Game Design to Enhance Cognitive Adaptability
ADL Webinar, 12/17/2013
Shane Gallagher, Ph.D., Serco in support of ADL
Shen...
What does your IQ mean?
116+
17 percent of the world population;
superior I.Q.; appropriate average
for individuals in pro...
Can cognitive capabilities be enhanced?
• What is brain
plasticity?
• Can the brain be
trained?
• Can intelligence be
incr...
Cognitive capabilities can be enhanced
According to research by:
• Klingbert (2005)
• Jaeggi & Buschkuel (2008)

• Green &...
Can cognitive capabilities be enhanced…
through game design?
If so, how?

That is our question….

5
Background
Adaptability and Cognitive Adaptability

6
What Is Adaptability?
• Adaptability: important metacompetency identified
by U.S. DoD, DoL, DoE.
• Ability to use existing...
What Is Adaptability?
• Present on a scale of macro to
micro
•

Macro: adaptive stance, operational
adaptability

•

Mid: ...
Lens of Analysis
• Cognitive Adaptability
•

Micro (cognitive) Level

•

Components
•

Cognitive Openness/Creativity

•

F...
Cognitive Adaptability

10
How This Translates to Game
Design

11
Mechanics
Dynamics
Aesthetics
“…where mechanics are the components of
a game at the level of data representation
and algor...
A Variation on MDA: FFMDA

13
FFMDA

14
FFMDA

15
Fostering Cognitive Adaptability
• Intersection of games and CA = research void
• Had to draw from other areas of research...
Lens of Analysis
5 Features for CA
• Unstated/Implicit Rules
• Unstated/Implicit Shifting of
Rule Sets
• Dynamic Shifting
...
The Study

The Study

18
Goal
• Examine whether playing a commercial off-the-shelf
game with the five identified features will increase
cognitive a...
Design

Study site and population chosen

•

•
•

Sheppard AFB, 18-24 year olds enlisted and lieutenants (N=39)
Randomly a...
CANTAB
• Cognitive testing software
• Customized battery
•

Attention Switching

•

Spatial Working Memory

•

Spatial Spa...
Design
Intervention Game:
Portal II
•

Play for 6 hours over
2 days (12 hours
total) with breaks
every 1.5 hours

Control:...
Results

23
Portal 2 Play
• Cognitive focused attention (specifically signal detection) was
enhanced in Portal 2 players versus MS Gam...
Gaming Experience
• Previous experience playing Portal 2 within past six months
correlated with greater spatial working me...
Evaluating Games for Cognitive
Potential

26
Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA)
• Technique to capture and model behavioral and cognitive
processes/activities for accomplis...
Applying CTA to Video Games
• Need to understand empirically:
•

Design of game

•

How game design interacts with player ...
Protocol: CTA & Video Games
Part I: Preliminary Analysis/Lexicon Development
•

Establish vocabulary of game (names for fe...
30
Protocol: CTA & Video Games
Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation
Level-by-level:

•
•

•

Please play through this level,...
Protocol: CTA and Video Games
Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation
Subject and researcher review FRAPS gameplay for the
f...
Example FRAPS: Ch. 1, Level 3

33
34
Protocol: CTA and Video Games
Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation
•

Reviewing FRAPS gameplay a second time, identify
pr...
36
Progress and Results
• Protocol developed for CTA on video gameplay that
encompasses cognitive, mechanical, and design
ele...
Future Direction
• Developing a cognitive profile of all analyzed puzzles
and micro puzzles in Portal 2
• Aligning the puz...
Resources
Supporting Cognitive Adaptability Through Game Design
http://www.adlnet.gov/resources/supporting-cognitive-adapt...
Contact Us

Shane Gallagher
shane.gallagher.ctr@adlnet.gov
Shenan Prestwich
shenan.prestwich.ctr@adlnet.gov

40
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Game design to enhance ca webinar final 12 16

