optimizer_max_permutations = <80000>, op- disables Cache Fusion, hi_shared_memory_ad- oracle.aurora.server.{SGiopServer | GiopServ- timizer_mode = {first_rows_{1|10|100|1000} dress = <0>, ifile = <file>, instance_groups er} })’, drs_start = {true | false}, fal_client = | first_rows | all_rows | choose | rule}, = <gr> [, …], instance_name = <sid>, <serv>, fal_server = <serv>, fast_start_io_target oracle_trace_enable = {true | false}, parallel_ instance_number = <n>, java_max_ses- = <n> << deprecated, fast_start_mttr_target broadcast_enabled = {true | false}, parallel_in- sionspace_size = <0>, java_pool_size = = <0>, fast_start_parallel_rollback = {hi | stance_group = <gr>, parallel_min_percent = <20k>, java_soft_sessionspace_limit = <0>, lo | false}, fixed_date = <date>, global_con- <0>, partition_view_enabled = {true | false}, large_pool_size = <n>, local_listener = <serv>, text_pool_size = <1m>, hs_autoregister = plsql_compiler_flags = {[debug | non_debug], lock_name_space = <name>, lock_sga = {true | false}, job_queue_processes = <0>, [interpreted | normal]}, plsql_v2_compat- {true | false}, log_archive_format = <fmt>, license_max_sessions = <0>, license_max_us- ibility = {true | false}, query_rewrite_enabled log_archive_start = {true | false}, log_buffer = ers = <0>, license_sessions_warning = <0>, = {true | false}, query_rewrite_integrity = <n>, logmnr_max_persistent_sessions = <1>, log_archive_dest = <dir>, log_archive_du- {stale_tolerated | trusted | enforced}, remote_ max_commit_propagation_delay = <700>, plex_dest = <dir>, log_archive_max_processes dependencies_mode = {timestamp | signature}, max_dispatchers = <5>, max_enabled_roles = = <1>, log_archive_trace = <0>, log_check- session_cached_cursors = <0>, sort_area_re- <20>, max_shared_servers = <n>, o7_diction- point_interval = <bl>, log_checkpoint_time- tained_size = <n>, sort_area_size = <65536>, ary_accessibility = {true | false}, open_cursors out = <sec>, log_checkpoints_to_alert = {true star_transformation_enabled = {temp_disable = <50>, open_links = <4>, open_links_per_in- | false}, parallel_adaptive_multi_user = {true | true | false}, timed_os_statistics = <0>, stance = <4>, optimizer_features_enable | false}, parallel_threads_per_cpu = <n>, timed_statistics = {true | false}, tracefile_iden- = <9.0.0>, oracle_trace_collection_name pga_aggregate_target = <0>, plsql_native_c_ tifier = ‘<id>’, undo_suppress_errors = {true | = <name>, oracle_trace_collection_path = compiler = <path>, plsql_native_library_dir false}, workarea_size_policy = {auto | manual} <dir>, oracle_trace_collection_size = <n>, = <dir>, plsql_native_library_subdir_count = oracle_trace_facility_name = {oracled, oraclee, <0>, plsql_native_linker = <path>, plsql_na- Session Parameters Only oraclesm, oraclec}, oracle_trace_facility_path = tive_make_file_name = <path>, plsql_native_ constraint[s] = {immediate | deferred | default}, <dir>, os_authent_prefix = <OPS$>, os_roles make_utility = <path>, resource_limit = {true create_stored_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} = {true, false}, parallel_automatic_tuning = | false}, resource_manager_plan = <plan>, ser- [nooverride], current_schema = <schema>, er- {true | false}, parallel_execution_message_size vice_names = <serv> [, …], shared_pool_size = ror_on_overlap_time = {true | false}, flagger = = <n>, parallel_max_servers = <n>, paral- <16/64m>, shared_servers = <0/1>, standby_ {entry | immediate | full | off }, instance = <n>, lel_min_servers = <0>, pre_page_sga = {true archive_dest = <path>, standby_file_manage- isolation_level = {serializable | read commit- | false}, processes = <n>, rdbms_server_dn = ment = {manual | auto}, trace_enabled = {true ted}, plsql_debug = {true | false}, skip_unus- <x.500>, read_only_open_delayed = {true | | false}, transaction_auditing = {true | false}, able_indexes = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true false}, recovery_parallelism = <n>, remote_ar- undo_retention = <900>, undo_tablespace = | false}, time_zone = {‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ | local | chive_enable = {true | false}, remote_listener = <ts>, user_dump_dest = <dir> dbtimezone | ‘<tz_region>’}, use_{private | <serv>, remote_login_passwordfile = {none | shared | exclusive}, remote_os_authent = {true stored}_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} www.larsditzel.de
  • 5. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 5Instance (cont.) Deprecated Initialization Parameters oradebug | hanganalyze [level] mts_dispatchers, mts_servers { help [cmd] | ffbegin %_area%_size <<for dedicated server cofigurations | setmypid | ffderegister | setospid <ospid> | ffterminst | setorapid <orapid> [‘force’] | ffresumeinst Obsolete Initialization Parameters | dump <dump> <lev> [addr] | ffstatus job_queue_interval, db_block_max_dirty_tar- | dumpsga [bytes] | core get, hash_multiblock_io_count = <n> | dumplist | ipc | event <evt> | unlimit Events | session_event <evt> | procstat { alter system set event = | alter session set | dumpvar {p | s | uga} <var> [lev] | call <func> [<arg> , …] } events [=] } ‘<dbg_evt> trace name context | setvar {p | s | uga} <var> <val> {forever, level <n> | off }’ | peek <addr> <len> [lev] alter session set events [=] {‘immediate trace | poke <addr> <len> <val> name {heapdump | controlf | systemstate} level | wakeup <orapid> <n>’ | ‘<oerr> trace name errorstack level 3’} | suspend | resume | flush Debug events | close_trace 10015 (rollback), 10046 (process), 10049, | tracefile_name 10051, 10053, 10210, 10211, 10212, 10231, | lkdebug 10232, 10235, 10248 (dispatcher), 10249 | nsdbx (shared server + dispatcher), 10257 (pmon), 10262, | -G {<inst> | def | all} 10297 (oid caching), 10325 (control), 10408 | -R {<inst> | def | all} (block keywords), 10520 (avoid invalidations), | setinst {“<inst> [, …]” | all} 10619 (compatibility), 19027 (ctxxpath), 29700 | sgatofile <”path”> (v$ges_convert% views), 30441 | dmpcowsga <”path”> | mapcowsga <”path”> Instance Startup/Shutdown Utilities startup orapwd [force] [restrict] [pfile=<par>] [ nomount | file=<file> password=<pwd> entries=<n> [exclusive | parallel [retry] | shared [retry]] oradim { mount [<db>] | open –{new | edit | delete | startup | shutdown} [read {only | write [recover]} | recover] –{sid <SID> | srvc <serv>} –newsid <SID> [<db>] } ] –usrpwd <pwd> –intpwd <pwd> shutdown –maxusers <n> –startmode {a | m} [ normal | transactional [local] –shutmode {a | i | n} | immediate | abort ] –{starttype | shuttype} alter database [<db>] {srvc | inst | srvc, inst} { mount [ {standby | clone} database] –pfile <par> –timeout <n> [exclusive | parallel] << obsolete tkprof <trc> <out> | dismount [explain=<user>/<pwd>@<netserv>] | open [read only | [read write] [table=<tab>] [print=<n>] [sys=no] [resetlogs | noresetlogs] ] [insert=<file>] [record=<file>] | close [normal | immediate] }; [aggregate=<n>] [sort=<opt>] otrcfmt Instance Modification oemctl alter system {enable | disable} restricted { {start | stop | status | ping} session; oms [<user>/<pwd>] | {start | stop} alter system {quiesce restricted | unquiesce}; paging [<host> <name>] | {enable | dis- able | dump | export | import} alter system {suspend | resume}; eventhandler [<file>] alter system kill session ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ | {import | export} registry [<file>] [immediate]; <user>/<pwd>@<repalias> alter system disconnect session | configure rws } ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ oemapp {console | dataguard} [post_transaction | immediate]; vppcntl –start alter system shutdown [immediate] ‘D<nnn>’; vtm alter system register; alter system flush shared_pool; www.larsditzel.de
  • 6. 6 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Database Views & Tables Files v$database, v$controlfile, v$controlfile_re- catalog.sql, catproc.sql, utlrp.sql, utlip.sql, cord_section, v$deleted_object, utlirp.sql, utlconst.sql, utlincmpt.sql, v$compatibility, v$compatseg, v$timezone_ utldst.sql, timezone.dat, timezlrg.dat, names, dictionary, dict_columns, dba_catalog, catlg803.sql, u0703040.sql, r0703040.sql, dba_objects, dba_object_size, dba_ana- u080<n>0<n>0.sql, r08000<n>0.sql, lyze_objects, props$, database_properties, d080<n>0<n>.sql database_compatible_level Tuning/Contention Parameters phyrds, phywrts (v$filestat) db_create_file_dest, db_create_online_log_ dest_<n>, undo_tablespace, cluster_database, control_files, db_name, db_domain, db_files, compatible, read_only_open_delayed DB Creation [national character set create controlfile [‘<ctrl>‘] [reuse] create database [<db>] {<UTF8> | <AL16UTF16>} ] set database <db> [datafile…] [logfile…] [datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] size <n> [reuse] [set time_zone = … [[no]resetlogs]; [autoextend {on | off } [next <1xBS> { ‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ create spfile [= ‘<spfile>’] from maxsize {<n> | unlimited}] ]] | ‘<time_zone_region>’ } ] pfile [= ‘<pfile>’]; [logfile [group <n>] [set standby database create pfile [= ‘<pfile>’] from (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] {protected | unprotected} ] spfile [= ‘<spfile>’]; [, [group <n>] [archivelog | noarchivelog] [exclusive]; alter database [<db>] backup controlfile to (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] ] … ] { ‘<file>’ [reuse] [default temporary tablespace <ts> DB Modification | trace [resetlogs | noresetlogs] }; [tempfile ‘<file>’] alter database [<db>] rename global_name alter database [<db>] create standby controlfile [extent management local] to <db>; as ‘<file>’ [reuse]; [uniform [size <1> [k | m]] ]] alter database [<db>] default temporary alter database [<db>] set standby database [undo tablespace <SYS_UNDOTBS> tablespace <ts>; {protected | unprotected}; [datafile ‘<file>’ alter system set undo_tablespace = <new_ts>; alter database [<db>] [autoextend…] [, …] ]] alter database [<db>] convert; commit to switchover to [physical] [controlfile reuse] alter database [<db>] reset compatibility; {primary | standby} [wait | nowait]; [maxdatafiles <n>] [maxinstances <n>] alter database [<db>] [national] character set alter database [<db>] activate [physical] [maxlogfiles <n>] [maxlogmembers <n>] <new_char>; standby database [skip [standby logfile]]; [maxloghistory <n>] [character set {<charset> alter database [<db>] set {dblow = <str> | | <UTF8> | <UTFE> | <AL32UTF8>} ] dbhigh = <str> | dbmac {on | off } }; Data Guard CLI alter Other Utilities dgmgrl [-silent] [-xml] [-debug] [-echo] { configuration set state = dbassist connect <user>/<pwd>@<service> ‘[online | offline]’ dbca | site ‘<site>’ set { state = ‘[online | offline]’ startup [restrict] [force] [pfile=<file>] | auto pfile = ‘<pfile>’ [off ] } [nomount | mount [<db>] | resource ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] set | open [read {only | write} ] ] { state = ‘<state>’ shutdown {normal | immediate | abort} | property ‘<prop>’ = ‘<val>’ }; show { configuration [verbose] [‘<prop>’] create | site [verbose] ‘<site>’ [‘<prop>’] { configuration ‘<conf>’ | resource [verbose] ‘<res>’ [‘<prop>’] as primary site is ‘<prim>’ [on site ‘<site>’] | site ‘<site>’ } | dependency tree resource is ‘<res>’ hostname is ‘<host>’ | log [alert] [latest] on site ‘<site>’ }; instance name is ‘<inst>’ enable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource service name is ‘<serv>’ ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; site is maintained as physical; disable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource remove { configuration ‘<conf>’ | site ‘<site>’ }; ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; www.larsditzel.de
  • 7. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 7Database Utilities Views & Tables Loads {whitespace | [x]’<str>’ | eof } v$loadcstat, v$loadistat, v$loadpstat, sqlldr [[optionally] enclosed…] } v$loadtstat, dba_exp_files, dba_exp_objects, userid = <user>/<pwd> data = <data> [trailing [nullcols] ] dba_exp_version, sys.incexp, sys.incfil, control = <ctrl> parfile = <par> log = [sorted indexes] sys.incvid <log> bad = <bad> discard = <discard> [singlerow] discardmax = <n> skip = <n> load = ( { <col> { <sqlfunc> | sysdate | recnum <n> errors = <n> rows = <n> bindsize | sequence [( { <n>[.<x>] Files = <65536> readsize = <65536> silent | max | count } )] } catexp.sql, catexp7.sql, migrate.bsq | <col> [filler] = ( {header | feedback | errors | discards | partitions | all} [, …] ) direct = <n> [ position ( { <x> [ {: | -} <y>] Export multithreading = <n> streamsize = <n> | * [+<z>] } ) ] exp columnarrayrows = <n> parallel = <n> { char [(<n>)] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile file = <file> skip_unusable_indexes = <n> | varchar [(<n>)] = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize skip_index_maintenance = <n> com- | varcharc = <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buf- mit_discontinued = <n> external_table | date [“<fmt>”] fer = <n> silent = <n> recordlength = = {not_used | generate_only | execute} | time <n> direct = <n> rows = <y> indexes resumable = <n> resumable_name = <str> | timestamp = <y> grants = <y> constraints = <y> resumable_timeout = <7200> datecache | time with time zone triggers = <y> feedback = <0> statistics = <n> | timestamp with time zone = {estimate | compute | none} record = bind array size = | interval year to month (n rows) * ( SUM (fixed field lengths) + SUM(max. | interval day to second <y> compress = <y> consistent = <n> varying field lengths) + ( (number of varying length object_consistent = <n> flashback_scn = fields) * (size of length indicator [2 or 3, system | integer [external] [(<n>)] <scn> flashback_time = <time> resumable dependent]) ) ) | smallint = <n> resumable_name = <str> resum- | float [external] able_timeout = <7200> template = <x> Controlfile | double tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) transport_ta- [ options ( | byteint blespace = <n> tts_full_check = <x> [, …] [bindsize = <n>] [columnsarrayrows = | zoned [external] (p [,<s>]) point_in_time_recover = <n> <n>] [direct = {true | false}] [errors = <n>] | decimal [external] (p [,<s>]) recovery_tablespaces = <ts> [, …] [load = <n>] [multithreading = {true | | raw [(<n>)] { full = <n> | owner = <schema> false}] [parallel = {true | false}] [readsize | varraw | tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …] = <n>] [resumable] [resumable_name] | long varraw [query = <expr>] ) } [resumable_timeout] [rows = <n>] [silent | varrawc inctype = {complete | cumulative | incre- = ({feedback | errors | discards | all} [, …])] | graphic [(<n>)] mental} << deprecated [skip = <n>] [skip_index_maintenance] | graphic external [(<n>)] Perform full exports as user System. [skip_unusable_indexes] [streamsize = | vargraphic [(<n>)] } buffer size = <n>] ) ] [terminated by (n rows) * SUM(max. field length + size of length indicator [2 or 3, system dependent]) {“<str>” | whitespace} ] {load | continue_load} data [ {nullif | defaultif } ({<col> | <pos>}) [{infile | inddn} [‘<load.dat>’ | * ] <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] Import [“str [x]’<char>’”] [enclosed by ‘<chr>’ and ‘<chr>’] imp [“recsize <n> buffers <n>”] [“<sql_stmt>(:<col>)”] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile [badfile ‘<load.bad>’ | baddn] [, <col> …] ) = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize = [{discardfile | discarddn} ‘<load.dsc>’] [into table <tab> …] <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buffer [{discards | discardmax} <n>] [characterset <char>] [begindata…] = <n> recordlength = <n> rows = <y> grants = <y> indexes = <y> indexfile = [byteorder {big | little} [endian] ] [byteordermark {check | nocheck} ] Migration <file> constraints = <y> commit = <n> compile = <y> ignore = <n> inctype = [length [semantics] mig {system | restore} feedback = <0> show {byte | char | character} ] dbname = <db> new_dbname = <new> = <n> statistics = {always | none | safe | [concatenate <n>] pfile = <initfile> spool = <logfile> check_ recalculate} analyze = <y> recalculate_sta- [continueif only = <false> no_space_check = <false> tistics = <n> destroy = <n> skip_unus- { [this | next] [preserve] multiplier = <15> nls_nchar = <char > able_indexes = <n> toid_novalidate = [(] <pos> (<type> [, …] ) resumable = <n> resum- | last [preserve] [(] } able_name = <str> resumable_timeout <op> [x]’<str>’ [)] ] = <7200> streams_configuration = <y> into table <tab> streams_instatiation = <n> { full = <n> | [ ({partition | subpartition} <part>) ] tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …])} fromuser [skip <n>] = <schema> [, …] touser = <schema> [, {insert | replace | truncate | append} …] transport_tablespace = <n> datafiles = [options (file = <db_file>) ] ‘(<file> [, …] )‘ tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) [when ({<col> | <pos>}) tts_owners = <owner> [, …] point_in_ <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] time_recover = <false> [fields Order: type defs – table defs – table data – indexes { enclosed [by] – constraints, views, procedures, triggers [[x]’<str>’] [and [x]’<str>’] – bitmap, functional, domain indexes | terminated [by] www.larsditzel.de
