On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
Principles of non-discrimination and equitable access
Allignment with European Research Area (Doctoral training, R&D etc.)
Social dimension of HE – promote social cohesion (student support, flexible learning paths, widen participation)
Bologna as a dialogue with international partners (USA, Asia.)
London Communique (cont.) Source: London Communique (2007) Stocktaking Promote the EHEA globally Employability (3 cycles + LLL) Data collection (Eurostat) Social Dimension Mobility Priority Areas until 2009
The Lisbon Vision
“ The [European] Union must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion .”
(European Council 2000)
An economic driven rationale
“ The citizens of Europe are already among the best educated in the world and the European education and training systems rank among the best in the world. However, Europe should plan ahead to remain competitive on a global scale…” (European Council 2001)
Key aspects of the Lisbon Process
A supranational (EU-led) policy process
The key role of HEIs in the ’Europe of Knowledge’ (i.e. to reach the Lisbon objectives)
The advancement of a bold reform/modernisation agenda: a sense of ’crisis’ in European HE
EU treaty provides no legal mandate over HE affairs; solution is ’soft’ rather than ’hard’ law
Convergence of agendas; Bologna and Lisbon processes increasingly intertwined
The EU Reform Agenda
Uniformity and egalitarianism
Lack of funding
(Source: European Commssion, 2005)
The EU Reform Agenda (cont.)
The Solution :
More geographical/inter-sectoral mobility of students/researchers.
More autonomy to HEIs and accountability to society
Stronger links with industry
Employability of graduates in light of labour market requirements
Improve efficiency of funding (education & research )
Enhance interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity
Stronger interactions with society
Rewarding excellence amongst students/researchers
(Source: European Commssion, 2005)
Are reform efforts aligned with the historical visions of the (European)University? Source: Olsen (2005: 9) Shared norms & objectives Conflicting norms & objectives Autonomy/ Conflict Operations/dynamics governed by internal factors Operations/dynamics governed by external factors University as a self-governing community of scholars University as an instrument for national political agendas University as a representative democracy University as a service enterprise embedded in competitive markets
The Lisbon Agenda and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC)
What is it?
a policy instrument and approach to coordination in the EU that is seen as representing a new mode of governance (’soft’ law)
How does it work?
Fixed guidelines combined with timetables
Translate guidelines into national/regional policies
Qualitative and quantitative indicators/benchmarks
Periodic monitoring, evaluation and peer review
Source: Gornitzska (2005):
How is the process seen?
” The OMC as a new model of coordination within the EU system of governance is building on systematic exchange of information and dialogue , which ideally will allow for a coordination where all parties strive for the same objective, where problem solving is based on communicative rationality , action based on fair arguing , and where all interests have a chance to present their arguments.” (Source: Jacobsson and Vifjell 2003 in Gornitzska 2005: 6-7)
Broad (Lisbon) indicators of progress Source: European Union
Modernising HE: Core Indicators
Mathematics, science and technology graduates (MST)
an increase in the number of MST graduates by at least 15% by 2010 (compared with 2000), while at the same time reducing the gender imbalance .
The goal of 3 million Erasmus students by 2012
Quality of HEIs
an objective of investing 2% of GDP in higher education (2006 level: 1.3%).
Source: European Union
” the open method of coordination cannot solely be understood [as] a general mode of governance, but one that is linked to a specific historical development [European Union], in the context of a specific political setting. [Lisbon agenda]” (Gornitzka 2005: 33)
Europeanisation is a broad (political) process with many different facets; education and HE as core areas
The Bologna achievements to-date are unprecedented; the process is being institutionalised at national level
Lisbon as a new policy paradigm:
The need to compete internationally (& grow economically)
The role of knowledge and HEIs
Convergence of Agendas (Bologna & Lisbon) and an increasing dominance of the European Commission in setting reform discourses in HE.
The OMC as a successful policy instrument (innovation) in the absence of a legal mandate.