  1. 1. Game Design to Enhance Cognitive Adaptability ADL Webinar, 12/17/2013 Shane Gallagher, Ph.D., Serco in support of ADL Shenan Prestwich, Katmai in support of ADL
  2. 2. What does your IQ mean? 116+ 17 percent of the world population; superior I.Q.; appropriate average for individuals in professional occupations. 121+ 10 percent; potentially gifted; average for college graduates 132+ 2 percent; borderline genius; average I.Q. of most Ph.D. recipients 143+ 1 percent; genius level; about average for Ph.D.'s in physics 158+ 1 in 10,000; Nobel Prize winners 164+ 1 in 30,000; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the chess champion Bobby Fischer. 20-50% of variation due to non-genetic factors Genetic factors not like those of eye color but more like those for height and weight www.nytimes.com/2012/04/22/magazine/can-you-make-yourselfsmarter.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&page 2
  3. 3. Can cognitive capabilities be enhanced? • What is brain plasticity? • Can the brain be trained? • Can intelligence be increased? • Fluid intelligence vs. crystalized intelligence 3
  4. 4. Cognitive capabilities can be enhanced According to research by: • Klingbert (2005) • Jaeggi & Buschkuel (2008) • Green & Bavelier (2003) • Maguire, et al (2000) • Dranganski, et al (2004, 2006) • Willis, et al (2006) • Holmes (2009) • And many others…. 4
  5. 5. Can cognitive capabilities be enhanced… through game design? If so, how? That is our question…. 5
  6. 6. Background Adaptability and Cognitive Adaptability 6
  7. 7. What Is Adaptability? • Adaptability: important metacompetency identified by U.S. DoD, DoL, DoE. • Ability to use existing knowledge to create innovative problem solutions • Repeatedly trying new/different strategies to solve problems while reflecting on actions and incorporating feedback 7
  8. 8. What Is Adaptability? • Present on a scale of macro to micro • Macro: adaptive stance, operational adaptability • Mid: individual adaptive behavior • Micro: micromomentary cognitive processes, i.e., cognitive adaptability 8
  9. 9. Lens of Analysis • Cognitive Adaptability • Micro (cognitive) Level • Components • Cognitive Openness/Creativity • Focused Attention • Cognitive Flexibility/Metacognition • Critical Thinking & ProblemSolving 9
  10. 10. Cognitive Adaptability 10
  11. 11. How This Translates to Game Design 11
  12. 12. Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics “…where mechanics are the components of a game at the level of data representation and algorithms, dynamics are how the game components interact with the player and viceversa, and aesthetics comprise the emotional response evoked by the mechanics and dynamics…” (Hunicke, LeBlanc, & Zubek, 2002) 12
  13. 13. A Variation on MDA: FFMDA 13
  14. 14. FFMDA 14
  15. 15. FFMDA 15
  16. 16. Fostering Cognitive Adaptability • Intersection of games and CA = research void • Had to draw from other areas of research and posit how these findings can be translated into game design Clinical Psychology • • Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) Learning Sciences • • CANTAB/Cambridge Cognition • Feature Overlap Theory 16
  17. 17. Lens of Analysis 5 Features for CA • Unstated/Implicit Rules • Unstated/Implicit Shifting of Rule Sets • Dynamic Shifting Environments • Open-Ended Gameplay • Implicit Reinforcement for Individual Actions/ Choices to Achieve Final Goal 17
  18. 18. The Study The Study 18
  19. 19. Goal • Examine whether playing a commercial off-the-shelf game with the five identified features will increase cognitive adaptability 19
  20. 20. Design Study site and population chosen • • • Sheppard AFB, 18-24 year olds enlisted and lieutenants (N=39) Randomly assigned to study and groups Design • • • Experimental – pre/post tests and Correlational – history plus metacognitive awareness inventory Pre/post measures • • • • CANTAB customized battery Metacognitive Awareness Inventory Post measures • Game History Questionnaire 20
  21. 21. CANTAB • Cognitive testing software • Customized battery • Attention Switching • Spatial Working Memory • Spatial Span • Rapid Visual Information Processing • Executive Planning • Reaction Time (N/A) 21
  22. 22. Design Intervention Game: Portal II • Play for 6 hours over 2 days (12 hours total) with breaks every 1.5 hours Control: Puzzle/Logic games commonly found with Windows 7 (lacking the five features) Solitaire, Minesweeper, Hearts, Bejeweled/Tetris or similar game Play each for 1.5 hours a day over 2 days (12 hours total) 22
  23. 23. Results 23
  24. 24. Portal 2 Play • Cognitive focused attention (specifically signal detection) was enhanced in Portal 2 players versus MS Games players. • Potential cause is the amount of concentration needed to infer implicit rules, their changes, and environmental changes. 24