  • 8. 8 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments Views & Tables Parameters tablespace_migrate_{from | to}_local, v$tablespace, v$datafile, v$datafile_copy, db_block_checking, db_block_checksum, segment_{verify | corrupt | dump | v$datafile_header, v$dbfile, v$offline_range, recovery_parallelism, fast_start_parallel_roll- moveblocks}, segment_drop_corrupt, seg- v$tempfile, v$tempstat, v$temp_extent_map, back, db_file_name_convert, log_check- ment_number_{blocks | extents}, v$temp_extent_pool, v$temp_space_header, point_timeout, log_checkpoints_to_alert, DBMS_TTS v$temp_ping, v$backup, v$recover_file, db_writer_processes, db_file_simultane- transport_set_check, downgrade v$recovery_file_status, v$recovery_log, ous_waits, standby_file_management, v$recovery_progress, v$recovery_status, read_only_open_delayed Deprecated Features v$recovery_transactions, v$instance_recovery, fast_start_io_target, log_checkpoint_interval v$fast_start_servers, v$fast_start_transac- Packages tions, v$managed_standby, dba_tablespaces, DBMS_REPAIR Desupported Features dba_ts_quotas, dba_data_files, filext$, check_object, {skip | fix}_corrupt_blocks, db_block_max_dirty_target, db_file_simul- dba_temp_files, dba_segments, dba_extents, dump_orphan_keys, rebuild_freelists, taneous_writes, db_block_checkpoint_batch, dba_free_space, dba_free_space_coalesced, admin_tables, segment_fix_status parallel_transaction_recovery dba_free_space_coalesced_tmp[1-3], DBMS_SPACE ts_pitr_objects_to_be_dropped, ts_pitr_check, unused_space, free_blocks, space_usage transport_set_violations, dba_dmt_free_space, dba_dmt_used_extents, dba_lmt_free_space, DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN dba_lmt_used_extents, pluggable_set_check, tablespace_verify, tablespace_{rebuild | uni_pluggable_set_check, straddling_ts_ob- relocate | fix}_bitmaps, tablespace_rebuild_ jects quotas, tablespace_fix_segment_states, TS Creation alter tablespace <ts> { online | offline [immediate] [nowait] | disconnect create tablespace <ts> [ normal | temporary | immediate [from session] [finish [nowait]] ] [datafile ‘<file>’] << only optional if | for recover ] }; << deprecated | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST is set alter tablespace <ts> { read {write | only} [until [consistent with] controlfile] [size <n>] [reuse] | permanent | temporary }; | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] [autoextend {off | on [next <n>] alter tablespace <ts> [minimum extent <n>] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [maxsize {<n> | unlimited} ] } ] default storage (…); | logfile ‘<log>’ } [,’<file>’… [autoextend…] ] alter tablespace <ts> coalesce; [test [allow <x> corruption] ] [minimum extent <n>] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] alter tablespace <ts> {begin | end} backup; [blocksize <n> [k]] | continue [default] | cancel }; alter database [<db>] datafile <n> [, …] [default storage ( [initial <5xBS>] recover [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>’] end backup; [next <5xBS>] [pctincrease <50>] { database [until { cancel | change <scn> [minextents <1>] | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] Datafiles [using backup controlfile] [maxextents {<n> | unlimited} ] [freelists <1>] [freelist groups <1>] alter system checkpoint [global | local]; | [managed] standby database [buffer_pool {default | keep | recycle} ] )] alter system check datafiles [global | local]; [timeout <n> | cancel [immediate] ] [logging | nologging] alter database [<db>] datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] [permanent | temporary] [online | offline] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online [until [consistent with] controlfile] [extent management | offline [drop] | end backup }; | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] { dictionary | local alter database [<db>] tempfile ‘<file>’ [, …] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [autoallocate | uniform [size <1m>]] }] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online | logfile <log> [segment space management | offline | drop [including datafiles] }; | continue [default] {manual | auto} ]; alter database [<db>] rename file | cancel } create undo tablespace <ts> ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new_file>’ [, …]; [noparallel | parallel (degree {<n> | default} [datafile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. [instances <1> | default] )] alter database [<db>] create datafile [extent management local] ‘<file>‘ [, …] [as {new | ‘<file>‘ [, …]} ]; [uniform [size <1m>]]; create temporary tablespace <ts> Recovery [tempfile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. set autorecovery {on | off } [extent management local] [uniform [size <1m>]]; set logsource <dir> drop tablespace <ts> alter database [<db>] recover [including contents [and datafiles] [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>‘] [cascade constraints] ]; { { [standby] database [until { cancel | change <scn> | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] TS Modification [using backup controlfile] alter tablespace <ts> add {datafile | tempfile} | managed standby database ‘<file>’ size <n> [reuse] [autoextend…]; [ next <n> | timeout <n> | delay <n> alter tablespace <ts> rename datafile | nodelay | expire <n> | cancel ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new>’ [, …]; www.larsditzel.de
  • 9. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 9Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments (cont.) Utilities RowID Packages dbv file=<file> Logical: DBMS_ROWID start=<n> end=<n> logfile=<log> hex string of variable length (rowid_create, rowid_object, rowid_rela- blocksize=<2048> feedback=<0> Extend(10B): tive_fno, rowid_block_number, ro- parfile=<fil> segment_id=<ts.fil.blck> DataObj#{32b} - RelFile#{10b} - wid_row_number, rowid_to_absolute_fno, Block#{22b} - Row#{16b} rowid_to_extended, rowid_to_restricted) Blocks Base64 v$type_size OOOOOO – FFF – BBBBBB – RRR Header: Restrict(6B): static(61B), row directory(2B*rec), transac- Block#{Xb} - Row#{Xb} - File#{Xb} tion headers (23B*TX) [Cluster: table directory]Logfiles Views & Tables Packages Tuning/Contention v$log, v$logfile, v$thread, v$loghist, v$log_ DBMS_LOGMNR_D v$system_event, v$sysstat history, v$database, v$archive, v$archive_dest, build Redo latch: v$archive_dest_status, v$archive_gap, DBMS_LOGMNR «redo allocation», «redo copy» (v$latch) v$standby_log, v$archived_log, v$archive_ add_logfile, start_logmnr, end_logmnr, «misses» / «gets» > 1% or processes, v$logmnr_dictionary, v$logmnr_pa- mine_value, column_present «immediate_misses» / («immediate_gets» + rameters, v$logmnr_logs, v$logmnr_contents, DBMS_LOGMNR_SESSION «immediate_misses») > 1% dba_source_tables, dba_source_tab_columns, {add | remove}_logfile, {create | attach | -> decrease «log_small_entry_max_size» dba_subscriptions, dba_subscribed_tables, detach | destroy}_session, column_present, -> increase «log_simultaneous_copies» dba_subscribed_columns, change_sources, include_src_tbl, mine_value, {prepare | (max. CPU * 2) change_sets, change_tables release}_scn_range, set_dict_attr, set_ses- sion_params Desupported Features Parameters DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_PUBLISH v$targetrba, log_archive_buffers, log_archive_ db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5>, thread, {create | alter | drop}_change_table, drop_ buffer_size, log_block_checksum, log_simul- log_buffer, log_archive_max_processes, {subscription | subscriber_view}, purge taneous_copies, log_small_entry_max_size, log_archive_start, log_archive_dest, log_ar- DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_SUBSCRIBE lgwr_io_slaves chive_format, standby_archive_dest, log_ar- get_subcription_handle, subscribe, chive_duplex_dest, log_archive_dest_ {activate | drop}_subscription, {extend | <1-10>, log_archive_dest_state_<1-10>, purge}_window, {prepare | drop}_ sub- remote_archive_enable, fal_client, fal_server, scriber_view log_archive_trace, archive_lag_target, log_ar- chive_min_succeed_dest, log_file_name_con- Files vert, arch_io_slaves, utl_file_dir, logmnr_ dbmslm.sql, dbmslmd.sql, dbmslms.sql, max_persistent_sessions dbmscdcp.sql, dbmscdcs.sql catcdc.sql, (_allow_resetlogs_corruption << undocumented & unsupported) initcdc.sql Archive Mode Logfiles alter database [<db>] drop archive log { list | stop | {start | next | all | alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile [standby] logfile member ‘<log>’; <n>}} [thread <n>] [group <n>] (‘<log>’, …) alter database [<db>] clear [to <dest>] << always applies to current instance size <n>; [unarchived] logfile {group <n> | ‘<log>’} alter database [<db>] alter database [<db>] [unrecoverable datafile]; {archivelog | noarchivelog}; {enable [public] | disable} thread <n>; alter database add supplemental log data alter system archive log [thread <n>] alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile ( {primary key | unique index} [, …] ) { start [to ‘<log_path>’] | stop member ‘<log>’ [reuse] to group <n>; columns; | current << global log switch alter database [<db>] register [or replace] alter database drop supplemental log data; | next | all | sequence <n> | group <n> [physical] logfile ‘<log>’ [, …]; alter table add supplemental log group <grp> | change <n> | logfile ‘<file>’ }; alter database [<db>] rename file (<col> [, …] ) [always]; alter system switch logfile; ‘<log>’ [, …] to ‘<new_log>’ [, …]; alter table drop supplemental log group <grp>; << applies only to current instance alter database [<db>] drop [standby] logfile group <n>; www.larsditzel.de
  • 10. 10 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tables, Constraints & Triggers Views & Tables DBMS_STATS «table scans%» (v$sysstat) -> adjust dba_tables, dba_all_tables, dba_object_tables, {set | get}_{column | index | system | «db_file_multiblock_read_count» dba_external_tables, dba_external_locations, table}_stats, gather_{system | database | row migr.: dba_tab_comments, dba_tab_columns, col, schema | table | index}_stats, delete_{sys- «table_name», «head_rowid» (chained_ dba_tab_col_statistics, dba_associations, tem | database | schema | table | index | rows << utlchain.sql, utlchain1.sql) or «table dba_ustats, dba_col_comments, dba_up- column}_stats, {export | import}_ {sys- fetch continued row» (v$sysstat) datable_columns, dba_unused_col_tabs, tem | database | schema | table | index | -> increase pctfree dba_tab_modifications, dba_nested_tables, column}_stats, prepare_column_values, -> recreate table (create as, delete from, dba_part_tables, dba_tab_partitions, convert_raw_value, generate_stats, {create | insert into select, commit, drop) dba_tab_subpartitions, dba_part_col_sta- drop}_stat_table, alter_{database | sche- freelists: tistics, dba_part_key_columns, dba_par- ma}_table_monitoring, flush_{database | «segment header» (v$waitstat), «buffer tial_drop_tabs, dba_subpart_col_statistics, schema}_monitoring_info busy waits» (v$system_event) dba_subpart_key_columns, dba_constraints, DBMS_REDEFINITION -> alter pctfree/pctused, inittrans or dba_cons_columns, dba_triggers, dba_trig- {can | start | finish | abort}_redef_table, -> increase freelist/freelist groups ger_cols, dba_internal_triggers, dba_tab_his- sync_interim_table (v$session_wait -> dba_extents -> dba_seg- tograms, dba_part_histograms, dba_sub- ments -> recreate object) part_histograms, hist_head$ Files full & partial partition-wise joins utlexcpt.sql, utlexcpt1.sql, dbmsstdx.sql, Parameters dbmsutil.sql, utlvalid.sql, utlchain.sql, Desupported Features _system_trig_enabled utlchn1.sql dba_histograms, cache_size_threshold Packages Tuning/Contention DBMS_UTILITY pctfree = UPD/AVG analyze_database, analyze_schema, pctused = 1 – pctfree – AVG/nBLK analyze_part_object scans: Table Creation [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] [logging | nologging] ] (max. 1000 col) [initrans <1>] [maxtrans <n>] [index <ind> << deprecated in 8i and 9i create [global temporary] table <tab> [storage (…) ] [tablespace <ts>] ([tablespace <ts>] [of <object_type> [logging | nologging] [storage (…)]) ] [[not] substitutable at all levels] [recoverable | unrecoverable] << deprecated [tablespace <ts>… ] ) ] [object identifier is [organization [XMLType [<col>] store as clob [<lobseg>] {primary key | system generated} ] { heap [([tablespace <ts>]…)] ] [oidindex <ind> ([tablespace <ts>…] | index << see index-organized table below [ partition by range (<col> [, …]) [storage (…)]) ] ] | external ( [type <oracle_loader>] [subpartition by hash (<col> [, …]) ( <col> <type> [ {default | := } <value>] default directory <dir> [subpartitions <n> [with rowid] [scope is <tab>] [access parameters [store in (<ts> [, …])] ] [constraint <col_constr>] { (<opaque_format>) ( partition [<part>] [ {[not] null | using clob <subquery> } ] values less than | primary key [using index location ([<dir>:] ‘<loc>’ [, …]) ) ( {<val> [, …] | maxvalue} ) { <ind>… [reject limit {<0> | unlimited}] } ] [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] | (create unique index <ind> [cluster <clust> (<col> [, …])] [ (subpartition <subpart> on <tab> (<col> [,…]) …) } ] [column <col> [tablespace <ts>] | unique [using index { [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [, subpartition…] ) { <ind>… | [not] substitutable at all levels } ] | subpartitions <n> | (create unique index <ind> [nested table <col> store in (<ts> [, …]) ] on <tab> (<col> [,…]) …) } ] [ [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [, partition… | check (<expr>) | [not] substitutable at all levels ] [(subpartition…)] ] ) | references <tab> [(<col>)] store as <tab> | partition by list (<col>) [on delete {cascade | set null}] } [( (<prop>) [storage (…)] )] (partition [<part>] [ [not] deferrable [initially [return as {locator | value}] ] values ({<val> [, …] | null}) {immediate | deferred}] ] [varray <varr> [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] [ {enable | disable} [ [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [ (subpartition <subpart> [validate | novalidate] | [not] substitutable at all levels ] [tablespace <ts>] [exceptions into <tab>] ] store as lob [<lobseg>] [, subpartition…] ) [,<col>… [constraint <col_constr>]…] [([tablespace <ts>]…)] ] | subpartitions <n> [, …] [, constraint <tab_constr>…] [lob { (<col>) store as <lob_seg> store in (<ts> [, …]) ] [ref (<col>) with rowid] | (<col> [, …]) store as } [, partition… [scope for (<col>) is <tab>] ( [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] [(subpartition…)] ] ) [supplemental log group <grp> [{enable | disable} storage in row] | partition by hash (<col> [, …]) (<col> [, …]) [always] ] ) [pctversion <10>] [chunk <n>] { (partition <part> [on commit {delete | preserve} rows] [cache | {nocache | cache reads} [tablespace <ts>] www.larsditzel.de
