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  • 1926 Subpart I - Tools – Hand and Power
    This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour Construction Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience.
    This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
  • Hand and power tools are a part of our everyday lives. These tools help us to perform tasks that otherwise would be difficult or impossible. However, even simple tools can be hazardous, and have the potential for causing severe injuries when used or maintained improperly. Special attention toward hand and power tool safety is necessary in order to reduce or eliminate these hazards.
  • 1926.301
    • If a screwdriver is used as a chisel, the tip of the chisel may break and fly off, hitting the user or other employees.
    • If a wooden handle on a tool, such as a hammer or an axe is loose, splintered, or cracked, the head of the tool may fly off and strike the user or other employees.
    • If the jaws of a wrench are sprung, the wrench might slip.
    • If impact tools, such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins have mushroomed heads, the heads might shatter on impact, sending sharp fragments flying toward the user or other employees.
  • 1926.300(c) and (a) and 1926.25
    Provide the necessary PPE to employees using hand and power tools to protect them from hazards of falling, flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposure to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases.
  • 1926.300(b) and 1926.302
  • 1926.300(d)
    Use "on-off" control: hand-held powered platen sanders, grinders with wheels 2-inch diameter or less, routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws, and jigsaws with blade shanks one-fourth of an inch wide or less
    Use momentary contact "on-off" control and may have a lock-on control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on:
    hand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than 2 inches in diameter, disc sanders, belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar operating powered tools.
    Use a constant pressure switch which shuts off power when released:
    All other hand-held powered tools, such as circular saws, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means
  • 1926.302(a)(2)
  • 1926.302 (a)(1)
    Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors and a grounding conductor. Any time an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. The third prong must never be removed from the plug.
    Double-insulated tools are available that provide protection against electrical shock without third-wire grounding. On double-insulated tools, an internal layer of protective insulation completely isolates the external housing of the tool.
  • When using gloves, make sure they will not cause an amputation hazard by becoming loose clothing.
  • 1926.303(b)(2), 1926.303 (c)(5)
  • 1926.303 (c)(7)
    A stable and undamaged wheel when tapped will give a clear metallic tone or “ring.”
  • 1926.303 (c)(8), 1926.303 (c)(9)
  • 1926.303(e)
    On offhand grinding machines, use work rests to support the work.
    They are to be equipped with adjustable work rests to compensate for wheel wear.
    The work rest shall be securely clamped after each adjustment. The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel in motion.
    Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Keep these work rests not more than one-eighth inch from the surface of the wheel.
  • 1926.300(b)(2)
  • 1926.300 (b)(4) and 1926.304(g)
    The guarding device shall be designed and constructed to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
  • 1926.300(b)(3) and 1926.300(b)(4)(ii)
    Examples of guarding methods are - barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc.
    Belt sanding machines must be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs onto a pulley.
  • 1926.304(g)(1)
    The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. Construct the upper hood in a manner and of material that will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust.
    Guard the sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
  • 1926.304(d)
    The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work.
    When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position.
    The graphic depicts a portable saw where the worker is holding the bottom guard up to demonstrate how it slides up as the blade comes in contact with the material being cut.
  • 1926.304(h)(1) Hand-fed crosscut table saws
    Each circular crosscut table saw shall be guarded by a hood
  • 1926.302(b)(1)
  • 1926.302(b)(1) and (2)
    Secure pneumatic power tools to the hose by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected.
    Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.
  • 1926.302(b)(2), 1926.302(b)(3)
  • 1926.302(b)(4)
    The 30 p.s.i. requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill scale and similar cleaning purposes.
  • 1926.302(c)
    If using a fuel powered tool in an enclosed area such as a trench, be aware that carbon monoxide generated can displace or deplete oxygen. Mechanical ventilation and testing needs to be done.
  • 1926.302(e)
  • Fatal Facts
    A 22-year-old carpenter’s apprentice was killed when he was struck in the head by a nail fired from a powder-actuated nail gun. The nail gun operator fired the gun while attempting to anchor a plywood concrete form, causing the nail to pass through the hollow form. The nail traveled 27 feet before striking the victim. The nail gun operator had never received training on how to use the tool, and none of the employees in the area was wearing PPE.
