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Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC
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Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon, and the OMC

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    • 1. Europeanisation: Bologna, Lisbon and the OMC Master in HE, Class 2008 HEM 4230: Internationalisation, Globalisation and the Knowledge Economy Rómulo Pinheiro Oslo, 17 October 2007
    • 2. Key Aspects being covered
      • European Union: A brief histroy
      • The Concept of ’Europeanisation’
      • The Bologna process
      • The Lisbon Agenda
      • The Open Method of Coordination
    • 3. A brief history of the European Union
      • 1945-59 : European Coal and Steel Community; unite countries economically & politically’. Treaty of Rome. 6 founders (France, Italy, Germany, 3-Benelux)
      • 1970-79 : 1st Enlargement: DK, IRL, UK.
      • 1980-89 : 2nd enlargment: GRE, SP, PT. Fall Berlin wall (German unification process)
      • 1990-99 : Maastricht & Amsterdam treaties Completion of single market/’Schengen’. From EC to EU. 3rd enlargement: AUS, FIN, SWE join.
      • 2000-07 : Common currency (’Euro’). 10 new countries join– Eastern (4th) enlargement. European Constitution rejected (2005)-FRA, NL.
      • See map
    • 4. The many facets of ’Europeanisation’
      • As changes in external territorial boundaries
      • As the development of institutions of governance at the European level
      • As central penetration of national and sub-national systems of governance
      • As exporting forms of political organization and governance that are typical and distinct for Europe, beyond the European territory
      • As a political project aiming at a unified and politically stronger Europe
      Source: Olsen (2002)
    • 5. The Bologna Process
      • Stepping Stones:
        • 1988 : Magna Charta Universtitatum (reinforcing the core values of the university; academic freedom/autonomy & social mission)
        • 1998 : Sorbonne Declaration (UK, France, Germany and Italy) – harmonising HE structures
        • 1999 : Bologna Declaration, voluntarily signed by 29 European Ministers of Education (only 15 EU members at the time)
    • 6. The Bologna Declaration
      • An inter-governmental rather than supranational process
        • EU only one of many stakeholders, but an important one!
      • Core goal:
        • The creation of an open European HE Area by 2010. Convergence of HE structures not harmonisation
      • How:
        • Via policies and joint measures (ratified at national level)
      • Coordination/Implementation
        • At the national level via the establishment of objectives and benchmarks – the OMC (covered later)
    • 7. Bologna, Today
      • 46 signataries, including many Eastern European countries (symbolic nature/re-aprochament to West)
      • New goals/priorities set every 2-years (Bergen 2005, London 2007, Benelux 2009)
      • No permanent secretariat or semi-permanent administration; an opportunity explored by the European Commission
      • Process advances at various (national) speeds
        • Symbolic Intentions vs. Pragmatic Reforms
    • 8. Main areas covered by Bologna
      • Comparability of degrees
      • Adoption of 2 main study cycles (undergraduate + graduate; master/Phd); 3+2+3
      • Credit transfer system (ECTS)
      • Mobility of students and teachers/researchers
      • Cooperation in Quality Assurance
      • European Dimensions in HE (curriculum, inter-institutional cooperation, mobility, etc.)
      Source: Bologna Declaration (1999)
    • 9. The London Communique (2007) ”Responding to challenges in a globalised world”
      • Competitiveness and ability to respond effectively to the challenges brought by globalisation
      • Commitment to compatibility/comparability of HEIs and their diversity of mission/purposes
      • Strong HEIs: diverse, autonomous, accountable, properly funded
      • Principles of non-discrimination and equitable access
      • Allignment with European Research Area (Doctoral training, R&D etc.)
      • Social dimension of HE – promote social cohesion (student support, flexible learning paths, widen participation)
      • Bologna as a dialogue with international partners (USA, Asia.)
    • 10. London Communique (cont.) Source: London Communique (2007) Stocktaking Promote the EHEA globally Employability (3 cycles + LLL) Data collection (Eurostat) Social Dimension Mobility Priority Areas until 2009
    • 11. The Lisbon Vision
      • “ The [European] Union must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion .”