  • 11. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 11Tables, Constraints & Triggers (cont.) [, partition…]) [, …] […]; | { primary key | unique (<col> [, …]) } | partitions <n> alter table <tab> coalesce partition […]; [cascade] [{keep | drop} index] }; store in (<ts> [, …]) } ] alter table <tab> truncate set constraint[s] {<constr> [, …] | all} [{disable | enable} row movement] {partition | subpartition} <part> {immediate | deferred}; [cache | nocache] [{drop | reuse} storage] […]; [rowdependencies | norowdependencies] alter table <tab> rename Triggers [monitoring | nomonitoring] {partition | subpartition} <part> to <new>; alter table <tab> {enable | disable} all triggers; [parallel [<n>] | noparallel] alter table <tab> modify create [or replace] trigger <trigg> [{enable | disable} [validate | novalidate] {partition | subpartition} <part> { before | after | instead of } { primary key | unique (<col> [, …]) [storage (…) ] [allocate extent…] { {delete | insert | update [of <col> [, …]] } | constraint <constr> } [using index…] [logging | nologging] … [or…] on {<tab> | [nested table <col> [exceptions into <tab>] [cascade] [[rebuild] unusable local indexes]; of ] <view>} [{keep | drop} index] ] [as <subquery>]; alter table <tab> modify | { { {associate | disassociate} statistics partition <part> | analyze | audit | noaudit | comment {add subpartition | create | alter | rename | drop | grant Table Modification [<subpart> [tablespace <ts>]] | revoke | truncate | ddl } [or…] alter table <tab> modify (<col> <type>…); | coalesce [subpartition] } […]; | { shutdown | startup | servererror alter table <tab> add (<col> <type>…); alter table <tab> modify default attributes | logon | logoff | suspend } [or…] } alter table <tab> set unused [for partition <comp_part>] on {schema | database} } {(<col> [, …]) | column <col>} [storage (…)] …; [referencing {old [as] <old> | new [as] [cascade constraints] [invalidate]; alter table <tab> modify <new> | parent [as] <parent>} [, …] ] alter table <tab> drop partition <part> [for each row] [when (<expr>)] {(<col> [, …]) | column <col>} {add | drop} values (<val> [, …]); { begin <stat>; end; [cascade constraints] [invalidate] alter table <tab> move | call … ; } [checkpoint <512>]; {partition | subpartition} <part> alter trigger <trigg> alter table <tab> drop tablespace <ts> {enable | disable | compile [debug]}; {unused columns | columns continue} [logging | nologging] […]; drop trigger <trigg>; [checkpoint <512>]; alter table <tab> split drop table <tab> [cascade constraints]; partition <part1> at (<n>) Statistics rename <tab> to <new_tab>; into (partition <part2>, deprecated (use DBMS_STATS) >> alter table <tab> move partition <part3> [, …] ) […]; analyze table <tab> [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] alter table <tab> merge partitions <part1>, [partition (<n>) | subpartition (<n>)] [logging | nologging] <part2> [into partition <part3>] […]; { compute [system] statistics [parallel [<n>] | noparallel]; alter table <tab> exchange | estimate [system] statistics truncate table <tab> {partition | subpartition} <part> [sample <1064> {rows | percent}] } [[preserve | purge] snapshot log] with table <tab> [including indexes] [for table] [for all [local] indexes] [{drop | reuse} storage]; [{with | without} validation] […]; [for all [indexed] columns [size <75>] ] alter table <tab> [storage (…)] [for columns [size <75>] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] … Constraints <col> [size <75>] [<col>…] ]; [{nominimize | minimize} alter table <tab> add analyze table <tab> delete [system] statistics; records_per_block]; ( [constraint <tab_constr>] analyze table <tab> list chained rows alter table <tab> { primary key (<col> [, …]) [into <chained_rows>]; { allocate extent ( [size <n>] [using index…] analyze table <tab> validate [datafile ‘<file>‘] [instance <n>] ) | unique (<col> [, …]) [using index…] { structure [cascade] [into <invalid_rows>] | deallocate unused [keep <n>] }; | foreign key (<col> [, …]) {online | offline} lock table <tab> in {share [row exclusive] references <tab> [(<col> [, …])] | ref update [set dangling to null] }; | exclusive} mode [nowait]; [on delete {cascade | set null} ] associate statistics with alter table <tab> {enable | disable} table lock; | check (<expr>) } { columns [<tab>.]<col> [, …] comment on {table <tab> | column [[not] deferrable | functions <func> [, …] <tab>.<col>} is ‘<str>’; [initially {immediate | deferred}] ] | packages <pack> [, …] alter table add supplemental log group <grp> [{disable | enable} [validate | novalidate] | types <type> [, …] (<col> [, …] ) [always]; [exceptions into <tab>]] ); | indexes <ind> [, …] alter table drop supplemental log group <grp>; alter table <tab> | indextypes <indtype> [, …] } {disable | enable} [validate | novalidate] [using <stat_func>] { constraint <constr> [default cost (<cpu>, <io>, <network>)] Partitioning | primary key [default selectivity <selec>]; alter table <tab> add partition <range_part> | unique (<col> [, …]) } disassociate statistics from values less than (<value> [, …] ) [using index…] { columns [<tab>.]<col> [, …] [tablespace <ts>] [exceptions into <tab>] [cascade] | functions <func> [, …] [{update | invalidate} global indexes] [{keep | drop} index]; | packages <pack> [, …] [parallel [<n>] | noparallel]; alter table <tab> modify constraint <constr> | types <type> [, …] alter table <tab> add partition … [rely | norely]; | indexes <ind> [, …] [<hash_part> [tablespace <ts>]] […]; alter table <tab> drop | indextypes <indtype> [, …] } alter table <tab> drop partition <part> { constraint <constr> [cascade] [force]; www.larsditzel.de
  • 12. 12 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tables, Constraints & Triggers (cont.) External Table Opaque Format | terminated by { whitespace | ‘<str>’} | char <n> [enclosed…] [ltrim…] record [[optionally] enclosed by…] ] [dateformat { {fixed | variable} <n> [ltrim | rtrim | lrtrim | ldtrim | notrim] { { date | {time | timestamp} | delimited by {newline | ‘<str>’} } [missing field values are null] [with timezone] } [characterset ‘<char>’] [(<field> mask “<fmt>” [data is {little | big} endian] [ [position] ({ * | <start> | [+|-] | interval { year_to_month [string sizes are in {bytes | characters} ] <incr>} [:|-] {<end> | <len> }) ] | day_to_second } } ] [load when <expr>] [ [unsigned] integer [external] <n> | { varchar | varraw | varcharc [{badfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nobadfile] | {decimal | zoned} [external] | varrawc } ([<n>,] <max>) ] [discardfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nodiscardfile] (<p> [, <s>]) [{defaultif | nullif } <expr>] [logfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nologfile] | oracle date [, <field> …] ) ] [skip <n>] | oracle number [counted] [fields | {double | float} [external] [ enclosed by ‘<str>’ [and ‘<str>’] | raw <n> Views, Synonyms & Sequences Views & Tables [with { read only | check option Sequences dba_views, dba_synonyms, dba_sequences [constraint <constr>] } ]; create sequence <seq> alter view <view> <constr>…; [start with <1>] [increment by <1>] View constraints are declarative only. Only unique or [maxvalue <1027> | nomaxvalue] Views prim./foreign key with mode disable novalidate. [minvalue <1> | nominvalue] create [or replace] [force | noforce] alter view <view> compile; [cycle | nocycle] [nocache | cache <20>] view <view> rename <view> to <new_view>; [order | noorder]; [ ( { <alias> [<col_constr>] drop view <view>; When an instance shuts down, cached sequence values | <constr> } [, …] ) that have not been used in committed DML statements | of <type> can be lost. Synonyms Ordered sequences may not be cached with RAC. { with object identifier [default | (<attr>, …)] create [public] synonym <syn> for <obj>; alter sequence <seq> …; | under <superview> } rename <syn> to <new_syn>; << only private! rename <seq> to <new_seq>; ( { <attr> <col_constr> drop [public] synonym <syn>; drop sequence <seq>; | <constr> } [, …] ) ] as <query> Clusters Views & Tables [size <1xBS>] cluster <clust> (<col> [, …] ); dba_clusters, dba_clu_columns, all_tab_col- [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] alter cluster <clust>…; umns, dba_cluster_hash_expressions [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] truncate cluster <clust> [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <255>]; [ {drop | reuse} storage]; Creation & Modification create index <ind> drop cluster <clust> on cluster <clust> [pctfree <n>] [including tables [cascade constraints]]; create cluster <clust> [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] (<col> <type> [, …] ) analyze cluster <clust> …; [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <n>]; [index | [single table] hashkeys <n> create table <tab> [hash is <expr>] ] (<col> <type>… [constraint <constr>…] ) www.larsditzel.de
  • 13. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 13Index-organized Tables Views & Tables [overflow [tablespace <ts>] [pctfree <10>] [(partition <part>…) ]; all_tables (iot_type, iot_name), all_indexes [initrans <1>] [maxtrans <255>] alter table <iot> move [online] [storage (…)] [compress [<n>] | nocompress] [allocate…] [deallocate…] [tablespace <ts>] [overflow…] … Creation & Modification [logging | nologging] ] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ]; create table <iot> [partition by range (<col> [, …]) alter table <iot> modify default attributes (<col>… primary key…) (partition <partX> [for partition <part>] [storage (…)] organization index values less than (<value> [, …]) [pctthreshold <50> [including <col>]] [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] [compress [<n>] | nocompress] [pctfree <n>] [initrans <n>] [maxtrans [overflow tablespace <ts>…] [overflow tablespace <ts>…]; <n>] [, parti- [mapping table | nomapping] alter table <iot> coalesce; tion…] )]; [pctthreshold <50> [including <col>]] analyze table <iot> compute statistics; alter table <iot> … [overflow…]; [compress [<n>] | nocompress] alter table <iot> add overflow …Indexes Views & Tables Parameters Tuning/Contention v$object_usage, dba_indexes, dba_indextypes, create_bitmap_area_size, bitmap_merge_ index_stats: dba_indextype_operators, dba_ind_columns, area_size «del_lf_rows_len» / «lf_rows_len» > 20% dba_ind_expressions, index_stats, dba_part_ -> rebuild index indexes, dba_ind_partitions, dba_ind_sub- Packages & Files partitions, dba_part_col_statistics, dba_sub- DBMS_PCLXUTIL part_col_statistics, index_histogram build_part_index Index Creation values less than Index Modification create [unique | bitmap] ({<value> [, …] | maxvalue}) alter index <ind> [storage (…)] index <ind> on <tab> [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <n>] { ([<expr>] <col> [asc | desc] [, …]) [logging | nologging] [compress [<n>] | nocompress]; | ([<tab>] <col> [asc | desc] [, [<tab>]…]) [, partition…] )] alter index <ind> from <tab> [, <tab>…] where <expr> } [indextype is <type> { allocate extent ( [size <n>] [tablespace {<ts> | default }] [parameters (‘<str>‘)] ]; [datafile ‘<file>‘] [instance <n>] ) [storage (…)] [pctfree <10>] drop index <ind>; | deallocate unused [keep <n>] }; [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <255>] alter index <ind> {enable | disable}; alter index <ind> rebuild [logging | nologging] [nosort] [reverse] alter index <ind> unusable; [{partition | subpartition} <part>] [online] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] alter index <ind> rename to <new>; [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] [compress [<n>] | nocompress] [pctfree <10>] [local Index Partitioning [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <255>] [(partition [<partX>] [storage (…)] [logging | nologging] [tablespace <ts>] alter index <ind> drop partition <part> [, …]; on range parti- [parallel [<n>] | noparallel] tioned table [logging | nologging] alter index <ind> rename [compress <n> | nocompress] [, partition…] ) {partition | subpartition} <part> to <new>; [compute statistics] [online] | [store in ({<ts> [, …] | default}) alter index <ind> modify [reverse | noreverse] | (partition [<partX>] {partition | subpartition} <part> [parameters (‘<par>‘) ]; on hash parti- [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] … alter index <ind> coalesce; tioned table [, partition…] )] [logging | nologging] [unusable] | store in ({<ts> [, …] | default}) [rebuild unusable local indexes]; Statistics [(partition [<partX>] alter index <ind> modify default attributes [storage (…)] [for partition <part>] analyze index <ind>…; on composite [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] [pctfree <n>] …; analyze index <ind> validate structure partitioned table [logging | nologging] alter index <ind> rebuild {online | offline}; [store in ({<ts> [, …] | default}) {partition | subpartition} <part> alter index <ind> | ( subpartition [<subpartX>] [tablespace <ts>] [parallel [<n>]]; {monitoring | nomonitoring} usage; [tablespace <ts>] alter index <ind> split partition <p1> [, subpartition…] )] at values less than (<n>) into [, partition…] )] ]] (partition <p2>, partition <p3> [, …]); [global partition by range (<col>) (partition <partX> www.larsditzel.de
  • 14. 14 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Undo Management Views & Tables Packages [storage ([initial <5xBS>] [next <5xBS>] v$undostat, v$rollname, v$rollstat, DBMS_TRANSACTION [optimal <null>] [minextents <1>] v$transaction, v$transaction_enqueue, use_rollback_segment [maxextents {<n> | unlimited}] )]; v$global_transaction, dba_undo_extents, drop rollback segment <rbs>; dba_rollback_segs, dba_pending_transactions Tuning/Contention RBS Modification RBS Header: Parameters «undo segment tx slot» (v$system_event) alter rollback segment <rbs> {online | offline}; undo_management, undo_tablespace, > 0 or (v$rollstat) sum(«waits») / alter rollback segment <rbs> storage (…); undo_retention sum(«gets») > 5% -> add RBS alter rollback segment <rbs> shrink [to <n>]; RBS Segment: set transaction use rollback segment <rbs>; Deprecated Features «%undo%» (v$waitstat) / «consistent gets» rollback_segments, transactions, transac- (v$sysstat) (count/value) > 1% -> add RBS Undo Management tions_per_rollback_segment create undo tablespace <ts>…; (_corrupted_rollback_segments RBS Creation alter system set undo_tablespace = <ts>; << undocumented & unsupported) create [public] rollback segment <rbs> [tablespace <ts>] Temporary Segments Views & Tables Tuning/Contention v$sort_segment, v$sort_usage, dba_segments Sorts: «sorts (disk)», «sorts (memory)», «sorts Parameters (rows)» (v$sysstat) disk.value / mem.value > 5% -> increase «sort_area_size» sort_area_size, sort_area_retained_size (+ decrease «sort_area_retained_size») Desupported Features sort_multiblock_read_count, sort_direct_ writes, sort_write_buffers, sort_write_buf- fer_size www.larsditzel.de
  • 15. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 15Users, Privileges, Resources & Policies Views & Tables sumer_group_privs, dba_rsrc_manager_sys- | update | delete}_{plan | plan_directive | v$enabledprivs, v$resource, v$resource_limit, tem_privs consumer_group}, delete_plan_cascade, v$pwfile_users, v$context, v$rsrc_plan, switch_consumer_group_for_{sess | user} v$rsrc_plan_cpu_mth, v$rsrc_consumer_ Parameters DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER_PRIVS group, v$rsrc_consumer_group_cpu_mth, o7_dictionary_accessibility, remote_os_au- {grant | revoke}_system_privilege, {grant | v$parallel_degree_limit_mth, v$max_ac- thent, os_roles, remote_os_roles, max_en- revoke}_switch_consumer_group tive_sess_target_mth, v$vpd_policy, abled_roles, resource_limit, resource_man- DBMS_SESSION dba_users, dba_roles, dba_profiles, dba_us- ager_plan, ent_domain_name switch_current_consumer_group tats, dba_ts_quotas, dba_sys_privs, DBMS_RLS dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs, dba_role_privs, Environment {add | drop | enable | refresh}_policy, {add | role_sys_privs, role_tab_privs, role_role_privs, drop | enable | disable | refresh}_grouped_ user_tab_privs_made, user_tab_privs_recd, $ORA_ENCRYPT_LOGIN policy, {add | drop}_policy_context, {create user_col_privs_made, user_col_privs_recd, | delete}_policy_group user_password_limits, user_resource_limits, Packages session_privs, session_roles, dba_context, DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER dba_policies, proxy_users, resource_cost, set_initial_consumer_group, {create | sub- dba_rsrc_plans, dba_rsrc_plan_directives, mit | clear | validate}_pending_area, {create dba_rsrc_consumer_groups, dba_rsrc_con- Users | none}; Profiles create user <user> identified set role create profile <prof> limit { by <pwd> { <role> [identified by <pwd>] [ { sessions_per_user | by values ‘<crypt_pw>‘ [, <role> [identified by <pwd>] …] | cpu_per_session | externally | all [except <role> [, …] ] | cpu_per_call | globally as ‘<user>’ } | none }; | connect_time [default tablespace <ts>] | idle_time [temporary tablespace <ts>] Privileges | logical_reads_per_session [quota {<n> | unlimited} on <ts>] grant {<priv> [, …] | <role> [, …] | all | logical_reads_per_call [quota…] [privileges]} to | composite_limit [password expire] {<user> [, …] | <role> [, …] | public} | private_sga [account {lock | unlock}] [identified by <pwd>] | failed_login_attempts [profile {<prof> | default}]; [with admin option]; | password_lock_time alter user <user>…; revoke {<priv> | <role>} from | password_life_time drop user <user> [cascade]; {<user> | <role> | public}; | password_grace_time | password_reuse_time grant {<priv> [(<col> [, …])] [, …] | all } | password_reuse_max } Roles on <object> {<n> | unlimited | default} [, …] ] create role <role> to { <user> [, …] | <role> [, …] | public } [password_verify_function [ not identified [with grant option] {<func> | null | default} ]; | identified [with hierachy option]; alter profile <prof> limit…; { by <pwd> | using <package> revoke {<priv> [(<col> [, …])] | all [privileges]} on [directory] <object> drop profile <prof> [cascade]; | externally | globally } ]; from { <user> | <role> | public } alter resource cost alter role <role>…; [cascade constraints]; [connect_time <n>] [cpu_per_session <n>] drop role <role>; [logical_reads_per_session <n>] alter user <user> default role [private_sga <n>]; { <role> [, …] | all [except <role> [, …]] www.larsditzel.de