    In another situation, two workers were building a wall while remodeling a house. One of the workers was killed when he was struck by a nail fired from a powder-actuated nail gun. The tool operator who fired the nail was trying to attach a piece of plywood to a wooden stud. But the nail shot though the plywood and stud, striking the victim.
    Below are some OSHA regulations that should have been followed.
    • Employees using powder- or pressure-actuated tools must be trained to use them safely.
    • Employees who operate powder- or pressure-actuated tools must be trained to avoid firing into easily penetrated materials (like plywood).
    • In areas where workers could be exposed to flying nails, appropriate PPE must be used.
  • 1926.302(e)(8)
  • 1926.305(d)(1)(iii), 1926.305(d)(1)(iv)
    Inspect jacks according to this schedule:
    (1) for jacks used continuously or intermittently at one site - at least once every 6 months,
    (2) for jacks sent out of the shop for special work - inspect when sent out and inspect when returned
    (3) for jacks subjected to abnormal loads or shock - inspect before use and immediately thereafter.
  • 1926.305(a)(1)
  • 1926.305 (c), 1926.305(d)(1)
    When it is necessary to provide a firm foundation, block or crib the base of the jack.
    Where there is a possibility of slippage of the metal cap of the jack, place a a wood block between the cap and the load.
  • Hand and power tool safety power point

    1. 1. Hand and Power Tool Safety OSHA Office of Training and Education 1
    2. 2. Class Objectives Describe general guidelines for hand and power tool safety. Describe important hand and power tool basics. Describe correct steps for proper tool maintenance and handling. Identify personal protective equipment for using hand and power tools. Describe safety procedures for point of operation safety. Describe general guidelines for proper hand tool safety. Describe general guidelines for proper electric tool safety. Describe general guidelines for proper abrasive wheel tool safety. Describe general guidelines for proper pneumatic tool safety. Describe general guidelines for proper fuel and hydraulic tool safety. Describe ergonomics in relation to tool use. OSHA Office of Training and Education 2
    3. 3. Just the Facts The Occupational Safety and Health Administration states that most injuries on construction sites involve excavation cave-ins, power tool accidents, falls, electrical hazards, and exposure to potentially dangerous materials Working with power tools, you can get an electric shock, lose a finger, lose an eye, or go deaf. It's especially dangerous to use a tool that's defective, that's been modified, or that's not designed for the job. Of course, you can also get injured if you use any tool carelessly. OSHA Office of Training and Education 3
    4. 4. Regulations and Guidelines for Hand and Power Tools For General Industry • 1910 Subpart P, Hand and Portable Power Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment. • 1910.241, Definitions. • 1910.242, Hand and portable powered tools and equipment, general. • 1910.243, Guarding of portable powered tools. • 1910.244, Other portable tools and equipment. OSHA Office of Training and Education 4
    5. 5. OSHA Publication 3080 Hand and Power Tools (2002 revised) ___________________________________ Great reference that can be saved or printed for your use http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3080.pdf OSHA Office of Training and Education 5
    6. 6. What the Regulations say about Hand Tools Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees This includes tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees OSHA Office of Training and Education 6
    7. 7. What the Regulations say about Hand Tools  Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools  Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs  Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads  The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool OSHA Office of Training and Education 7
    8. 8. Hazards Workers using hand and power tools may be exposed to these hazards:  Objects that fall, fly, are abrasive, or splash  Harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases  Frayed or damaged electrical cords, hazardous connections and improper grounding  Vibration and impact OSHA Office of Training and Education 8
    9. 9. What do you think are the most common injuries from working with hand and power tools? • Electric shock • Flash burns • Falling • Hand and Eye injuries • Hearing loss • Crushing, cuts or losing a body part • Ergonomic injuries OSHA Office of Training and Education 9
    10. 10. Basic Tool Safety Rules • Maintain regularly • Inspect before use • Use the right tool for the job • Operate according to manufacturers’ instructions • Use the right Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Use guarding OSHA Office of Training and Education 10