      • (European Council 2000)
    • 12. An economic driven rationale
      • “ The citizens of Europe are already among the best educated in the world and the European education and training systems rank among the best in the world. However, Europe should plan ahead to remain competitive on a global scale…” (European Council 2001)
    • 13. Key aspects of the Lisbon Process
      • A supranational (EU-led) policy process
      • The key role of HEIs in the ’Europe of Knowledge’ (i.e. to reach the Lisbon objectives)
      • The advancement of a bold reform/modernisation agenda: a sense of ’crisis’ in European HE
      • EU treaty provides no legal mandate over HE affairs; solution is ’soft’ rather than ’hard’ law
      • Convergence of agendas; Bologna and Lisbon processes increasingly intertwined
    • 14. The EU Reform Agenda
      • The Problem:
        • Uniformity and egalitarianism
        • Fragmentation
        • Over-regulation
        • Lack of funding
        • (Source: European Commssion, 2005)
    • 15. The EU Reform Agenda (cont.)
      • The Solution :
        • More geographical/inter-sectoral mobility of students/researchers.
        • More autonomy to HEIs and accountability to society
        • Stronger links with industry
        • Employability of graduates in light of labour market requirements
        • Improve efficiency of funding (education & research )
        • Enhance interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity
        • Stronger interactions with society
        • Rewarding excellence amongst students/researchers
        • (Source: European Commssion, 2005)
    • 16. Are reform efforts aligned with the historical visions of the (European)University? Source: Olsen (2005: 9) Shared norms & objectives Conflicting norms & objectives Autonomy/ Conflict Operations/dynamics governed by internal factors Operations/dynamics governed by external factors University as a self-governing community of scholars University as an instrument for national political agendas University as a representative democracy University as a service enterprise embedded in competitive markets
    • 17. The Lisbon Agenda and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC)
      • What is it?
        • a policy instrument and approach to coordination in the EU that is seen as representing a new mode of governance (’soft’ law)
      • How does it work?
        • Fixed guidelines combined with timetables
        • Translate guidelines into national/regional policies
        • Qualitative and quantitative indicators/benchmarks
        • Periodic monitoring, evaluation and peer review
      Source: Gornitzska (2005):
    • 18. How is the process seen?
      • ” The OMC as a new model of coordination within the EU system of governance is building on systematic exchange of information and dialogue , which ideally will allow for a coordination where all parties strive for the same objective, where problem solving is based on communicative rationality , action based on fair arguing , and where all interests have a chance to present their arguments.” (Source: Jacobsson and Vifjell 2003 in Gornitzska 2005: 6-7)
    • 19. Broad (Lisbon) indicators of progress Source: European Union
    • 20. Modernising HE: Core Indicators
      • Mathematics, science and technology graduates (MST)
        • an increase in the number of MST graduates by at least 15% by 2010 (compared with 2000), while at the same time reducing the gender imbalance .
      • Mobility
        • The goal of 3 million Erasmus students by 2012
      • Quality of HEIs
        • an objective of investing 2% of GDP in higher education (2006 level: 1.3%).
      Source: European Union
    • 21. Therefore…
      • ” the open method of coordination cannot solely be understood [as] a general mode of governance, but one that is linked to a specific historical development [European Union], in the context of a specific political setting. [Lisbon agenda]” (Gornitzka 2005: 33)
    • 22. Conclusions
      • Europeanisation is a broad (political) process with many different facets; education and HE as core areas
      • The Bologna achievements to-date are unprecedented; the process is being institutionalised at national level
      • Lisbon as a new policy paradigm:
        • The need to compete internationally (& grow economically)
        • The role of knowledge and HEIs
      • Convergence of Agendas (Bologna & Lisbon) and an increasing dominance of the European Commission in setting reform discourses in HE.
      • The OMC as a successful policy instrument (innovation) in the absence of a legal mandate.

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