  • 16. 16 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Auditing Views & Tables Packages SQL all_def_audit_opts, dba_stmt_audit_opts, DBMS_FGA [no]audit stmt_audit_option_map, dba_priv_au- {add | drop | enable | disable}_policy {<stat> [, …] | <priv> [, …] } dit_opts, dba_obj_audit_opts, user_tab_au- [by <user> [, …]] [by {session | access}] dit_opts, dba_audit_trail, dba_audit_session, Parameters [whenever [not] successful]; dba_audit_statement, dba_audit_object, [no]audit <stat> [, …] on {<object> | default} audit_trail, transaction_auditing dba_audit_exists, dba_audit_policies, [by {session | access} ] dba_fga_audit_trail, audit_actions, sys.aud$, [whenever [not] successful]; sys.fga_log$ Files shortcuts: user, table, procedure, resource, connect, cataudit.sql, catnoaud.sql dba, … Net Services Stack restart | status | ping <ns> | reorder_ns (sid_list = (sid_desc = (global_dbname = Application, Server – OCI (UPI), OPI, NPI | start_client_cache | delegate_domain <n>) << disables TAF with RAC (oracle_home – TTC – TNS (NI,NR,NN,NS,NA) – OPA | domain_hint | flush | flush_name = <path>) (sid_name = <SID>) (sdu = (NT) [–Protocol] | load_tnsnames | dump_tnsnames <n>) (program = <prog>) (prespawn_max | dump_ldap | log_stats | reset_stats | help = <n>) (prespawn_list = (prespawn_desc | password | register | unregister | query = (protocol = <n>) (pool_size = <n>) Service Name Resolution | timed_query | repeat | set | show (timeout = <n>))))), local naming, host naming, external naming, | version } >> Since release 8.1 sid_list_<LISTENER> only centralized naming required with Enterprise Manager! << cmctl { start | stop | status | version } service_list_<LISTENER> = <n> Utilities [cman | cm | adm] passwords_<LISTENER> = <n> lsnrctl trcasst [-o{c|d}{u[q]|t} -e[0|1|2] -s -p …] <file> connect_timeout_<LISTENER> = <n> { start | stop | status | reload | set | show netasst, tnsping, trcroute, adapters use_plug_and_play_<LISTENER> = <n> | help | version | change_password oerr <tns> <errno> save_config_on_stop_<LISTENER> = <n> | services | save_config | trace ldapmodify trace_{level | file | directory}_ | dbsnmp_start | dbsnmp_stop <LISTENER>=<n> | dbsnmp_status } logging_<LISTENER> = <n> listener.ora [<LISTENER>] log_{file | directory}_<LISTENER> = <n> agentctl <LISTENER> = (description_list = (description = (ad- startup_wait_time_<LISTENER> = <n> { { start | stop | status | restart } [<agent>] dress_list = (address = (protocol = <tcp>) queuesize = <n> | { start | stop | status} blackout [<target>] (host = <node>) (port = <1521>) (key = ssl_client_authentication = <n> [-d[uration] <[d] hh:mi>] [-s[ubsystem] <subsys>] } <prog>))) (protocol_stack = (presentation ssl_version = undetermined namesctl = {ttc | giop}) (session = {ns | raw})))) { startup | shutdown | start | stop | reload | sid_list_<LISTENER> = www.larsditzel.de
  • 17. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 17Net Services (cont.) tnsnames.ora (Local Naming) namesctl.internal_encrypt_password = <n>, Environment <net_serv> = namesctl.internal_use = <n>, namesctl.no_ini- $TNS_ADMIN (description = tial_server = <n>, namesctl.noconfirm = (address_list = <n>, namesctl.server_password = <n>, (failover = {on | off }) namesctl.trace_{level | file | directory | unique} (load_balance = {on | off }) = <n> desupported: automatic_ipc (source_route = {on | off }) (address = (protocol = <n>) (port = <n>) names.ora << deprecated (host = <node>)) […]) names.server_name = <n>, names.addresses (connect_data = = <n>, names.region_checkpoint_file = <n>, (service_name = <serv>) default_domain = <n>, forwarding_available = (instance_name = <sid>) <n>, log_file_name = <n>, log_stats_interval = (handler_name = <n>) (sdu = <n>) <n>, reset_stats_interval = <n>, cache_check- (server = dedicated) (hs = ok) point_interval = <n>, requests_enabled = <n>, (rdb_database = <rdbfile>) server = <n>, namesctl_trace_level = <n>, (type_of_service = <n>) trace_file_name = <n>, trace_level = <n>, (global_name = <rdb>) names.trace_{file | directory | unique} = <n>, (failover_mode = names.log_{file | directory} = <n>, queuesize (type = {select | session | none}) = <n> (method = {basic | preconnect}) desupported: names.use_plug_and_play, names.{domain | topol- (retries = <5>) (delay = <1>) ogy}_checkpoint_file (backup = <serv>) (instance_role = protocol.ora << desupported {primary | secondary | any}) )) desupported: <prot>.{excluded | invited}_nodes = <node>, (connect_data = (sid = <n>)) <prot>.validnode_checking = <n>, tcp.nodelay >> Exception! Use of OEM and OPS on WinNT. = <n> Create net service names ‘<SID>_startup’. << sqlnet.ora cman.ora log_{file | directory}_{client | server} = <n>, cman = use_cman = <n>, use_dedicated_server = <n>, (address = (protocol = <tcp>) sqlnet.expire_time = <n>, sqlnet.{encryption (host = <node>) (port = <1630>)) | crypto_checksum}_{client | server} = cman_admin = (address = (protocol = <tcp>) {accepted | rejected | requested | required}, (host = <node>) (port = <1830>)) sqlnet.{encryption | crypto_checksum}_types_ cman_profile = {client | server} = <n>, sqlnet.crypto_seed = (maximum_relays = <n>, relay_statistics <n>, trace_unique_client = <n>, trace_{level = <n>, log_level = <n>, tracing = <n>, | file | directory}_{client | server} = <n>, trace_directory = <path>, show_tns_info tnsping.trace_{level | directory} = <n>, = <n>, use_async_call = <n>, authentica- daemon.trace_{level | directory | mask} tion_level = <n>) = <n>, sqlnet.authentication_services = cman_rules = <n>, sqlnet.client_registration = <n>, be- (rule_list = (rule = (src = <src>) queath_detach = <n>, disable_oob = <n>, (dst = <dst>) (srv = <serv>) names.directory_path = ( {hostname | (act = accept | reject))) tnsnames | onames | cds | nds | nis} , … ), names.default_domain = <n>, name.default_ ldap.ora zone = <n>, names.preferred_servers = <n>, names.initial_retry_timeout = <n>, Other Files names.request_retries = <n>, names.max_ open_connections = <n>, names.message_ ckpcch.ora, sdns.ora, namesini.sql, pool_start_size = <n>, names.dce.prefix namesupg.sql, snmp_ro.ora, snmp_rw.ora, = <n>, names.nis.meta_map = <n>, services.ora www.larsditzel.de
  • 18. 18 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Recovery Manager Views & Tables v$backup_corruption, v$copy_corruption, Files rc_database, rc_database_incarnation, rc_ v$backup_async_io, v$backup_sync_io, catrman.sql, prgrmanc.sql, dbmssbkrs.sql, backup_set, rc_backup_piece, rc_checkpoint, v$session_longops, v$session_wait prvtbkrs.plb, dbmsrman.sql, prvtrmns.plb rc_tablespace, rc_datafile, rc_backup_datafile, rc_datafile_copy, rc_proxy_datafile, rc_of- Parameters Desupported Features fline_range, rc_backup_controlfile, rc_control- backup_tape_io_slaves, disk_asynch_io, tape_ db_file_direct_io_count, arch_io_slaves, file_copy, rc_proxy_controlfile, rc_redo_log, asynch_io, control_file_record_keep_time backup_disk_io_slaves, large_pool_min_alloc rc_redo_thread, rc_backup_redolog, rc_ar- chived_log , rc_log_history, rc_stored_script, Packages rc_stored_script_line, rc_backup_cor- ruption, rc_copy_corruption, rc_resync, DBMS_BACKUP_RESTORE v$backup, v$backup_set, v$backup_piece, DBMS_RCVCAT v$backup_datafile, v$datafile_copy, v$proxy_ DBMS_RCVMAN datafile, v$offline_range, v$backup_redolog, v$proxy_archivedlog, v$backup_device, Environment { retention policy {backup | copy} [of rman | [default] device type { {datafile | tablespace [target ‘<user>/<pwd>@<target_db>’] | [auxiliary] channel | database [skip tablespace] } ‘<name>‘ [ catalog ‘<user>/<pwd>@<repos_db>’ [for device type <dev>] | controlfile | archivelog | nocatalog ] | maxset size { all | like ‘<name>‘ | {from | until} [auxiliary ‘<user>/<pwd>@<aux_db>’] | {datafile | archivlog} backup copies { time [=] ‘<date>‘ | scn [=] <n> [{cmdfile [=] | @} <file>] | backup optimization | logseq [=] <n> [thread = <n>]} }] [log [=] <file> [append]] [msgno] | snapshot controlfile name [ tag = ‘<tag>‘ [trace [=] ‘<file>’] [debug] | auxname | completed [send [=] ‘<cmd>’] | exclude { {after | before} [=] ‘<date>‘ set dbid [=] <target_dbid>; | controlfile autobackup [format] | between ‘<date>‘ and ‘<date>‘ } ]; | all }; delete [noprompt] connect {target | catalog | auxiliary} <user>/<pwd>@<db> set snapshot controlfile name to ‘<file>‘; { [expired] send [channel <chann> [, …] { {backup | copy} [of startup [nomount | mount] [force] [dba] | device type <dev> [, …]] { { datafile | tablespace | database [pfile [=] <file>]; ‘<media_man_cmd>‘ [skip tablespace] } ‘<name>‘ shutdown [normal | transactional | controlfile [parms [=] ‘<par>‘]; | immediate | abort]; | archivelog { all | like ‘<name>‘ | {create | replace} script <script> {<stat>;…} {mount | open} database; {from | until} { time [=] ‘<date>‘ delete script <script>; alter database {mount | open}; | scn [=] <n> | sequence [=] <n> print script <script>; host [‘<cmd>’]; [thread = <n>]} }] run {<cmd>; …} [ tag = ‘<tag>‘ | completed debug {on | off }; run {execute script <script>;} { {after | before} [=] ‘<date>‘ set echo {on | off }; sql ‘<stat> [‘ ‘ <file> ‘ ‘] ‘; | between ‘<date>‘ and ‘<date>‘ } ] set command id to ‘<id>’; | { {backuppiece | proxy} … configure Catalog | backupset … { snapshot controlfile name to ‘<file>‘ create catalog [tablespace <ts>]; | {controlfilecopy | datafilecopy} … | controlfile autobackup upgrade catalog [tablespace ‘<ts>’]; | archivelog … } { on | off | clear | obsolete | format for device type <dev> configure compatible = <n>; [ redundancy [=] <x> {to ‘<fmt>’ | clear} } drop catalog; | recovery window of <x> days | {archivelog | datafile} backup copies register database; | orphan ] }; for device type <dev> {to <x> | clear} reset database [to incarnation <id>]; | default device type to <dev> set maxcorrupt for datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} resync catalog [from controlfilecopy [‘<ctrl>’]]; to <n>; | device type <dev> parallelism <n> | channel <n> device type <dev> catalog {archivelog | datafilecopy connect ‘<user/pwd@serv>’ | controlfilecopy} ‘<file>‘ [, …] Channels | retention policy to [tag [=] ‘<tag>‘ | level [=] <n>]; allocate [auxiliary] channel <chann> { recovery window of <x> days change {archivelog | datafilecopy | backup- [for {delete | maintenance}] | redundancy <1> | none | clear } piece | backupset | proxy | controlfilecopy} { type [=] {disk | ‘<dev>‘} | backup optimization {on | off | clear} {‘<file>‘ | <n> | all | tag [=] ‘<tag>‘} | name [=] ‘<name>‘ } | exclude tablespace <ts> [clear] { delete | available | unavailable | uncatalog [parms [=] “<par>”] [format [=] ‘<fm>‘] | maxsetsize {to {<x>| unlimited} | clear} }; | validate | crosscheck }; [connect [=] show crosscheck ‘<user>/<pwd>@<target_ops_inst>’] www.larsditzel.de
  • 19. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 19Recovery Manager (cont.) [debug [=] <n>] [trace [=] <n>]; backup [ full | incremental | scn [=] <n> set limit channel <chann> [read rate [=] <n>] level [=] { 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 } ] | logseq [=] <n> [thread [=] <n>] }] [kbytes [=] <n>] [maxopenfiles [=] <n>]; [cumulative] [nochecksum] [skip [forever] tablespace <ts> [, …] ] release channel [<chann>]; [check logical] [proxy [only]] [(] | tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] { datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} [, …] | datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] } | datafilecopy [delete archivelog] [check readonly] Reporting {‘<file>‘ | tag [=] <tag>} [, …] [check logical] [noredo]; report | tablespace ‘<ts>‘ [, …] blockrecover { { need backup { {incremental | days} | database { datafile <x> block <x> [, …] | redundancy } [=] <n> | archivelog | tablespace <ts> dba <x> [, …] | unrecoverable } { all | like ‘<log>‘ | {from | until} | corruption list } { datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} [, …] { time [=] ‘<date>‘ [from {backupset | datafilecopy} ] | tablespace ‘<ts>‘ [, …] | scn [=] <n> [from tag [=] ‘<tag>’] | database [skip tablespace ‘<ts>‘ | logseq [=] <n> [restore until [, …]] } [thread = <n>] }} { time [=] ‘<date>‘ | obsolete { redundancy [=] <n> | current controlfile | scn [=] <n> | recovery window of <x> days | controlfilecopy ‘<ctrl>’ } | sequence [=] <n> thread [=] <n> } ]; | orphan [not backed up [since time [=] ‘<date>’] ] set auxname for datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} | until [plus archivelog] to {‘<new>‘ | null }; { time [=] ‘<date>’ [include current controlfile] | scn [=] <n> duplicate target database [delete [all] input] to ‘<db>‘ [logfile | logseq [=] <n> [tag [=] <tag>] [format [=] ‘<fm>’] [thread [=] <n>] }} {‘<log>‘ [size <n>] [reuse] [filesperset [=] <n>] [channel <chann>] | group <n> (‘<log>‘ [, …]) | schema [at [skip {offline | readonly | inaccessible}] { time [=] ‘<date>‘ [size <n>] [reuse] }] [setsize [=] <n>] [diskratio [=] <n>] [nofilenamecheck] [skip readonly]; | scn [=] <n> [pool [=] <n>] [parms [=] ‘<par>‘] [)]; | logseq [=] <n> [thread [=] <n>] }] } validate backupset <n> [, …] [check logical]; [device type {disk | ‘<dev>‘} ]; list [expired] {copy | backup} of Restore & Recovery { datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} [, …] | tablespace ‘<ts>‘ [, …] set autolocate {on | off }; | database [skip tablespace ‘<ts>‘ [, …]] set archivelog destination to ‘<path>’; | controlfile set newname for datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} | archivelog to ‘<new>’; { all | like ‘<file>‘ | {from | until} restore [(] { time [=] ‘<date>‘ { database | scn [=] <n> [skip [forever] tablespace <ts> [, …]] | logseq [=] <n> | tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] [thread = <n>]} }} | datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] [tag [=] <tag>] [like ‘<string>‘] | archivelog [device type ‘<dev>‘] { all | like ‘<log>’ | {from | until} [recoverable [until { time [=] ‘<date>’ { time [=] ‘<date>‘ | scn [=] <n> | scn [=] <n> | logseq [=] <n> [thread [=] <n>]} ]] | logseq [=] <n> [completed { {after | before} [=] ‘<date>‘ [thread = <n>] }} | between ‘<date>‘ and ‘<date>‘}] | controlfile [to ‘<ctrl>’] } [)] [by backup [verbose] ] [channel <chann>] [from tag [=] ‘<tag>‘] [by {backup summary | file} ] [parms ‘<par>‘] [summary]; [from {backupset | datafilecopy} ] [validate] list incarnation [of database [‘<id>‘]]; [check readonly] [check logical] [ until { time [=] ‘<date>‘ | scn [=] <n> Backup | logseq [=] <n> [thread [=] <n>] }]; copy replicate controlfile from ‘<ctrl>‘; { datafile {‘<file>‘ | <n>} switch datafile | datafilecopy {‘<file>‘ | tag [=] <tag>} { {‘<file>‘ | <n>} [to datafilecopy | archivelog ‘<log>‘ {‘<file>‘ | tag [=] <tag>} ] | controlfilecopy {‘<ctrl>‘ | tag [=] <tag>} | all }; | current controlfile } set until { time [=] ‘<date>‘ | scn [=] <n> | to ‘<dest>‘ [, …] logseq [=] <n> [thread [=] <n>] }; [tag [=] ‘<tag>‘] [level [=] <n>] recover [nochecksum] [check logical]; { database set duplex = { off | on | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 }; [ until { time [=] ‘<date>‘ www.larsditzel.de
