• Stuart Hall is a theorist that said that there are three
different ways of identifying an audience. There are
obviously several different ways in which you can grasp an
audiences responses but these three are the main.
• Preferred – the audience completely agrees with what the
publisher/producer says and has no qualms about them.
• Negotiated – agrees with some of the publisher/producers
ideas but prefers to input their own ideas, opinions and
• Opposition – disagrees with everything the
publisher/producers says, accepts that the
publisher/producer has an opinion but will not agree at all.
A preferred audience is what the producer/publisher would ideally want. The
audience is behind them 100% and the audience believes what they say.
An example of this is ‘Match!’ magazine, there are trusted pundits writing for the
magazine which then makes the consumers feel like they prefer the magazine. It is
the UK’s number one football magazine and therefore is the preferred choice to all
Another example of this is another football magazine called ‘FourFourTwo’ it
involves interviews with big football stars. Again, most of the pundits are trusted
and or are correct the majority of the time about transfers and footballers
opinions. It is also a big magazine and the preferred choice.
• Negotiated audiences are what the publisher/producer aims for when
airing a new site/media product.
• An example of a negotiated audience would be twitter. Everyone likes
what the inventor of twitter has created but still has opinions on what
could be made better i.e. new ideas.
• Another example of a negotiated audience would be the Doctor Who 50th
anniversary. The producer of Doctor Who said in a podcast that the fans
would not see the sixth doctor or any other surprises in this episode.
However the fans then responded by inputting saying ‘we should be
allowed to see the sixth doctor.. I want this to happen..’
An opposition audience is not what a publisher/producer wants. This is where the audience strongly
disagrees with anything written or produced.
Examples of this are tabloid newspapers. Mainly, The Sun newspaper. Although this may be a bias
opinion I feel very passionate about this subject, I do accept that the publisher has to produce a story to
provide but I will still not read or accept the newspaper.
The newspaper is censored in all of Merseyside and from the Liverpool fans, I feel strongly that this
newspaper wrongly branded the Liverpool fans at Hillsborough as animals and for 23 years did not
apologise. It is disgusting how much justice the Hillsborough families had to fight for because of one
• Audiences are now asked to participate in whatever they
can regarding a TV show or a book/film. This can be done
via blogs, facebook, twitter, vlogs and podcasts.
• The most participated site is twitter, viewers tweet whilst
watching/listening/or reading something. Most media
products advertise at twitter as you can use a ‘#’ to
promote a certain product.
• This is known as direct interaction where the viewers can
become part of something as they give their opinions. The
audience is normally known as an active audience as they
are constantly getting involved with a particular television
series like Eastenders or Coronation Street. The most direct
interaction is through social media with thousands joining
twitter and facebook every day.
Twitter Case Study
• Twitter is the platform for all new media
products, TV and gaming. Twitter understands
that people use its site to promote what they are
• I use twitter quite a lot, to interact with other
football fans. When I tweet during a football
match I gain a lot of followers, probably around
50 per match. As an example, a graph from the
VMA’s shows how many viewers increased
throughout the show.
The highest peak of
viewers was at 10:30pm
and when Beyoncé
This graph shows the number of viewers increasing during the 2011 VMA awards.
A – the host uses a hashtag to present Lady Gaga’s dress code.
B – VMA main show begins with a performance from Lady Gaga.
C – Jay-Z and Kayne West perform.
D – Adele sings.
E – Beyoncé performance – E – reveal of her baby bump/
Facebook Case Study
• Facebook is the most used social media site, it is
used by thousands to share opinions, life stories,
events and much more.
• Facebook is mainly used so that people can
spread their life stories to other people who can
‘like’ their post i.e. agree with it or comment to
say their thoughts.
• Over 1.11 billion users were on Facebook at the
end of March 2013 and growing every month.
• Media texts have to have a certain level of
competence so that we can all understand the
media text. On a basic level, this could be
understanding the text in a different language.
Reading deeper into cultural competence,
media has to use signs, codes and symbols to
communicate. We understand these symbols
in our own culture and language but is difficult
to understand when we come across other
symbols and signs.
We understand ‘I go to
college’ but the Japanese
use symbols to write,
without the translation
we wouldn’t know what
• Every day objects such as a car can be visually
interpreted by many around the world.
• What the car means however depends on
• Fan culture is where fans of a specific programme, football team etc. come
together to write fanzines and or edit certain parts of a book/film so they
can incorporate their own ideas into it. Online websites such as Wattpad,
allow fans to write their own stories and fantasies about their favourite
celebrity or their favourite TV show. Blogs can also be a good way of
looking at fan culture because fans can write what they want about their
favourite thing. I am a blog writer for a football website, it is my passion
and therefore because I am considered as a fan of football I am then
involved with fan culture.
• Social media sites like twitter have helped these groups to come together,
the fan culture is becoming bigger and bigger and also becoming
• However, some of the forums etc. have been under pressure after
countless pieces have had to be taken down. Now, with fan fictions turning
to a mainstream audience, more and more writers are becoming noticed
within the public eye e.g. 50 Shades Of Grey.
• If you belong or support a certain thing, you are
known to being in a fandom. You can be any age
to join a fandom. A few examples of fandoms are;
I belong to a fandom called ‘The Liverpool Ladies’
this fandom is where all the female fans of
Liverpool football club can come together and
talk about the club etc. Another example of a
fandom is ‘JLSters’ the fans have called
themselves this and incorporated the band into
their fan name. A lot of music artists fans do this
as it distinguishes them from other music artists.
• Being in a fandom you get fake relationships
called ‘ships’ this is where one person is put
together with another person to create a fake
relationship. The fandom of ‘Directioners’ use
the band members to put together a
homosexual fantasy between the group.