    11. 11. Hand Tool Hazards Hazards are usually caused by misuse and improper maintenance Do not use:  wrenches when jaws are sprung  impact tools (chisels and wedges) when heads have mushroomed  tools with loose, cracked or splintered handles  a screwdriver as a chisel  tools with taped handles – they may be hiding cracks OSHA Office of Training and Education Crack 11
    12. 12. Cutting and Slicing Tools (Knives, Box Cutters, Scissors, Razor Blades, etc…) Safety Gloves – Protection against accidental cuts and vibration A Sharp Blade Is Safer – When dull, a blade can slip from the object being cut and cause a serious injury. Cut Downward – Always away from your hand. Put It Back – Never leave a cutting tool lying on a table, chair, sink or desk. There are only three places that a cutting tool should ever be 1) in use, 2) stored safely in a drawer, tool box, in a knife rack, or, 3) in the dishwasher (blade down, handle up) Never put knives in a sink full of soapy or dirty water. Someone could reach into the water and severelyOSHA Office of Training and Education cut their hand. 12
    13. 13. Cutting and Slicing Tools Let It Go! – Never attempt to catch a dropped knife or other cutting tool – let it fall. Wipe Away From The Sharp Edge – if you need to wipe or clean material off the blade, always wipe away from the sharp edge. Never Touch The Sharp Edge – Always use a piece of paper to test the sharpness of a knife – NEVER use your fingers! Never use a knife as a substitute for other tools – such as a screwdriver or bottle opener. OSHA Office of Training and Education 13
    14. 14. OSHA Office of Training and Education 14
    15. 15. Hand Tools - Protection Keep floor surface where working free from debris and tripping or slipping hazards Keep cutting tools sharp Use tools as they were intended to be used Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), such as safety glasses and gloves PPE determined by Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) OSHA Office of Training and Education 15
    16. 16. Examples of PPE Body Part Protection Eye safety glasses, goggles Face face shields Head hard hats Feet safety shoes Hands and arms gloves Bodies vests Hearing earplugs, earmuffs OSHA Office of Training and Education OSHA Office of Training and Education 9 16
    17. 17. Does PPE Help? A trash bag that held a turpentine container ruptured. Without warning, the can exploded and the mixture of paint thinner and paint sprayed all over Phil's face, head, and upper body. The force of the explosion knocked him to the ground. While applying siding with an air powered staple gun, the son fired a staple, hitting a metal plate behind the siding. It ricocheted back towards his face and one leg of the staple penetrated the safety glasses' lens. The staple hit with such force that the frames were cracked and the son received OSHA Office of Training and Education bruising on the eyebrow 17 and cheekbone.
    18. 18. PPE Standards Various OSHA standards list specific requirements for various types/levels of PPE      Logging Standards Electrical Standards Hazardous Noise Standards Respiratory Protection Standards Chemical-Specific Standards OSHA Office of Training and Education 18
    19. 19. Personal Protective Equipment Responsibilities • Employer Assess workplace for hazards Provide PPE Determine when to use Provide PPE training for employees and instruction in proper use • Employee Use PPE in accordance with training received and other instructions Inspect daily and maintain in a clean and reliable condition OSHA Office of Training and Education OSHA Office of Training and Education 8 19
    20. 20. Power Tools Must be fitted with guards and safety switches Extremely hazardous when used improperly Different types, determined by their power source:  Electric  Pneumatic  Liquid fuel  Hydraulic  Powder-actuated OSHA Office of Training and Education 20
    21. 21. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools Be aware of all power lines and electrical circuits, water pipes, and other mechanical hazards in your work area, particularly those below the work surface, hidden from the operator's view, that may be contacted. Wear proper apparel. Do not wear loose clothing, dangling objects or jewelry. Long hair must be restrained. Gloves should not be worn when operating certain power tools. Check appropriate tool manuals. OSHA Office of Training and Education 21
    22. 22. Spark Resistant Tools Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, sparkresistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood will provide for safety. OSHA Office of Training and Education 22
    23. 23. "Non-sparking", "spark-resistant" or "spark-proof“ tools are names given to tools made of metals such as brass, bronze, Monel metal (copper-nickel alloy), copper-aluminum alloys (aluminum bronze), copper-beryllium alloys (beryllium bronze), and titanium. Preferred "non-sparking" metals have less tensile strength than steels usually used to make tools. A lower tensile strength means the metal has less strength or resistance to tearing apart when stretched under test conditions. It also means that these tools are softer, wear down more quickly than ordinary steel tools, and have to be dressed more frequently. OSHA Office of Training and Education 23