  • 20. 20 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Distributed DB, Replication, Heterogenous Services, Advanced Queuing & Data Warehousing Views & Tables Packages shot_from_log, purge_mview_from_log, v$dblink, v$db_pipes, v$aq, v$hs_agent, DBMS_REPCAT {register | unregister}_snapshot, {register v$hs_session, v$hs_parameter, dba_db_links, {create | drop}_master_repgroup, {suspend | unregister}_mview, set_i_am_a_refresh, dba_2pc_pending, dba_2pc_neighbors, dba_ | resume}_master_activity, {create | drop}_ i_am_a_refresh, refresh, refresh_mv, repcatlog, dba_repgroup, dba_repgroup_privi- master_repobject, set_columns, {add | refresh_all, refresh_all_mviews, refresh_de- leges, dba_repcolumn, dba_repcolumn_group, remove}_master_database, alter_master_ pendent, get_log_age, get_mv_depende- dba_repgenobjects, dba_repgrouped_column, propagation, relocate_masterdef, {make cies, {set | wrap}_up, testing, explain_ dba_repkey_columns, dba_repsites, dba_rep- | drop}_column_group, {add | drop}_ {mview | rewrite}, pmarker sites_new, dba_repobject, dba_repprior- grouped_column, {add | drop}_update_ DBMS_OLAP ity, dba_reppriority_group, dba_repprop, resolution, {define | drop}_priority_group, validate_dimension, estimate_space, dba_repddl, dba_repconflict, dba_represolu- {add | alter | drop}_priority_<type>, {alter recommend_mv, estimate_summary_size, tion, dba_represolution_method, dba_repre- | drop}_priority, {define | drop}_site_prior- evaluate_utilization, evaluate_utiliza- sol_stats_control, dba_represolution_statistics, ity, {add | alter | drop}_site_priority_site, tion_w, set_logfile_name dba_repparameter_column, dba_repcat_re- {add | drop}_unique_resolution, {add | DEMO_DIM fresh_templates, dba_repcat_template_objects, drop}_delete_resolution, generate_{replica- print_dim, print_alldims dba_repcat_template_parms, dba_repcat_tem- tion | snapshot}_support, create_snap- DEMO_SUMADV plate_sites, user_repcat_temp_output, dba_ shot_repobject, switch_snapshot_master, DBMS_HS repcat_user_authorizations, dba_repcat_user_ send_and_compare_old_values, {register | create_inst_init, drop_inst_init, cre- parm_values, dba_jobs, dba_jobs_running, cancel | purge}_statistics, do_deferred_rep- ate_fds_inst, drop_fds_inst deftran, dba_snapshots, snap$, dba_snapshot_ cat_admin, purge_master_log, repcat_im- DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH refresh_times, dba_snapshot_logs, dba_snap- port_check, comment_on_{repgroup execute_immediate, open_cursor, bind_ shot_log_filter_cols, dba_registered_snapshots, | repobject | repsites | column_group | variable, execute_non_query, fetch_row, dba_registered_snapshot_groups, dba_queues, priority_group | site_priority | unique_res- get_value, close_cursor dba_queue_tables, dba_queue_schedules, olution | update_resolution | delete_reso- DBMS_DISTRIBUTED_TRUST_ADMIN queue_privileges, dba_refresh, dba_re- lution}, {specify | add}_new_masters, deny_all, allow_all, deny_server, al- fresh_children, all_refresh_dependencies, prepare_instantiated_master, resume_ low_server dba_rchild, dba_rgroup, defcall, defcalldest, propagation_to_mdef defdefaultdest, deferrcount, deferror, deflob, DBMS_REPCAT_ADMIN defpropagator, defschedule, deftran, deftrand- Files grant_admin_{schema | any_schema}, est, dba_mviews, dba_mview_aggregates, register_user_repgroup catrep.sql, catdefer.sql, catrepc.sql, smdim.sql, dba_mview_joins, dba_mview_keys, dba_ DBMS_REPCAT_INSTANTIATE sadvdemo.sql, caths.sql mview_analysis, dba_mview_detail_relations, DBMS_REPCAT_RGT dba_summaries, dba_summary_aggregates, create_template_object Desupported Features dba_summary_joins, dba_summary_keys, job_queue_interval, defcall, distributed_lock_ DBMS_REPUTIL dba_summary_detail_tables, dba_dimen- timeout, snapshot_refresh_keep_connections, replication_{on | off } sions, dba_dim_levels, dba_dim_hierachies, snapshot_refresh_processes, snapshot_re- dba_dim_child_of, dba_dim_attributes, DBMS_DEFER transaction, call, <type>_arg fresh_interval, distributed_recovery_connec- dba_dim_join_key, dba_dim_level_key, tion_hold_time, job_queue_keep_connections mview$_exceptions, mviews$_recommenda- DBMS_DEFER_SYS tions, mview$_evaluations, hs_all_caps, {add | delete}_default_destination, push, hs_class_caps, hs_base_caps, hs_inst_caps, purge, delete_tran, execute_error, execute_ hs_all_dd, hs_class_dd, hs_base_dd, hs_inst_ error_as_user, delete_error, schedule_push, dd, hs_all_inits, hs_class_init, hs_inst_init, unschedule_push, set_disabled, disabled, hs_external_objects, hs_external_object_privi- schedule_purge, schedule_execution, leges, hs_external_user_privileges, hs_fds_ register_propagator class, hs_fds_inst, trusted_servers DBMS_DEFER_QUERY DBMS_OFFLINE_OG Parameters {begin | end}_instantiation, resume_sub- set_of_masters, {begin | end}_load global_names, open_links, open_links_per_in- stance, distributed_transactions, com- DBMS_OFFLINE_SNAPSHOT mit_point_strength, job_queue_processes, {begin | end}_load aq_tm_processes, dblink_encrypt_login, DBMS_REFRESH replication_dependency_tracking, query_re- refresh, change write_enabled, query_rewrite_integrity, DBMS_JOB hs_autoregister, hs_commit_point_strength, submit, remove, change, what, next_date, hs_db_domain, hs_db_internal_name, hs_db_ interval, broken, run, instance name, hs_describe_cache_hwm, hs_language, DBMS_RECTIFIER_DIFF hs_nls_date_format, hs_nls_date_language, differences, rectify hs_nls_nchar, hs_open_cursors, hs_ro- DBMS_AQ, DBMS_AQADM wid_cache_size, hs_rpc_fetch_reblocking, DBMS_MVIEW (DBMS_SNAPSHOT) hs_fds_fetch_rows, hs_rpc_fetch_size {begin | end}_table_reorganization, purge_ log, purge_direct_load_log, purge_snap- www.larsditzel.de
  • 21. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 21Distributed DB, Replication, Heterogenous Services,Advanced Queuing & Data Warehousing (cont.) Distributed DB [noparallel | parallel [<n>]] create [shared] [public] [cluster <clust> (<col> [, …])] database link <link[@qual]> [lob…] [partition…] [connect to [build {immediate | deferred}] {<user> identified by <pwd> [on prebuilt table | current_user} ] [{with | without} reduced precision]] [authenticated by <user> [using index…] identified by <pwd>] [ refresh [fast | complete | force] [using ‘<netserv>‘]; [on commit | on demand] alter session close database link <link>; [start with ‘<date>’] [next ‘<date>’] [with {primary key | rowid}] drop [public] database link <link>; [using [default] [master | local] alter session advise rollback segment [<rbs>]] ] {commit | rollback | nothing}; | never refresh ] alter system {enable | disable} distributed [for update] recovery; [{enable | disable} query rewrite] commit comment ‘ORA-2PC-CRASH-TEST- as <query>; <1-10>‘; alter {materialized view | snapshot} <mview> … [compile]; Materialized Views drop {materialized view | snapshot} <mview>; create {materialized view | snapshot} log on <tab> [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] Dimensions [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] create [force | noforce] [initrans <1>] [maxtrans <n>] dimension <dim> level <lev> is [(] [logging | nologging] [cache | nocache] <tab>.<col> [, …)] [level…] [noparallel | parallel [<n>]] hierachy <hier> [partition…] [lob…] [using index…] ( <child_lev> child of <parent_lev> [with [primary key] [, rowid] [child of <parent_lev>…] [(<col> [, …])] ] [join key (<child_col> [, …] ) [{including | excluding} new values]; references <parent_lev>] alter {materialized view | snapshot} log [join…] ) on <tab> [attribute <lev> determines [add [primary key] [, rowid] [(] <dep_col> [, …)] ] [attribute…]; [(<col> [, …])] ] […]; alter dimension <dim> drop {materialized view | snapshot} log { add { level… | hierachy… | attribute… } on <tab>; | drop create {materialized view | snapshot} <mview> { level <lev> [restrict | cascade] [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] | hierachy <hier> [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] | attribute <lev> } [initrans <1>] [maxtrans <n>] | compile }; [logging | nologging] [cache | nocache] drop dimension <dim>; www.larsditzel.de
  • 22. 22 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Real Application Clusters Processes thread, instance_name, instance_number, parallel_server, parallel_server_instances, IDLM, PCM, OPQ, OPSM, OPSD instance_groups, parallel_instance_group, ops_interconnects, gc_defer_time, gc_releas- vendor OSDs: service_names, dml_locks, gc_files_to_locks, able_locks, gc_rollback_locks, lm_locks, CM, Start, IO, IPC gc_latches, max_commit_propagation_delay, lm_ress, gc_latches, gc_lck_procs, de- (RegKeys: OSD, CMDLL, IODLL, IPCDLL, parallel_default_max_scans, lock_name_space, layed_logging_block_cleanouts, freeze_db_ STARTDLL) cpu_count, trace_enabled, sessions_per_ for_fast_instance_recovery, ogms_home, user???? ops_admin_group, lm_procs Views & Tables gv$<dyn_perf_view>, v$active_instances, Package SQL v$resource, v$resource_limit, v$ges_sta- DBMS_LIBCACHE alter session instance_number...?? tistics, v$ges_latch, v$ges_convert_local, compile_from_remote alter {table | cluster | index} <segm> v$ges_convert_remote, v$ges_enqueue, allocate extent ( [size <n>] v$ges_blocking_enqueue, v$ges_resource, Files [datafile ‘<file>‘] [instance <n>] ); v$ges_traffic_controller, v$gc_element, create {table | cluster | index} <segm> init<db_name>.ora, <db_name>.conf, v$cr_block_server, v$gc_elements_with_colli- … storage ( … utlclust.sql, catclust.sql, clustdb.sql, catlibc.sql, sions, v$cache_transfer, v$file_cache_transfer, [freelists <1>] dbmslibc.sql v$temp_cache_transfer, v$class_cache_trans- [freelist groups <1>] … ) …; fer, v$false_ping, v$lock_activity, v$lock_ac- tivity, v$lock_class_ping, v$cache_lock, Desupported Features v$latch_misses, v$hvmaster_info, v$dlm_misc, v$dlm_latch, v$dlm_convert_lo- v$gcshvmaster_info, v$gcspfmaster_info, cal, v$dlm_covert_remote, v$dlm_locks, file_lock, ext_to_obj, oraping_config v$dlm_ress, v$dlm_all_locks, v$dlm_traffic_ controller, v$lock_element, v$bsp, v$locks_ Parameters with_collisions, v$file_ping, v$temp_ping, v$ping, v$class_ping cluster_database, cluster_database_instances, cluster_interconnects, active_instance_count, init_com.ora Utilities –c <user>/<pwd> –n <db> [–i <sid> [, …]] | report [-f <file>] srvctl [–f ] [–t] [–u] [–m] [–y | e] [–v] [–h] [-d yyyy/mm/ss-hh:mi:ss] [-s] } { <cmd> –h GUIOracleOBJManager, setlinks /f:<file> /d $ORACLE_SERVICE, pfssetup | config [–p <db>] crtsrv.bat createpacks, deletepacks | {start | stop} –p <db> [–i <inst> | –s {<inst> | <lsnr>}] Fail Safe & RAC Guard | status –p <db> [–s {<inst> | <lsnr>}] fscmd | add { dumpcluster | movegroup { db –p <db> –o <oracle_home> | onlinegroup | offlinegroup | instance –p <db> –i <inst> | onlineresource | offlineresource –n <node> } | verifygroup | verifyallgroups } | delete <resource> /cluster = <clust> { db –p <db> [/logfile = <log>] [/node = <node>] | instance –p <db> –i <inst> } [/offline = | rename instance –p <db> { abort | immediate –i <old> –e <new> | transactional | normal } ] | move instance –p <db> [/domain = <OSdomain> –i <inst> –n <new_node> /user = <OSuser> /pwd = <pwd>] | get env –p <db> [–i <inst>] pfsctl | set env –p <db> –t <var> = <val> { help | pfsboot | pfshalt [–i <inst>] | status | restore | unset env –p <db> –t <var> [–i <inst>] } | move_primary [<sec>] srvconfig | stop_secondary [<sec>] { –init | bootone <pack> [-f ] | {–exp | –imp} <file> | haltone <pack> | –conv <db.conf> } | switchover [<sec>] gsd, gsdservice { –start | –install | –remove } | call_home opsctl [start | stop] www.larsditzel.de
  • 23. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 23Real Application Clusters (cont.) Tuning/Contention (RAC) «global cache converts» statistics: «buffer busy %», «cr request entry», «db Global Cache Service (GCS) other statistics: file %», «enqueue», «global cache %», v$cache (forced_writes = 0, forced_reads), «KJC: wait %», «library cache pin», «log «global cache %» (v$sysstat, class 40) file sync», «row cache lock» v$cache_transfer, v$bh, v$class_cache_ contention: contention: transfer, v$file_cache_transfer, v$rowcache «global cache cr timeouts» = 0 (dc_sequences, dc_used_extents) «global cache busy», «buffer busy due to «global cache convert timeouts» = 0 global cache» cache fusion latency: Global Enqueue Service (GES) «global cache cr block receive time» / «global lock %» (v$sysstat, class 32) Latches «global cache cr blocks received»: ~ 15 ms (1 ms with user mode IPC, OPS8i: average global enqueue get time: ~ 20-30 ms v$latch: ~ 1-40 ms) «global lock get time» / («global lock sync gets / misses ~ 0.9-0.95 «global cache current block receive time» / gets» + «global lock async gets») v$latch_misses: «global cache current blocks received» average global lock convert time: ~ 20 ms sleeps / misses LMS service time (sum & individual): «global lock convert time» / («global «global cache cr (queue + build + flush lock sync converts» + «global lock async Sequences + send) time» / «global cache cr blocks converts») use sequence number multipliers served» cache sequence numbers «global cache current (pin + flush + send) other statistics: time» / «global cache current blocks v$lock_activity, v$ges_statistics, v$ges_ served» convert_local, v$ges_convert_remote, average get time: ~ 20-30 ms v$rowcache, v$librarycache «global cache get time» / «global cache gets» Wait Events average convert time: ~ 10-20 ms v$system_event «global cache convert time» / Tuning/Contention (OPS 8i) Locking PCM Locks «releasable freelist waits» (v$sysstat) «lm_locks» = «lm_ress» = Global cache 2 * (gc_files_to_locks + gc_rollback_locks consistent-read requests: Lock conversion [fixed] + gc_releasable_locks), «global cache cr block received» + v$resource_limit, lock hit ratio: (v$sysstat) «global cache cr blocks read from disk» consistent gets» – «global lock converts (async)» / «consistent gets» > 95%, Enqu. Locks Global locks «lock element cleanup» 20 + (10*sess) + db_files + 1 + (2*proc) + IDLM non-PCM resources: (v$system_event, v$session_wait), (db_block_buffers/64) v$librarycache, v$rowcache v$lock_activity, v$class_ping, v$ping DML Locks IDLM Pinging set «dml_locks» = 0 for all instances, or disable lock statistics: ping write ratio: (v$sysstat) specific table locks v$dlm_convert_local, v$dlm_convert_re- «DBWR cross instance writes» / «physical mote writes», v$lock_activity Recovery message statistics: (v$dlm_misc) «instance recovery database freeze count» average receive queue length: < 10 Block contention (v$sysstat) «dlm total incoming msg queue length» / v$bh, v$cache, v$ping «dlm messages received» mult. copies of 2nd block of file -> freelist Inst. groups contention (check v$waitstat) «alter session set parallel_instance_group = OPS I/O <grp>;» «DBWR forced writes» / «physical writes» Partitioning (v$sysstat) partition tables and indexes OR («remote instance undo header writes» + «re- configure process free lists and free list groups mote instance undo block writes») / «DBWR + allocate extents for instances (free list group forced writes» (v$sysstat) choice: «alter session set instance = <n>;») www.larsditzel.de