  25. 25. Gaming Experience • Previous experience playing Portal 2 within past six months correlated with greater spatial working memory capabilities • Historic gameplay of 19+ hours/week correlated with greater spatial working memory, spatial sequencing, and cognitive planning capabilities • Design characteristics presents in MMOGs, card games, puzzles, racing, strategy, and sports games may lead to these increases and should be explored. 25
  26. 26. Evaluating Games for Cognitive Potential 26
  27. 27. Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) • Technique to capture and model behavioral and cognitive processes/activities for accomplishing a task at expert-level • decision-making processes • recognizing and responding to critical cues/environmental conditions • utilizing tools • performing sub-tasks • analyzing and altering one’s own performance • Commonly used by industry and research professionals • Human computer interaction, instructional system design • Developing : • • • Intelligent/Cognitive Tutors Decision Support Systems Roots in cognitive science 27
  28. 28. Applying CTA to Video Games • Need to understand empirically: • Design of game • How game design interacts with player cognition • Using CTA to map and model cognition and interaction within video game play is novel to the literature. • Researching methods for applying CTA to video game analysis 28
  29. 29. Protocol: CTA & Video Games Part I: Preliminary Analysis/Lexicon Development • Establish vocabulary of game (names for features, tools, obstacles, etc.) • Game structure analysis: break game down into measurable units based on narrative structure 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Protocol: CTA & Video Games Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation Level-by-level: • • • Please play through this level, completing the necessary steps to achieve the final objective. As you do, try to speak aloud as much as possible, narrating both your thought process (including what decisions you are making and what options you are considering) and the sequences of actions you take as you take them. As you play, please survey the areas you are in and describe your expectations in terms of how you will have to interact with the room in order to achieve your objective. Gameplay recorded on FRAPS with audio plus simultaneous .wav file recordings. 31
  32. 32. Protocol: CTA and Video Games Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation Subject and researcher review FRAPS gameplay for the following information about each level: • • Affordances • Requisite Knowledge • Micro-Puzzles Present • Mechanical Steps Required • Cognitive Steps Required • Audio and Visual Cues 32
  33. 33. Example FRAPS: Ch. 1, Level 3 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Protocol: CTA and Video Games Part 2: Focused Knowledge Elicitation • Reviewing FRAPS gameplay a second time, identify presence or absence of design characteristics in question 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Progress and Results • Protocol developed for CTA on video gameplay that encompasses cognitive, mechanical, and design elements • Analysis shows modulating but persistent presence of all five cognitive adaptability design characteristics throughout Portal 2 • Indication of varying information processing/filtering and executive function requirements throughout game 37
  38. 38. Future Direction • Developing a cognitive profile of all analyzed puzzles and micro puzzles in Portal 2 • Aligning the puzzles to specific CANTAB battery components • Designing custom Portal 2 levels with Level Builder with puzzles aligning to specific cognitive properties • Fine tuning levels for specific cognitive enhancement properties • Using designed levels as an intervention for CA increase 38
  39. 39. Resources Supporting Cognitive Adaptability Through Game Design http://www.adlnet.gov/resources/supporting-cognitive-adaptability-through-gamedesign?type=research_paper Can Game Design Be Leveraged to Enhance Cognitive Adaptability? http://www.adlnet.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/CA-Games-Design-EJeL-GAL-FNL020313.pdf Can Playing Video Games Improve Cognition and Adaptability? http://www.adlnet.gov/from-adl-team-member-shane-gallagher-can-playing-video-gamesimprove-cognition-and-adaptability The Cognition of Gameplay http://www.adlnet.gov/from-adl-team-member-shenan-prestwich-the-cognition-of-gameplay Cognitive Task Analysis: Analyzing the Cognition of Gameplay and Game Design https://app.box.com/s/85tvzlmwv96v74yg1xnu Transforming Education Through Neuroscience, Cognition, and Game Design http://www.adlnet.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Transforming_Education_ITX3.pdf Example Video Portal 2 Cognitive Task Analysis: Ch. 1, Level 3 39
  40. 40. Contact Us Shane Gallagher shane.gallagher.ctr@adlnet.gov Shenan Prestwich shenan.prestwich.ctr@adlnet.gov 40

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