    24. 24. Most Dangerous Powered Hand Tool? HINTS 1. Operating temperature can reach 900 degrees F. 2. Parts can move up to 68 miles an hour 3. At full speed, > 600 teeth pass at a given point per second 4. One in 5 injuries are from “kickback”. OSHA Office of Training and Education 24
    25. 25. Switches Hand-held power tools must be equipped with one of the following: Constant pressure switch shuts off power upon release Examples: circular saw, chain saw, grinder, hand-held power drill On-Off Switch Examples: routers, planers, laminate trimmers, shears, jig saws, nibblers, scroll saws OSHA Office of Training and Education 25
    26. 26. Power Tools - Precautions • Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing and cleaning, and when changing accessories • Keep people not involved with the work away from the work • Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool • Don’t hold the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool • Keep tools sharp and clean • Remove damaged electric tools & tag them: “Do Not Use” OSHA Office of Training and Education 26
    27. 27. Power Tools – Precautions Electric Cords Don’t carry portable tools by the cord Don’t use electric cords to hoist or lower tools Don’t yank cord or hose to disconnect it Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges Replace damaged cords immediately! OSHA Office of Training and Education 27
    28. 28. Would you use this extension cord? OSHA Office of Training and Education 28
    29. 29. Electric Power Tools To protect a worker from shock, these tools must:  have a 3-wire cord plugged into a grounded receptacle  be double insulated, or  be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer Double insulated markings Plug with a grounding pin OSHA Office of Training and Education 29
    30. 30. Electric Tools – Good Practices • Operate within design limits • Use gloves and safety shoes • Store in a dry place • Don’t use in wet locations unless approved for that (use GFCI) • Keep work areas well lit • Ensure cords don’t present a tripping hazard OSHA Office of Training and Education 30
    31. 31. Good Practice? OSHA Office of Training and Education 31
    32. 32. Cordless Tools Need Love Too OSHA Office of Training and Education 32
    33. 33. Abrasive Wheels and Tools May throw off flying fragments Equip with guards that:  Cover the spindle end, nut, & flange projections  Maintain proper alignment with the wheel  Don’t exceed the strength of the fastenings Guard so that a minimal amount of the wheel OSHA Office of Training and Education is exposed 33
    34. 34. Inspecting Abrasive Wheels Before mounting:  inspect closely for damage  perform sound- or ring-test to ensure free from cracks and defects To test:  tap wheel gently with a light, non-metallic instrument  if wheel sounds cracked or dead, do not use it because it could fly apart OSHA Office of Training and Education 34
    35. 35. Abrasive Wheel Use To prevent cracking: • Fit the wheel freely on the spindle • Tighten the spindle nut enough to hold the wheel in place without distorting the flange • Let the tool come up to speed prior to grinding or cutting • Don’t stand in front of the wheel as it comes up to full speed • Use eye and/or face protection Ensure the spindle speed doesn’t exceed the maximum speed marked on the wheel OSHA Office of Training and Education 35
    36. 36. Abrasive Wheel Work Rests Keep work rests not more than 1/8th inch from wheel surface This prevents jamming the work between the wheel and the rest, which may cause the wheel to break Don’t adjust wheel while it’s rotating OSHA Office of Training and Education 36
    37. 37. Guarding Guard exposed moving parts of power tools Guard belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, flywheels, chains, or other moving parts Never remove a guard when a tool is in use OSHA Office of Training and Education 37
    38. 38. Guarding - Point of Operation This shows a radial arm saw equipped with proper point of operation guards The point of operation is where the work is actually performed on the materials – it must be guarded OSHA Office of Training and Education 38
    39. 39. Guarding Protection Nip Point Machine guards must protect the operator and others from:  Point of operation  In-running nip points  Rotating parts  Flying chips and sparks OSHA Office of Training and Education 39
    40. 40. Radial Saw Guarding Radial arm saw equipped with an upper and lower blade guard Guard to prevent the operator from coming in contact the the rotating blade OSHA Office of Training and Education 40
    41. 41. Guarding Portable Circular Saws Guard these saws above and below the base plate or shoe. The lower guard must cover the saw to the depth of the teeth. OSHA Office of Training and Education 41
    42. 42. Table Saw Guarding Hood guard Use a hood for guarding AvoidOSHA Office of Training and Education This……. 42