  • 24. 24 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Globalization Support Views & Tables • nls_list_separator Utilities v$nls_parameters, v$nls_valid_values, • nls_display csscan v$timezone_names, nls_database_parameters, • nls_monetary help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile nls_instance_parameters, nls_session_parame- = <par> log = <scan.log> user = <schema> ters, props$, csmv$columns, csmv$constraints, Session: table = (<tab> [, …) exclude = (<tab> [, csmv$errors, csmv$indexes, csmv$tables alter session set nls_language = <lang> …) tochar = <new> fromchar = <old> nls_territory = <territ>; tonchar = <new> fromnchar = <old> ar- Packages alter session set time_zone = <x>; ray = <10240> process = <1> maxblocks = <x> capture = <n> suppress = <x> DBMS_SESSION feedback = <x> boundaries = <x> lastrpt = set_nls(<name>,<value>) NLS-Affected SQL-Functions <n> preserve = <n> to_char lbuilder Files • nls_date_language lxegen <prod><lang>.msb, timezone.dat, • nls_numeric_characters lxinst [oranls=<$ORA_NLS33>] timezlrg.dat, csminst.sql • nls_currency [sysdir=<path>] [destdir=<path>] • nls_iso_currency [help=<no>] [warning={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}] Server: Init. Parameters • nls_calendar lxbcnf [oranls=<$ORA_NLS33>] to_date nls_language [userbootdir=<path>] [destdir=<path>] • nls_date_language • nls_date_language [help=<no>] • nls_calendar • nls_sort to_number nls_territory Desupported Features • nls_numeric_characters • nls_date_format nls_monetary_characters, nls_list_separator, • nls_currency • nls_currency (fm L), • nls_iso_currency nls_credit, nls_debit, nls_union_currency nls_iso_currency (fm C), nls_upper nls_dual_currency • nls_sort • nls_numeric_characters (fm DG) nls_lower • nls_calendar • nls_sort • nls_comp • nls_length_semantics nls_initcap • nls_sort • nls_nchar_conv_excp • nls_time_format nlssort • nls_timestamp_format • nls_sort • nls_timestamp_tz_format • nls_time_tz_format Datetime Functions $ORA_TZFILE Character Set & Timezone Client: Environment Variables create database … nls_lang, nls_nchar [character set {<charset> << OS dependent • nls_date_language | <UTF8> | <UTFE> | <AL32UTF8>} ] • nls_sort [national character set << 9i: Unicode only • nls_date_format {<UTF8> | <AL16UTF16>} ] • nls_currency, [set time_zone = nls_iso_currency, { ‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ nls_dual_currency | ‘<time_zone_region>’ } ] … • nls_numeric_characters alter database [<db>] [national] character set • nls_comp <new_char>; << must be strict superset • nls_calendar << AL24UTFFSS is desupported in 9i • nls_credit, nls_debit www.larsditzel.de
  • 25. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 25SQL*Plus sqlplus SQL Buffer Manipulation | view | trigger | type | type body [ -h[elp] ed[it], a[ppend], c[hange] /<old> [/<new>], | dimension | java class } <name>] | -v[ersion] cl[ear] buff[er], del [<n>] [<y>] [*] [last], l[ist] | lno | pno | user | tti[tle] | bti[tile] | [-m[arkup] [<n>] [<y>] [*] [last], i[nput] | reph[eader] | repf[ooter] | spoo[l] html [on | off ] [head “<txt>”] | sqlcode | sga | parameters | release } [body “<txt>”] [table “<txt>”] timi[ng] Data Types SQL*Plus [entmap {on | off }] [spool {on | off }] [start <string> | show | stop] [pre[format] {on | off }] var[iable] [<var> exec[ute] [-r[estrict] <1 | 2 | 3>] [ number | char | char (<n>) | nchar { <:var> := <func> (<par> [, …]) [-s[ilent]] ] | nchar (<n>) | varchar2 (<n>) | <proc> (<par> [, …]) } [ <user>[/<pwd>][@<serv>] | / ] | nvarchar2 (<n>) | clob | nclob | refcursor] ] whenever {sqlerror | oserror} [ as {sysoper | sysdba} | /nolog ] { exit… char: max. 2.000B, varchar: max. 4000B [ @<URI | file>[.<ext>] [<arg>, …]] | continue [commit | rollback | none] } Commands {exit | quit} Environment [success | failure | warning | <n> /, r[un] appi[nfo] {on|off|<text>}, array[size] [<15>], | <var> | <:var>] [commit | rollback] auto[commit] {on|off|imm[ediate]|<n>}, @<file>, @@<file>, start <file> copy [from <user>@<db>] [to <user>@<db>] autop[rint] {on|off }, autorecovery [on|off ], sav[e] <file> [cre[ate] | rep[lace] | app[end] ] {create | replace | insert | append} autot[race] {on|off|trace[only]} [exp[lain]] get <file> [ lis[t] | nol[ist] ] <tab> [(<col>, …)] using <query>; [stat[istics]], blo[ckterminator] <.>, cmds[ep] spo[ol] {<file> | off | out} {<;>|on|off }, colsep <_>, com[patibility] pri[nt] [<var>], help, rem[ark], set, show Formatting {native|v8|v7}, con[cat] {<c>|on|off }, {ho[st] | ! | $} <cmd> copyc[ommit] <0>, copytypecheck { tti[tle] | bti[tle] | reph[eader] | repf[ooter] } store [set] <file> [ [page] [ le[ft] | ce[nter] | r[ight] ] {on|off }, def[ine] {<&>|on|off }, describe [ cre[ate] | rep[lace] | app[end] ] [depth {<1>|all} | indent {on|off } | line- [col <n>] [tab <n>] [bold] [s[kip] <n>] def[ine] <var> = <value> [format <fm>] [‘<string>’] [<var>] […] num {on|off }], echo {on|off }, editf[ile] <file>[.<ext>], emb[edded] {on|off }, esc[ape] undef[ine] <var> | {on | off } ] {<>|on|off }, feed[back] {<6>|on|off }, flag- pro[mpt] [<string>] col[umn] [ <col> ger {off|entry|intermed[iate]|full}, flu[sh] pau[se] [<string>] { [for[mat] <fm>] {on|off }, hea[ding] {on|off }, heads[ep] conn[ect] [ wra[pped] | wor[d_wrapped] {||on|off }, instance {<serv>|local}, lin[esize] { / | <user/pwd> | internal [<pwd>] } | tru[ncated] ] <80>, lobof[fset] <1>, logsource [<path>], [as {sysdba | sysoper}] [hea[ding] <string>] long <80>, longc[hunksize] <80>, m[arkup] << desupported [ali[as] <alias>] [nul[l] <string>] html [on | off ] [head “<txt>”] [body disc[onnect] [ fold_a[fter] | fold_b[efore]] “<txt>”] [table “<txt>”] [entmap {on | [like <alias>] [newl[ine]] passw[ord] [<user>] off }] [spool {on | off }] [pre[format] {on | [ {new_v[alue] | old_v[alue]} <var>] startup, shutdown, recover [ jus[tify] { l[eft] | c[enter] | c[entre] off }], newp[age] {<1>|none}, null <txt>, numf[ormat] <fmt>, num[width] <10>, | r[ight] }] Data Access | {on | off } | {print | noprint} | cle[ar] }] pages[ize] <24>, pau[se] {on|off|<txt>}, recsep {wr[apped]|ea[ch]|off }, recsepchar <_>, attribute <object_type>.<attr> bre[ak] serverout[put] {on|off } [size <n>] [for[mat] [ali[as] <name>] [for[mat] <fm>] [on {<bcol> | row | report | <expr>} {wra[pped]|wor[d_wrapped|tru[ncated]}], [like <attr>] [cle[ar] ] [on |off ] [ski[p] <n> | page] [on…] shift[inout] {vis[ible]|inv[isible]}, show[mode] acc[ept] <var> [nodup[licates] | dup[licates]] ] {on|off }, sqlbl[anklines] {on|off }, sqlc[ase] [num[ber] | char | date] comp[ute] {mix[ed]|lo[wer]|up[per]}, sqlc[ontinue] <>>, [for[mat] <fm>] [def[ault] <def>] [{ sum | min[imum] | max[imum] | avg sqln[umber] {on|off }, sqlpluscompat[ibility] [prompt <string> | nopr[ompt] ] [hide] | std | var[iance] | cou[nt] | num[ber] } <x.y[.z]>, sqlpre[fix] <#>, sqlp[rompt] desc[ribe] […] [la[bel] <lab>] <SQL>>, sqlt[erminator] {<;>|on|off>}, suf[fix] { <tab> | <view> | <pack> of <col> [<col>…] <SQL>, tab {on|off }, term[out] {on|off }, | <func> | <proc> | <syn> | <type> } on {<bcol> | row | report} ] ti[me] {on|off }, timi[ng] {on|off }, trim[out] sho[w] clear {on|off }, trims[pool] {on|off }, und[erline] {<- { <var> | all { scr[een] | col[umns] | bre[aks] >|on|off }, ver[ify] {on|off }, wra[p] {on|off } | err[ors] | comp[utes] | sql | timi[ng] | buff[er] } sql.pno, sql.lno, sql.release, sql.sqlcode, sql.user [{ package | package body | function | procedure www.larsditzel.de
  • 26. 26 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Data Types (PL/SQL & Database) Views & Tables • long type 8 << deprecated <coll> {<varr_type> | <tab_type>}; v$type_size, v$temporary_lobs, {col: 231-1B=2G, pl: 32.760B} <coll>(<subscript>)[.<item>] := <expr>; v$timezone_names, dba_types, dba_type_at- • long raw type 24 << deprecated <coll>.<method> trs, dba_type_methods, dba_coll_types, {col: 231-1B=2G, pl: 32.760B} count, delete [ (<i> [,<j>] ) ], exists(<i>), dba_lobs, dba_part_lobs, dba_lob_partitions, • internal: extend [(<n> [,<i>] )], limit, first, last, dba_lob_subpartitions, dba_varrays, dba_refs, CLOB, NCLOB type 112 next(<i>), prior(<i>), trim [ (<i>) ] dba_operators, dba_oparguments, dba_op- BLOB type 113 bindings, dba_opancillary, dba_method_ {col: 232-1B=4G, User-defined Types params, dba_method_results, dba_directories, inline ~4000b, else out of line} abstract types dba_rulesets • external: initialized by constructor <type>(…) BFILE {pointer} type 114 create [or replace] type <type>; SQL-Functions {ext. LOB: 232-1B=4G} create [or replace] directory <dir> as ‘<path>’; forward type definition / incomplete type drop directory <dir>; create [or replace] type <type> Parameters rowid [authid {current_user | definer}] {is | as} • rowid type 69 { object ( <attr> <type> [, …] {extented: 10B, [, {static | [map | order] member} Scalar Types (Built-in Types) restricted: 6B (block.row.file), {function | procedure} <func> character physical rowid} [( {self | <par>} [in | out | in out] • char (<1> [byte | char]) type 96 • urowid [(<4000B>)] type 208 <type> [, …] )] [return <type>] {col: 2.000B, pl: 32.767B} col: 4.000B (IOT logical urowid or [ {is | as} language (Subtype: character) foreign table foreign urowid) { java name ‘<func>‘ • varchar2 (<n> [byte | char]) type 1 boolean | C [name <func>] library <lib> {col: 4.000B, • {pl: true | false | null} [with context] pl: 32.767B (preallocated < 2000B)} [parameters (<par>) }] (Subtypes: string, varchar) << deprec. [, pragma restrict_references subtype <subtype> is <base_type> [not null]; • nchar (<1>) type 96 ( {<method> | default}, {col: 2.000B, pl: 32.767B, unicode only} {rnds | wnds | rnps | wnps | trust} )] national character literal: ANSI Supported Types [, …] ]) N’<string>’ character [varying] (<n>) | {varray | varying array} (<n>) of <type> • nvarchar2 (<n>) type 1 {char | nchar} varying (<n>) | table of <type> }; {col: 4.000B, pl: 32.767B, unicode only} varchar (<n>) create [or replace] type body <type> binary_integer national {character | char} [varying] (<n>) {is | as} {static | [map | order] member} • {pl: -2.147.483.647 .. 2.147.483.647} {numeric | decimal | dec} [(<prec>[, <scal>])] {function | procedure} <func> library arithmetic {integer | int | smallint} [( {self | <par>} [in | out | in out] (Subtypes: natural {non-neg.}, naturaln <type> [, …] )] [return <type>] float [(<n>)] {not null} positive{pos.}, positiven {not [ {is | as} null}, signtype{-1,0,1} ) double precision { begin <stat>; end [<func>]; pls_integer real | language • {pl: -2.147.483.647 .. 2.147.483.647} { java name ‘<func>‘ machine arithmetic Relationship Types | C [name <func>] number [(<prec>[, <scal>])] type 2 ref library <lib> [with context] • {precision: 38 digits, scale: -84 to 127, • ref cursor, ref <otype> [parameters (<par>)] }} 21B (20B Mantisse, 1B Exponent)} {pointer} [, …] end; (Subtypes: dec, decimal, double preci- alter type <type> sion, float, int, integer, numeric, real, Record Types { compile [debug] [specification | body] smallint) logical unit of dissimilar types | replace as object (<attr> <type> [, …] datetime and interval record may not be DB col [, {static | [map | order] member} • date type 12/13 type <rec_type> is record {function | procedure} <func> {7B = CentYearMonDayHourMinSec, (<field> {<type> | <tab>.<col>%type} [( {self | <par>} [in | out | in out] 8B, -4.712 to 9.999} [[not null] {:= | default} <expr>] [, …]); <type> [, …] )] [return <type>] ANSI date literal: [, pragma restrict_references <record> {<rec_type> | <tab>%rowtype}; date ’<yyyy-mm-dd>’ ( {<method> | default}, <rec_var>.<field> := <expr>; {rnds | wnds | rnps | wnps | trust} )] • timestamp [(<6>)] type 180 [ with time zone type 181/187/188 [, …]] )}; Collection drop type [body] <type> [force]; | with local time zone ] type 231 elements of same type [ref ] obj_type, type, varchar2(x), number[(p,s)], date, {20B} initialized by constructor <collect>(…) raw(x), char[acter](x), char varying(x), varchar(x), timestamp literal: varray may be DB col numeric[(p,s)], dec[imal] [(p,s)], int[eger], smallint, timestamp ‘<yyyy-mm-dd ...>’ float[(x)], double precision, real, blob, clob, bfile • interval year [(<2>)] to month type 182 nested table may be DB col • interval day [(<2>)] to second [(<6>)] index-by table may not be DB col Maximum Row Size type 183 type <varr_type> is {varray | varying array} (<size>) of <type> row header (min. 3B) + SUM(max. field raw (<n>) type 23 [not null]; length + length indicator (<=250: 1B, >250: • {col: 2.000B, pl: 32.767B} type <tab_type> is table of <type> [not null] 3B)) large objects [index by binary_integer]; www.larsditzel.de
  • 27. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 27Data Types (PL/SQL & Database) (cont.) Oracle Supplied Types Explicit Type Conversion (Cast Function) SYS.AnyData cast ( { <expr> | (<subquery>) | multiset (<subquery>) } as <type> ) SYS.AnyType char, datetime, rowid, nchar, number raw SYS.AnyDataSet varchar2 interval urowid nvarchar2 SYS.XMLType char, varchar2 X X X X X SYS.UriType number X X SYS.UriFactoryType date, timestamp, MDSYS.SDO_Geometry X X interval ORDSYS.ORDAudio raw X X ORDSYS.ORDImage rowid, urowid X X ORDSYS.ORDVideo nchar, nvarchar2 X X X X XExplicit Type Conversion (SQL Conversion Functions) char, varchar2, long, number datetime/interval raw rowid clob, nclob, blob nchar, nvarchar2 long raw to_date, to_timestamp, char, varchar2, to_char (char), to_clob, to_number to_timestamp_tz, hextoraw chartorowid nchar, nvarchar2 to_nchar (char) to_nclob to_yminterval, to_dsinterval to_date, to_char (number), number — to_yminterval, to_nchar (number) to_dsinterval o_char (date), datetime/interval — to_nchar (datetime) rawtohex, raw — to_blob rawtonhex rowid rowidtochar — long, long raw — to_lob to_char, to_clob, clob, nclob, blob to_nchar to_nclobImplicit Type Conversion datetime/ char varchar2 date long number raw rowid clob blob nchar nvarchar2 nclob interval char — X X X X X X X X X varchar2 X — X X X X X X X X X date X X — X X datetime/ X X — X X X X interval long X X X — X X X X X number X X — X X raw X X X — X X X rowid X X — X X clob X X X — blob X — nchar X X X X X X X X — X X nvarchar2 X X X X X X X X X — X nclob X X X — www.larsditzel.de
  • 28. 28 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide SQL, PL/SQL & Java Views & Tables {open | close}_cursor, parse, last_er- UTL_HTTP v$reserved_words, v$resumable, dba_source, ror_position, bind_{variable | array}, UTL_URL dba_errors, dba_dependencies, deptree, define_{column | column_long | array}, UTL_TCP ideptree, dba_libraries, dba_outlines, execute, describe_columns, fetch_rows, UTL_SMTP dba_outline_hints, dba_resumable, execute_and_fetch, last_row_{count | id}, UTL_ENCODE outln.ol$, outln.ol$hints, java$options, {column | variable}_value, column_value_ long, is_open, last_sql_function_code UTL_INADDR java$class$md5$table, create$java$lob$table, DBMS_LDAP UTL_RAW dba_workspace_sessions, all_workspaces, all_ cast_{to | from}_{number | binary_integer} workspace_privs, all_workspace_savepoints, DBMS_TRANSACTION advise_{commit | nothing | rollback}, OUTLN_PKG all_version_hview, all_wm_locked_tables, commit, commit_{comment | force}, drop_unused, {drop | update}_by_cat, all_wm_modified_tables, all_wm_ric_info, local_transaction_id, purge_lost_db_entry, drop_{collision | extras | unrefd_hints}[_ all_wm_tab_triggers, all_wm_versioned_ purge_mixed, read_{only | write}, rollback, expact], deptree_fill tables, role_wm_privs, user_wm_privs, <tab>_conf, <tab>_diff, <tab>_lock, <tab>_lt, rollback_{force | savepoint}, savepoint, SQLJUTL <tab>_hist, <tab>_wm step_id, use_rollback_segment, begin_dis- has_default crete_transaction >> Discrete transactions do not generate undo Files Parameters information! << optimizer_mode, db_file_multiblock_ DBMS_WM utldtree.sql, initjvm.sql, utljavarm.sql, read_count, optimizer_features_enable, {alter | goto}savepoint, {create | sqljutl.sql, owminst.plb optimizer_index_caching, optimizer_in- alter | merge | compress | freeze dex_cost_adj, optimizer_max_permutations, | get | goto | refresh | remove | Desupported Features complex_view_merging, partition_view_en- rollback | unfreeze}workspace, hash_multiblock_io_count, opti- abled, hash_join_enabled, hash_area_size, {begin | commit}resolve, {get | mizer_percent_parallel, always_anti_join, star_transformation_enabled, row_locking, set}conflictworkspace, {remove | always_semi_join, fast_full_scan_enabled, sql_trace, timed_statistics, create_stored_out- compress}workspacetree, {enable | push_join_predicate lines, use_stored_outlines, utl_file_dir, disable}versioning, {get | set}diffversions, plsql_v2_compatibility, remote_dependen- getlockmode, {get | set}multiworkspaces, cies_mode, undo_retention, plsql_compiler_ getopcontext, {grant | revoke}{system flags, cursor_sharing | workspace}priv, getprivs, gotodate, copyforupdate, {create | delete}savepoint, Packages isworkspaceoccupied, {lock | unlock}rows, {merge | refresh | rollback}table, DBMS_STANDARD, resolveconflicts, rollback{resolve | DBMS_TRACE tosp}, set{locking | wooverwrite | DBMS_LOCK workspacelockmode}{on | off } DBMS_DESCRIBE DBMS_JAVA DBMS_METADATA server_{startup | shutdown}, longname, get_{ddl | xml | dependent_ddl | depen- shortname, {get | set | reset}_compiler_op- dent_xml | granted_ddl | granted_xml | tion, set_{output | streams}, {start | end}_ query}, open, fetch_{ddl | ddl_text | xml | {import | export}, {start | stop}_debugging, clob}, close, set_{filter | count | parse_item register_endpoint, notifiy_at_{startup | debug}, add_transform, set_transform_ | shutdown}, remove_from_{startup | param, free_context_entry shutdown} DBMS_FLASHBACK DBMS_LOB enable_at_{time | system_change_num- append, close, compare, converttoclob, ber}, disable, get_system_change_number copy, {create | free}temporary, erase, DBMS_RESUMABLE fileclose, filecloseall, fileexists, filegetname, abort, {get | set}_timeout, {get | set}_ses- fileisopen, fileopen, getchunksize, get- sion_timeout, space_error_info length, instr, isopen, istemporary, load- DBMS_DDL fromfile, open, read, substr, trim, write, DBMS_DEBUG writeappend DBMS_PROFILER DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT DBMS_ALERT desencrypt, desdecrypt, des3encrypt, DBMS_OUTPUT des3decrypt, md5, desgetkey, des3getkey put, {new | put | get}_line, get_lines, UTL_FILE enable, disable fopen, fopen_nchar, is_open, fclose, DBMS_PIPE fclose_all, fflush, new_line, get_line, {pack | unpack}_message[_{raw | rowid} ], get_line_nchar, put_line, put_line_nchar, next_item_type, {send | receive}_message, put, put_nchar, putf, putf_nchar, fcopy, unique_name_session, purge fgetattr, fgetpos, fremove, frename, fseek, get_raw, put_raw DBMS_SQL www.larsditzel.de
  • 29. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 29SQL, PL/SQL & Java (cont.) Number Functions nls_charset_name, nullif, nvl, nvl2, sys_con- order by <col> [, …] {rows | range} abs, acos, asin, atan, atan2, bitand, ceil, nect_by_path, sys_context, sys_dburigen, [ { between <n> | unbounded cos, cosh, exp, floor, ln, log, mod, power, sys_extract_utc, sys_guid, sys_typeid, sys_xm- | interval ‘<n>‘ day } preceding] round, sign, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, trunc, lagg, sys_xmlgen, uid, user, userenv, vsize [ { [and] <n> | unbounded width_bucket | interval ‘<n>‘ day } following] Aggregate Functions [current row] [first_value()] [last_value()] Character Functions avg, corr, count, covar_pop, covar_samp, [asc | desc] [nulls {first | last}] ) chr, concat, initcap, lower, lpad, ltrim, cume_dist, dense_rank, first, group_id, group- ing, grouping_id, last, max, min, percen- Reporting Aggregate: nls_initcap, nls_lower, nlssort, nls_upper, {<WA-Func> | ratio_to_report} replace, rpad, rtrim, soundex, substr[b|c|2|4], tile_cont, percentile_disc, percent_rank, rank, regr, stddev, stddev_pop, stddev_samp, sum, (<col>) over ( translate, treat, trim, upper [partition by <col> [, …]] ascii, instr[b|c|2|4], length[b|c|2|4] var_pop, var_samp, variance [asc | desc] [nulls {first | last}] ) Object Reference Functions LAG/LEAD: Datetime Functions {lag | lead} (<col>, <default>) over ( add_months, current_date, current_time- deref, make_ref, ref, reftohex, value order by <col> [, …] [asc | desc] stamp, dbtimezone, extract, from_tz, last_day, [nulls {first | last}] ) localtimestamp, month_between, new_time, Format Models next_day, numtodsinterval, numtoyminterval, <fm> = 9 0 $ B MI S PR D G C L , . V SQL Statement Types round, sessiontimezone, sys_extract_utc, EEEE RN DATE A<n> DDL systimestamp, sysdate, to_dsinterval, to_time- create, alter, drop, truncate, rename, stamp, to_timestamp_tz, to_yminterval, Analytic Functions comment, grant, revoke, audit, noaudit, trunc, tz_offset analyze, {associate | disassociate} statistics Ranking: { rank() | dense_rank() | cume_dist() DML Conversion Functions | percent_rank() | ntile(<n>) select, insert, update, delete, merge, lock asciistr, bin_to_num, cast…[multiset], | row_number() } table, explain plan, call chartorowid, compose, convert, decompose, over ([partition by <col> [, …]] order by TxCtl hextoraw, numtodsinterval, numtoyminterval, <col> [, …] [asc | desc] [nulls {first | last}]) commit, rollback, savepoint, set transac- rawtohex, rawtonhex, rowidtochar, rowidton- Window Aggregate: tion char, to_char, to_clob, to_date, to_dsinterval, { count | sum | avg | min | max | stddev SessCtl to_lob, to_multi_byte, to_nchar, to_nclob, | variance | var_samp | var_pop alter session, set role to_number, to_single_byte, to_yminterval, | stddev_samp | stddev_pop | covar_samp SysCtl translate…using, unistr | covar_pop | regr_slope | regr_intercept alter system | regr_r2 | regr_avgx | regr_avgy Micellaneous Functions | regr_count | regr_sxx | regr_sxy bfilename, coalesce, decode, dump, empty_ | regr_syy } blob, empty_clob, existsnode, extract, greatest, (<col>) over ( least, nls_charset_decl_len, nls_charset_id, [partition by <col> [, …]] Optimizer -- index join (<tab> […] ), USE_HASH (<tab> […] ), Access Paths -- bitmap index scan DRIVING_SITE (<tab> […] ), PARALLEL 1 single row by rowid (<tab> [, {<n> | default} [ {<n> | default} ] ] Hints ), NOPARALLEL (<tab> […] ), PQ_DIS- 2 single row by cluster join TRIBUTE (<tab> [,] <out>, <in>), APPEND, 3 single row by hash cluster key with unique {select | update | delete} NOAPPEND, PARALLEL_INDEX (<tab> or primary key { /*+ <HINT> [text] */ [<ind> [, …] ] [, {<n> | default} [ {<n> | 4 single row by unique or primary key | --+ <HINT> [text] } default} ] ] ), NOPARALLEL_INDEX (<tab> 5 cluster join [<ind> [, …] ] ), CACHE (<tab> […] ), 6 hash cluster key RULE, CHOOSE, ALL_ROWS, FIRST_ NOCACHE (<tab> […] ), MERGE (<tab>), 7 indexed cluster key ROWS [(<n>)], FULL (<tab>), ROWID NOMERGE (<tab>), PUSH_JOIN_PRED (<tab>), CLUSTER (<tab>), HASH (<tab>), (<tab>), NO_PUSH_JOIN_PRED (<tab>), 8 composite key HASH_AJ, HASH_SJ, INDEX (<tab> PUSH_SUBQ, STAR_TRANSFORMA- 9 single-column indexes [<ind> […] ] ), INDEX_ASC (<tab> [<ind> TION, ORDERED_PREDICATES 10 bounded range search on indexed columns […] ] ), INDEX_DESC (<tab> [<ind> 11 unbounded range search on indexed […] ] ), INDEX_COMBINE (<tab> columns Serial direct-load insert: [<ind> […] ] ), INDEX_JOIN (<tab> insert /*+APPEND */ into <tab> <query>; 12 sort-merge join [<ind> […] ] ), INDEX_FFS (<tab> [<ind> 13 max or min of indexed column […] ] ), NO_INDEX (<tab> [<ind> […] ] ), MERGE_AJ, MERGE_SJ, AND_EQUAL Parallel direct-load insert: 14 order by on indexed columns (<tab> <ind> <ind> […] ), USE_CONCAT, alter session {enable | force} parallel dml; 15 full table scan insert /*+PARALLEL(<tab>,<n>) */ into -- sample table scan NO_EXPAND, NOREWRITE, REWRITE [ (<mview> [, …] ) ], ORDERED, STAR, tab> <query>; -- fast full index scan USE_NL (<tab> […] ), USE_MERGE www.larsditzel.de
  • 30. 30 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide SQL, PL/SQL & Java (cont.) Queries update <tab> [returning <expr> [, …] select set <col> = {<val> | ‘<string>’} [, …]; [bulk collect] into <var> [, …]]; { [aggr_func (] merge into <tab1> update [ {distinct | unique} | all ] using <tab2> on (<join_expr>) {<tab> | table (<subquery>)} { [<alias>.]<col> | * } [)] when matched then update set… set <col> = <expr> [, …] [ { + | - | * | / } <expr>] when not matched then insert [where {<expr> | current of <curs>}] [as] [“<alias>”] [, …] (<col>…) values (…); [returning <expr> [, …] | <seq>.{nextval | currval} delete [from] <tab> [bulk collect] into <var> [, …]]; | cursor (<subquery>) } [partition (<part>)] [alias] delete from from [where <expr>]; {<tab> | table (<subquery>)} { [(] [<schema>.] [where {<expr> | current of <curs>}] <tab/view/snapshot>[@<dblink>] [returning <expr> [, …] Control [partition (<part>)] [bulk collect] into <var> [, …]]; commit [work] execute immediate <‘dyn_sql_stat‘> [subpartition (<subpart>)] [ comment ‘<string>’ [<alias>] [, …] [sample [block] (<n>)] [[bulk collect] into | force ‘<id>’ [,<scn>] ]; {<var> [, …] | <rec>}] [ [inner | {left | right | full} [outer] ] savepoint <sp>; join <tab> { on <expr> [using [in | out | in out] <arg> [, …]] rollback [work] [{returning | return} [bulk collect] | using (<col> [, …]) } [to [savepoint] <sp> | force ‘<id>’]; into <arg> [, …]]; | cross join <tab> | natural [inner | {left | right | full} set transaction open <refcurs> [outer] ] join <tab> ] [)] {read only | read write for <‘dyn_multi_row_query‘> | ( <subquery> [with {read only | check | isolation level [using <var> [, …] ]; option [constraint <constr>]} ]) {serializable | read committed} open <curs> [ (<par>, …) ]; | use rollback segment <rbs>} <curs>%{ found | isopen | notfound | rowcount } | table (<coll_expr>) [(+)] } [name ‘<tx>’]; fetch <curs> [bulk collect] into where {<var> [, …] | <rec>} [limit <n>]; [(] [(] [<alias>.]<col/expr> [(+)] alter session {enable | disable} commit in procedure; close <curs>; [,<expr>…)] alter session {enable | disable | force} if <expr> then <stat>; { { = | != | ~= | <> | <= | >= | < | > } parallel {dml | ddl} [parallel <n>]; [elsif <expr> then <stat>;] [any | some | all] [else <stat>;] (<expr> [, …] | <subquery>) alter session {enable | disable} end if; | like ‘[ _%]<string>‘ resumable [timeout <7200>] [ << <label> >> ] | [not] in (<expr> [, …] | <subquery>) [name ‘<str>’]; [ while <expr> | [not] between <expr> and <expr> | for <i> in [reverse] <a>..<b> | = [<alias>.]<col> PL/SQL | for <rec> in {<curs> [(<par>, …)] | [not] exists (<subquery>) declare | (<query>) } ] | is [not] null { -- <comment> loop <stat>; | is dangling } | /* <comment> */ } [if <expr> then exit;] [{and [not] | or} <expr>] [, …] [)] pragma autonomous_transaction; [exit [<label>] when <expr>;] [[start with <expr>] pragma serially_reusable; end loop [<label>]; connect by [prior] <expr>] pragma restrict_references forall <i> in <a>..<b> [save exceptions] [group by [{rollup | cube} (] (<name>, rnds, wnds, rnps, { <stat> [returning <col> <expr> [, …] [)] wnps, trust); bulk collect into <collect>]; [having {<expr> | (<subquery>)}] ] read, write, no, database, package, state | execute immediate [ {union [all] | intersect | minus} pragma exception_init (<exc>, <err_no>); <upd | ins | del> … } (<subquery>) ] <var> [constant] SQL%{bulk_rowcount(i) [order by {<col> | <n>} [asc | desc] [, …]] { <type> | <tab>.<col>%TYPE | bulk_exceptions(i).error_{index | code} | bulk_exceptions.count } [for update [of <tab>.<col>] | <var>%TYPE | <tab>%ROWTYPE } lock table <tab> [nowait | wait <n>] ]; [[not null] { := | default } <n>]; in {share [row exclusive] | exclusive} with <query_name> as (<subquery>) [, …] cursor <curs> mode [nowait]; select … from <query_name> … ; [(<par> <type> [, …])] is << subquery factoring set transaction <query> [for update of <col> [, …]]; {read only | read write type <refcurs_type> is | isolation level DML ref cursor return <type>; {serializable | read committed} insert into <refcurs> <refcurs_type>; | use rollback segment <rbs>}; { <tab> [partition (<part>)] type <rec_type> ist record (<col> [, …] ); commit [work] [comment ‚<str>‘]; | [the] <subquery1> } <rec> <rec_type>; savepoint <sp>; [(<col> [, …] )] <exc> exception; rollback [work] [to [savepoint] <sp>]; { values (<expr>, …) begin [ << <blocklabel> >> ] null; | <subquery2> } [ref into <item>]; select … [ << <label> >> ] insert [[bulk collect] into <var> [, …]] goto <label>; { all into <tab>… [, <tab>…] from …; {<var> := <func> | <proc>} | [all | first] insert into ([<form_par> => ] <act_par> [, …]); when <expr> then into <tab>… {<tab> | table (<subquery>)} return [ [(] <expr> [)] ]; [else into <tab>…] } [(<col> [, …])] raise <exc>; <subquery>; {values (<expr>, …) | <subquery>} www.larsditzel.de
  • 31. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 31SQL, PL/SQL & Java (cont.) exception { is <var> <type>; | {clob | blob | bfile} <subquery> when {<exc> | others} [or <exc2> …] begin <stat>; | ‘<key_for_BLOB>‘} }; then <stat>; [sqlcode; sqlerrm(<n>);] end [<func>]; alter java {source | class} “<java>” raise; | as external library <lib> [resolver…] >> Predefined Server Exceptions: [name ‘<func>’] [language <lang>] no_data_found, too_many_rows, invalid_cursor, { {compile | resolve} zero_divide, dup_val_on_index << [calling standard {C | pascal}] | authid {current_user | definer} }; end; parameters ( drop java {source | class | resource} “<java>”; { <par> [ indicator | length | maxlen Packages | charsetid | charsetform ] Miscellaneous [by ref ] <type> [, …] create [or replace] package <pack> return [indicator | …] create [or replace] library <lib> {is | as} ‘<file>‘; [authid {current_user | definer}] [by ref ] <type> drop library <lib>; {is | as} {procedure | function} | context } [, …]) [with context] create [or replace] operator <oper> <name> (<par> <type> [, …]) | as [language <lang>] name binding (<type> [, …]) return <type> [return <type>]; ‘<func> (<par>, …) return <type>‘ }; [ancillary to <prim> (<type> [, …] )] [type <refcurs> is ref cursor [with index context] [scan context] drop function <func>; return <type>;] [compute ancillary data] using <func>; create [or replace] procedure <proc> end [<pack>]; create [or replace] indextype <itype> [(<par> [ in | out [nocopy] create [or replace] package body for <oper> (<par> [, …]) using <package>; | in out [nocopy] ] <type> <pack> {is | as} create [or replace] context <namespace> [{:= | default} <expr>] [, …] )] {procedure | function} <name> using <pack|type>; [authid {current_user | definer}] [(<par> [ in | out [nocopy] { is <var> <type>; drop context <namespace>; | in out [nocopy] ] <type> begin <stat>; create schema authorization <schema> [{:= | default} <expr>] [, …] )] end [<proc>]; {create table… | create view… | grant…}; [return <type>] | as [language <lang>] name explain plan [set statement_id = ‘<string>’] [authid {current_user | definer}] ‘<func>(<par>, …)‘ }; [into <tab>] for <stat>; { is begin <stat>; end; end [<pack>]; drop procedure <proc>; create [or replace] outline <outln> | is external library <lib> [name ‘<func>’] [language <lang>] alter {function | procedure} <name> [for category <cat>] on <stat>; [calling standard {C | pascal}] compile [debug]; alter outline <outln> [with context] call {<proc> | <func> | <method>}[@<dblink>] { rebuild | rename to <new> | as [language <lang>] name (<expr> [, …]) | change category to <newcat> }; ‘<func> (<par>, …) return <type>‘ }; [into <:var> [indicator <:ind>]]; drop outline <outln>; drop package [body] <pack>; alter package <pack> compile Java [debug] [package | specification | body]; create [or replace] [and {resolve | compile} [noforce] java Procedures & Functions { {source | resource} named “<java>” | class [schema <schema>] } create [or replace] function <func> [authid {current_user | definer}] [(<par> [ in | out [nocopy] [resolver ( | in out [nocopy] ] <type> (“<pack/class | * >“ [,] {<schema> | - } ) [{:= | default} <expr>] [, …] )] […] )] return <type> { as <src_text> [authid {current_user | definer}] | using { bfile (<dir>, ‘<file>‘) [deterministic] [parallel_enable] Boolean Conditions AND true false null OR true false null NOT true true false null true true true true true false false false false false false true false null false true null null false null null true null null null not null www.larsditzel.de