    43. 43. Pneumatic Tools Powered by compressed air Includes nailers, staplers, chippers, drills & sanders Main hazard - getting hit by a tool attachment or by a fastener the worker is using with the tool Nail Gun Cut-Away View Take the same precautions with an air hose that you take with electric cords OSHA Office of Training and Education 43
    44. 44. Pneumatic Tools - Fastening Ensure tool is fastened securely to the air hose to prevent a disconnection Use a short wire or positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool Wire used to secure hose OSHA Office of Training and Education 44
    45. 45. Pneumatic Tool Connections Hose clamp ← Unacceptable ← Acceptable OSHA Office of Training and Education 45
    46. 46. Pneumatic Tool Safety Place a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with work surface Install a safety clip or retainer to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a chipping hammer, from being ejected Wear eye protection. Wear hearing protection with jackhammers. OSHA Office of Training and Education Muzzle in contact with work surface 46
    47. 47. Compressed Air Cleaning Don’t use compressed air for cleaning Exception - where reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. with effective chip guarding and PPE OSHA Office of Training and Education 47
    48. 48. Outdoor “Yard” Tools • Read and Heed owners manual • Guards in place • Turn off to perform maintenance or free jams/debris • Wear PPE • Proper plug in or fueling procedures OSHA Office of Training and Education 48
    49. 49. Liquid Fuel Tools Usually gas powered Main hazard – fuel vapors Carbon Monoxide Hazards Use only approved flammable liquid containers Before refilling a fuel-powered tool tank, shut down the engine and allow it to cool Refuel at least 10 feet from combustible materials OSHA Office of Training and Education 49
    50. 50. Powder-Actuated Tools User must be trained and licensed to operate Test tool each day before loading to ensure the safety devices are working properly Wear suitable ear, eye, and face protection Select a powder level that will do the work without excessive force OSHA Office of Training and Education 50
    51. 51. Fatal Fact Employee killed when struck in head by a nail fired from a powder actuated tool. Tool operator was attempting to anchor a plywood form in preparation for pouring a concrete wall OSHA Office of Training and Education 51
    52. 52. Easily Penetrated Material Avoid driving into materials easily penetrated unless materials are backed by a substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing through Also, don’t drive fasteners into very hard or brittle material that might chip or splatter, or make the fasteners ricochet OSHA Office of Training and Education 52
    53. 53. Powder-Actuated Tool Safety Tips • Don’t use in explosive or flammable atmosphere • Inspect tool before use to ensure:  it is clean,  that moving parts operate freely  the barrel is free from obstructions and has the proper shield, guard, and attachments • Don’t load the tool unless using immediately • Don’t leave a loaded tool unattended • Keep hands clear of the barrel end • Never point the tool at anyone • Store unloaded in a locked box OSHA Office of Training and Education 53
    54. 54. Powder-Actuated Tool Safety OSHA Office of Training and Education 54
    55. 55. Jacks To set up a jack, ensure: • The base is on a firm, level surface • It’s centered • The jack head is placed against a level surface • You apply the lift force evenly  Lubricate and inspect jacks regularly OSHA Office of Training and Education 55
    56. 56. Jacks - Capacity The manufacturer's rated capacity must be marked on all jacks and must not be exceeded All jacks must have a stop indicator (for over-travel) that is not exceeded OSHA Office of Training and Education 56
    57. 57. Jacks - Blocking Immediately block the load after it is lifted. Put a block under the base of the jack when the foundation is not firm, and place a block between the jack cap and load if the cap might slip. Photo - handyman jack is provided a firm base by using the railroad tie. The load is cribbed to prevent it from falling. OSHA Office of Training and Education 57
    58. 58. Reporting Accidents/Injuries  First priority is to receive prompt medical attention (call 911)  Report all work-related accidents, injuries or illnesses to your supervisor • Regardless of severity  Paperwork to be filled out • Incident Report • Workers’ Compensation Hospitalization must be reported immediately to EHS&RM and no later than 8 hours from time of accident OSHA Office of Training and Education 58
    59. 59. Summary Hazards are usually the result of improper tool use or not following one or more of these protection techniques:  Inspecting the tool before use  Read Tool Owners Manual prior to use  Using PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)  Using guards  Properly storing and maintaining the tool  Keep the workplace neat and free of clutter  Using safe handling techniques OSHA Office of Training and Education 59
    60. 60. Quiz QUIZ located at www.uaf.edu/safety Training then UAF Safety Training Powerpoints 60