  • 32. 32 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Embedded SQL exec oracle define <symbol>; set <col> = <expr> into <bind_descr>; exec oracle {ifdef | ifndef } <symbol>; [where {<expr> | current of <curs>}] exec sql [for <n>] open <curs> exec oracle {else | endif }; [{return | returning} <expr> [, …] [using descriptor <bind_descr>]; exec oracle option (<name> = <value>); into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]]; exec sql describe [select list for] <stat> exec sql include {oraca | sqlca}; exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] delete [from] into <sel_descr>; sqlca.sqlcode, sqlca.sqlerrm.sqlerrmc {(<subquery>) | <tab>} [alias] exec sql [for <n>] fetch <curs> exec sql enable threads; [where {<expr> | current of <curs>}] using descriptor <sel_descr>; exec sql declare <db> database; [{return | returning} <expr> [, …] exec sql close <curs>; into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]]; exec sql connect {<:user> identified by <:pw> | <:user_pw>} exec sql [at <db>] execute ANSI dyn. SQL method 4 [ [at <db>] using <:db>] begin <stat>; [, …] end; end-exec; exec sql [for <n>] allocate descriptor { [in {sysdba | sysoper} mode] [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘} | [alter authorization <:new_pw>] }; exec sql [at <db>] declare <curs> [with max <100>]; exec sql whenever for <static_stat>; exec sql prepare <stat> from {<:str> | ‘<str>‘}; {not found | sqlerror | sqlwarning} exec sql open <curs> [using <:var>]; exec sql describe input <stat> { continue | goto <label> | stop exec sql fetch <curs> into <:var> [, …]; using [sql] descriptor | do {<routine> | break | continue} }; exec sql close <curs>; [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}; exec sql declare <tab> table exec sql [for <n>] set descriptor (<col> <type> [not null] [, …]); Oracle dyn. SQL method 1 [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘} exec sql declare <tab> table of <obj_type>; non-query, no bind vars { count = <n> | value <item_no> exec sql declare <type> type as exec sql [at <db>] execute immediate { type | length | [ref ] indicator { object ( <col> <type> [, …]) {<:str> | ‘<str>‘}; | [ref ] data | character_set_name | varray (<size>) of <elem_type> <str> may be PL/SQL block | [ref ] returned_length | table of <obj_type> }; | national_character exec sql type <typ> is <datatype> [reference]; Oracle dyn. SQL method 2 | host_stride_length non-query, known number and types of bind vars | indicator_stride_length exec sql call <proc>(<par> [, …] ) [into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] ]; [exec sql [at <db>] declare <stat> statement;] | returned_length_stride exec sql register connect using <:ext_proc> exec sql prepare <stat> from {<:str> | <str>}; | user_defined_type_{name | name_ [{return | returning} <:cont>]; exec sql execute <stat> [using <:var> [, …] ]; length | schema | schema_length }} exec sql var <:var> is <type> = <:var> [, …] }; { [(<len> | <prec>,<scal>)] Oracle dyn. SQL method 3 exec sql [for <n>] execute <stat> [convbufsz [is] (<n>)] query, known number of columns and known number [using [sql] descriptor and types of bind vars [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}] | [convbufsz [is] (<n>)] }; [exec sql [at <db>] declare <stat> statement;] [into [sql] descriptor exec sql [at <db>] allocate <:curs_var> [[indicator] <:ind>]; exec sql [at <db>] prepare <stat> [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}]; from {<:str> | ‚<str>‘}; exec sql execute immediate {<:str> | ‘<str>‘}; exec sql [at <db>] commit [work] exec sql declare <curs> cursor for <stat>; str> may be PL/SQL block [ [comment ‘<str>’] [release] | force ‘<id>’ [,<n>] ]; exec sql [for <n>] open <curs> exec sql [at <db>] declare [using <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]]; <curs> cursor for <stat>; exec sql [at <db>] savepoint <sp>; exec sql [for <n>] fetch <curs> into <:var> exec sql [for <n>] open <curs> exec sql [at <db>] rollback [work] [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]; [using [sql] descriptor [ to [savepoint] <sp> exec sql close <curs>; [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}] | force ‘<id>’ | release ]; [into [sql] descriptor [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}]; Static SQL Oracle dyn. SQL method 4 query, unknown number of columns or unknown exec sql describe output <stat> exec sql [at <db>] select <val> into <:var>… number or types of bind vars using [sql] descriptor from <tab> where <expr>…; [exec sql [at <db>] declare <stat> statement;] [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}; exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] exec sql prepare <stat> from {<:str> | ‚<str>‘}; exec sql [for <n>] fetch <curs> insert into {<tab> | (<subquery1>)} into [sql] descriptor exec sql [for <n>] execute <stat> [(<col> [, …] ] [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘} }; [using descriptor <bind_descr>]; {values (<expr> [, …]) | <subquery2>} exec sql [for <n>] get descriptor exec sql [at <db>] declare <curs> cursor [{return | returning} <expr> [, …] [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘} for <stat>; into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]]; { <:var> = count exec sql describe bind variables for <stat> exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] update <tab> www.larsditzel.de
  • 33. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 33Embedded SQL (cont.) | value <item_no> <:var> = <:obj> [[indicator] <:ind>] to <:var> Utilities { type | length | octet_length [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]; proc | returned_octet_length | precision exec sql [at <db>] object auto_connect={yes | no} char_ | scale | nullable | name get [ { * | <attrib> [, …] } from ] map={varchar2 | charz | string | charf } | character_set_name | indicator | data <:obj> [ [indicator] <:ind>] into <:var> close_on_commit={yes | no} code={ansi_c | returned_length | national_character [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]; | kr_c | cpp} comp_charset={multi_byte | internal_length | host_stride_length exec sql [for <n>] [object] free <:point> | single_byte} config=<file> cpp_ | indicator_stride_length [[indicator] <:ind>]; suffix=<ext> dbms={native | v7 | v8} | returned_length_stride exec sql [at <db>] [object] cache free all; def_sqlcode={yes | no} define=<name> | user_defined_type_{version | name duration={transaction | session} | name_length | schema dynamic={oracle | ansi} errors={yes | no} LOBs | schema_length} errtype=<file> fips={sql89 | sql2 | yes } [, …] }; exec sql [at <db>] lob append <:src> to <:dst>; | no} header=<ext> hold_cursor={yes exec sql close <curs>; exec sql [at <db>] lob trim <:src> to <:x>; | no} iname=<ifile> include=<path> exec sql deallocate descriptor exec sql [at <db>] lob assign <:src> to <:dst>; intype=(<file, …>) lines={yes | no} [global | local] {<:descr> | ‘<descr>‘}; exec sql [at <db>] lob copy <:x> lname=<lisfile> ltype={none | short | long} from <:src> [at <:y>] to <:dst> [at <:z>]; maxliteral=<1024> maxopencursors=<10> Collections exec sql [at <db>] lob mode={ansi | iso | oracle} nls_char=<var> exec sql [at <db>] collection describe erase <:x> from <:src> [at <:y>]; nls_local={yes | no} objects={yes | <:coll> [ [indicator] <:ind>] exec sql [at <db>] lob create temporary <:src>; no} oname=<ofile> oraca={yes | no} get <attrib> [, …] into <:var> exec sql [at <db>] lob free temporary <:src>; pagelen=<80> parse={full | partial | none} [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]; exec sql [at <db>] lob describe <:src> get prefetch=<1> release_cursor={yes | no} { chunksize | directory | fileexists | filename select_error={yes | no} sqlcheck={semantics exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] collection append | isopen | istemporary | length } [, …] | full | syntax} sys_include=<path> <:var> [ [indicator] <:ind>] to <:coll> into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>] [, …]; threads={yes | no} type_code={oracle | [[indicator] <:ind>]; ansi} unsafe_null={yes | no} userid=<user>/ exec sql [at <db>] collection trim <:x> exec sql [at <db>] lob enable buffering <:src>; <pwd>[@<serv>] utf16_charset={nchar_ from <:coll> [[indicator] <:ind>]; exec sql [at <db>] lob disable buffering <:src>; charset | db_charset} varchar={yes | no} exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] collection exec sql [at <db>] lob flush buffer <:src> [free]; version={recent | latest | any} set <:coll> [[indicator] <:ind>] exec sql [at <db>] lob open <:src> to <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>]; [read only | read write]; lnproc exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] collection exec sql [at <db>] lob close <:src>; get <:coll> [[indicator] <:ind>] exec sql [at <db>] lob file close all; into <:var> [[indicator] <:ind>]; exec sql [at <db>] lob file set <:file> exec sql [at <db>] collection reset <:coll> directory = <:dir>, filename = <:name>; [[indicator] <:ind>]; exec sql [at <db>] lob load <:x> from file <:file> [at <:y>] into <:dst> [at <:z>]; Objects exec sql [at <db>] lob read <:x> from <:src> exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object [at <:y>] into <:buff> [with length <:z>]; create <:obj> [indicator] <:ind> exec sql [at <db>] lob write [append] [table <tab>] [returning ref into <:ret>]; [first | next | last | one] <:x> exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object from <:buff> [with length <:y>] release <:obj>; into <:dst> [at <:z>]; exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object update <:obj>; Context exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object exec sql context allocate <:cont>; delete <:obj>; exec sql context use {<:cont> | default}; exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object exec sql context object get <option> [, …] deref <:ref> into <:obj> into <:var> [, …]; [[indicator] <:ind>] [for update [nowait]]; exec sql context object set <option> [, …] exec sql [at <db>] [for <n>] object to <:var> [, …]; flush <:obj>; exec sql context free <:cont>; exec sql [at <db>] object set [ { * | <attrib> [, …] } of ] www.larsditzel.de
  • 34. 34 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide SQLJ #sql <mod> iterator <iter> Utilities –user <user> –password <pwd> –service [implements <intfc> [, …] ] sqlj <url> –{ssl | iiop} [with ( [sensitivity = {sensitive –d[ir]=<dir> –encoding=<enc> –url=<url> deployejb | asensitive | insensitive}] –status –compile=false –user=<user>/ –generated <clientjar> –descriptor <file> [holdability = {true | false}] <pwd>@jdbc:oracle:thin@<host>:<port>: –verbose –republish –beanonly –addclass- [returnability = {true | false}] <sid> –linemap –profile=false –ser2class path <path> –resolver <res> –h[elp] –keep [updatecolumns = ‘<col> [, …] –P–<opt> –C–<opt> –P–help –C–help –version –describe –p[roperties] <file> [<var> = <val>] [, …] )] –J–<opt> –version –help–alias –help–log –user <user> –password <pwd> –role (<type> [<col>] [, …]); –<key>=<value> <role> –service <url> –{ssl | iiop} named or positional iterator –credsfile <file> –useservicename –temp { <in>.sqlj [<out>.java] … #sql <mod> context <cont> | <in>.ser [<out>.jar] … } <dir> <EJBjarfile> [implements <intfc> [, …]] ejbdescriptor loadjava [with ( … <var>=<val> [, …] )]; –{parse | dump} <infile> <outfile> –d[efiner] –e[ncoding] <latin1> –f[orce] #sql [ [<conn_cont_inst>, <exec_cont_inst>] ] –g[rant] <user / role>, … –h[elp] java2rmi_iiop [<var / iter> =] { <SQL stat> }; –noverify –order –r[esolve] –a[ndresolve] –no_bind –no_comments –no_examples >> Curly braces are part of syntax! << –s[ynonym] –oracleresolver –no_tie –wide –root_dir <dir> –verbose #sql { select /*+ <HINT> */ <expr> [, …] –version –W <n> –R[esolver] “((<name> <schema>) …)” into <:[out] var> [, …] –o[ci8] –t[hin] –v[erbose] <true> java2idl from <tab> [where <expr> …] }; –S[chema] <schema> modifyprops #sql <iter> = { select <expr> [, …] –u[ser] <user>/<pwd>@<netserv> –{o[ci8] | t[hin]} from <tab> [where <expr>…] }; <classes> <jars> <resources> <properties> –u[ser] <user>/<pwd>@<netserv> #sql { fetch <:iter> into <:var> [, …] }; dropjava {<key> <val> | <key> –delete} <iter>.next(), <iter>.endFetch(), <iter>.close() –encoding <latin1> –h[elp]–s[ynonym] #sql { insert into… }; –{o[ci8] | t[hin]} –v[erbose] –S[chema] #sql { update… }; <schema> –user user>/<pwd>@<netserv> #sql { delete from… }; <classes> <jars> <resources> <properties> #sql { commit }; publish #sql { rollback }; –republish –h[elp] –version –describe #sql { set transaction <mode> –g[rant] <user / role>, … –role <role> [, isolation level <level>] }; –user <user> –password <pwd> –service #sql { call <proc> (<par> [, …] ) }; <url> –schema <schema> –{ssl | iiop} #sql <var / iter> = <name> <class> [<helper>] { values ( <func> (<par> [, …] ) ) }; remove #sql { set <:var> = <expr> }; –r[ecurse] –h[elp] –version –d[escribe] –role <role> –user <user> –password #sql <iter> = { cast <:result_set> }; <pwd> –service <url> –{ssl | iiop} <name> #sql { [declare <var> <type>;] sess_sh begin <stat>; […] end; }; –h[elp] –version –d[escribe] –role <role> www.larsditzel.de
  • 35. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 35Label Security Views & Tables {create | alter | drop}_label dba_sa_audit_options, dba_sa_compartments, SA_POLICY_ADMIN dba_sa_data_labels, dba_sa_groups, dba_sa_ {apply | remove | enable | disable}_table_ group_hierachy, dba_sa_labels, dba_sa_levels, policy, {apply | alter | remove | enable | dba_sa_policies, dba_sa_prog_privs, dba_ disable}_schema_policy sa_schema_policies, dba_sa_table_policies, SA_USER_ADMIN dba_sa_users, dba_sa_user_compartments, set_levels, {set | add | alter | drop}_com- dba_sa_user_groups, dba_sa_user_labels, partments, {set | add | alter | drop}_groups, dba_sa_user_levels, dba_sa_user_privs drop_all_{groups | compartments}, set_user_labels, set_{default | row}_label, Packages set_prog_privs SA_SESSION SA_AUDIT_ADMIN privs, {min | max}_level, comp_{read | audit, noaudit, {audit | noaudit}_label, write}, group_{read | write}, label, row_la- audit_label_enabled, {create | drop}_view bel, sa_user_name, {save | restore}_de- SA_UTL faults_labels, set_label, set_row_label, {numeric | numeric_row | data}_label, set_access_profile, set_user_privs set_{label | row_label} SA_SYSDBA {create | drop | enable | diable}_policy SA_COMPONENTS {create | alter | drop}_level, {create | alter |drop}_compartment, {create | alter | drop}_group, alter_group_parent SA_LABEL_ADMINPerformance Top Ten Performance Issues • connection management • cursor sharing (bind variables) • I/O design (controller, bandwitdth) • redo log sizes and groups • data block serialization (free lists, free list groups, block size, transaction slots, rollback segments) • long full table scans (indexes, statistics) • disk sorts • recursive SQL (space management) • schema errors and optimizer problems • nonstandard initialization parameters (undocumented features…) www.larsditzel.de
  • 36. 36 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Architecture ������ ������ ������������ �������� ���� ���� ���� ����������� ��� ������������ ������ � ���� ���� ���� � ���� ���� ���� ��� ����� � ����� � ����� � ���� ���� ���� ��� ���������� ������� ���� ���� �������� ��������� ��������� ���� ���� � ��������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ��� ������ � ������ ���� ���� ���������� ���� ��� ��� ���� �������� ���� ������ ����� ��� � ��� ����� � ����� � ����� � ���� ��� � �� �������� ����������� ������� ��������� � ��� �������� ������������ ������������ ���� ���� ��� ����� ������� �������� ������ ����� ���� � ����� ������� ������ ������ ����� ���� � ����� ��������� ����� ���� �������� � ��� ����� ����� ������� � ������ � ���� � ��������� ��� ���� ����� ������������ ������ � ����� ���� ����� � �� ����� ����� ����� �������� ���� ���������� ���� ����� ����� �������� ������ ���� ������� ������ � �������� ������� � ���� ��� ��� ����� ����� � ��� ������ �� ���� � ���� ������� ��������� ��������� ���� ����� �� ���� ��������� ��������� ������� ��� ������ ����������� ��� ������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ����� ��������� ��������� ���� ������� ���� ���� ��� ���������� �������� ������� �������� ����� �������� ���������� ���������� �� ����� ���� �� ������ ����� ������� �������� �������� ������� ��������� ������� ���� www.larsditzel.de
  • 37. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 37 ���� ��������� ���� ���� �������� � ���������� ���� ���� ���� �� ����������� ���� ��������� ����� � ������ ������ ����� �������� � ������� �� ������ ����� ������� �������� � ���������� ���� ��� �� � �������� ��� ��� ����� ���������� ����������� ���������� �������� � ��������������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ��� �������� ��� �� ���� �������� ������� ������ ��������� ������������� ������ ����� ������� ����� ������� ������ �������������� ���� ���������� ���� �� ������ ����� ���� ������ ������ ������� ������� � ���� ���� ����������� ���� ���������� ������� ���� ����� � ���� ����� ��������� ���������� ����� ���������� ����� ������ ��������� ��� ���������� ������ ������ ��� � �� ������� ������� ������ � ����� ��������� ������ ������� � ����� ���� ���� ��������� ������ ���� ������� �������� ����������� ������� ����� ������� ����� ������� �������� ����� ���� ���� ������� ������� ������������ ���� ����� ������ � ������� �� �� ��� � ������ ���� ���������� ���� � � ��� ������ ���������� � ������ ������� ��� ����������� ���������� ������� ��� ����� �������� ��������� ��������� �������� � ������ � ������ ������������� �������� � ���������� �������� ����������� � �������� ������� �������� ������� ��������� � ���� ��� ���� ������ �������� ���������� � ����������������� www.larsditzel.de

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