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Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
Story Of Andalusia
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Story Of Andalusia

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- Brief history of 800 years of Muslim Al Andalusia

- Brief history of 800 years of Muslim Al Andalusia

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  • One click and rest is Auto Why Al Andalus ? 781 years of history 60% of muslim era Covers success Failure Cause to both failure and success This will be interactive Try to be in the leadership shoe Try to compare the past with present and realize where we are heading See the similarities
  • Allah ordered us to Study 1/3 of Quran is History Many Surahs are just History
  • Allah says in Surah Al-Araf, 7 : 176 Sahih International: And if We had willed, we could have elevated him thereby, but he adhered [instead] to the earth and followed his own desire. So his example is like that of the dog: if you chase him, he pants, or if you leave him, he [still] pants. That is the example of the people who denied Our signs. So relate the stories that perhaps they will give thought. Allah says in Surah Yusuf, 12 : 111 Sahih International: There was certainly in their stories a lesson for those of understanding. Never was the Qur’an a narration invented, but a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of all things and guidance and mercy for a people who believe. History is a living example Example that shows what will work and what will not work For muslims shows how devout previous muslims were in there every single daily action and what happened when they move away from it Youth are the heroes of Islam
  • Reason behind firey background is to reflect that Expansion of these kingdoms involved plunder and ruthless torture of the conquered kingdoms and its people, on the other hand Muslim conquered to spread the message without any oppression to the people. Fight or battle was only against the Kings and soldiers, not extended to the society. Before Cyrus Conquered
  • Phoenician Empire Cyrus the Great :: First Persian Emperor Alexander the Great Divided
  • Phoenician Empire Takes Phoenician Empire and Iberia
  • The Visigoths ( Latin : Visigothi , Wisigothi , Vesi , Visi , Wesi , or Wisi ) were one of two main branches of the Goths , an East Germanic tribe ; the Ostrogoths being the other. Together these tribes were among the barbarians who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period . The romanized Visigoths first emerged as a distinct people during the fourth century, initially in the Balkans , where they participated in several wars with Rome. A Visigothic army under Alaric I eventually moved into Italy and famously sacked Rome in 410 .
  • The Visigoths ( Latin : Visigothi , Wisigothi , Vesi , Visi , Wesi , or Wisi ) were one of two main branches of the Goths , an East Germanic tribe ; the Ostrogoths being the other. Together these tribes were among the barbarians who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period . The romanized Visigoths first emerged as a distinct people during the fourth century, initially in the Balkans , where they participated in several wars with Rome. A Visigothic army under Alaric I eventually moved into Italy and famously sacked Rome in 410 .
  • The Iberian Peninsula , or Iberia , is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes modern-day states Portugal , Spain , Andorra and Gibraltar and a very small area of France . It is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas —the Iberian, Italian , and Balkan peninsulas. It is bordered on the southeast and east by the Mediterranean Sea , and on the north, west and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean . The Pyrenees form the northeast edge of the peninsula, separating it from the rest of Europe. In the south, it approaches the northern coast of Africa . It is the second-largest peninsula in Europe, with an area of 582,860 square kilometres (225,040 sq mi).
  • Explain the expansion
  • Why Iberia ? South Africa is Sahara North :: Byzantine Empire :: Not Successful after Several Trial East :: Andalus Allah says in Surah At-Tawbah, 9 : 123 Sahih International: O you who have believed, fight those adjacent to you of the disbelievers and let them find in you harshness. And know that Allah is with the righteous.
  • Regular bathing concept came from the Muslims with the introduction of Soap and Aroma High Tax
  • Hazrat Uthman (R) envisioned Uqba ibn Nafi was the first open Africa Comparatively forceful conversion to Islam Reached Morocco fast Issue :: Fast Expansion vs Administration Rebellion started to happen in the middle New reverts were not strong in Emaan Reinforcement was not possible Got killed North Africa lost Musa ibn Nusair successfully opened North Africa He was Tābi‘ūn Grew up with knowledge and leadership skill Learned from Uqba’s mistakes Followed Islamic Principle No force changing of religion and culture Brought in Scholars
  • Regular bathing concept came from the Muslims with the introduction of Soap and Aroma High Tax
  • Successfully done by Tariq ibn Ziyad He was Berber He was reverted to Islam by Musa ibn Nusair Trained and appointed army Chief of North Africa Why Choose him ? He was Berber. Locals are proud and represented
  • Hazrat Uthman (R) envisioned Uqba ibn Nafi was the first open Africa Comparatively forceful conversion to Islam Reached Morocco fast Issue :: Fast Expansion vs Administration Rebellion started to happen in the middle New reverts were not strong in Emaan Reinforcement was not possible Got killed North Africa lost Musa ibn Nusair successfully opened North Africa He was Tābi‘ūn Grew up with knowledge and leadership skill Learned from Uqba’s mistakes Followed Islamic Principle No force changing of religion and culture Brought in Scholars
  • Hazrat Uthman (R) envisioned Uqba ibn Nafi was the first open Africa Comparatively forceful conversion to Islam Reached Morocco fast Issue :: Fast Expansion vs Administration Rebellion started to happen in the middle New reverts were not strong in Emaan Reinforcement was not possible Got killed North Africa lost Musa ibn Nusair successfully opened North Africa He was Tābi‘ūn Grew up with knowledge and leadership skill Learned from Uqba’s mistakes Followed Islamic Principle No force changing of religion and culture Brought in Scholars
  • TIMER :: Notes appear after 5 sec timer Solution Build Ships Number of Army Recruit Dawah Recruit from the Caliphate Train in the Moroccan Mountains Take over Baleric Islands Island of Ceuta :: No Solution
  • I would like to recall that these are the times when full faith was on Allah Have done what is Humanly Possible Allah says in Surah Al-Anfal, 8 : 60 Sahih International: And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.
  • Proposal from Ceuta Julian hated Roderigo Son of Gayetasha sought refuge at Ceuta Julian will provide ship Gayetasha will provide inside information from Iberia TOO Good to be true ? In return want 3000 lands @ Iberia
  • Obedience to the leader Takes the proposal to Musa ibn Nusair What do you think should happen ? Yes, accept Conquest is for the cause of Allah not for land or wealth Check validity of the ships Check validity of the inside information 100 Cavalry, 400 soldiers sent
  • EXPLAIN below FIRST THEN CLICK Why trust muslim historian ? Or Non-Muslim Historian ? - We trust Einstein's work but do not believe if he says he saw UFO or proves so. Spain considers Visigoths on their side and Muslims as Invaders ? Keep above in mind 7000 military personal Mean time Roderic hears about the invasion on the South Roderic was fighting the Basques in the North Still present in the current times He was called back Moved in with 100,000 soldiers :: Arab Source 187,000 soldiers :: Ad Sebastianum version of the Chronicle of Alfonso III 33,000 :: One Modern source disregards all of the above !!! Roderic’s approach news received by the muslims Tariq requests for reinforcement Muslim Soldiers praying and scholars reinforcing faith Musa ibn Nusair sends Turaif ibn Malik with 5000 soldiers Could not gather more than this Result of Dawah and recruitment from rest of the Caliphate
  • Condition of An Ideal Believing Side View of Death :: Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah, 2 : 154 Sahih International: And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah, "They are dead." Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not. Racism :: One nation under Allah No Social Discrimination Spoils of War :: Home Much ? Soldiers get :: 4/5 Nation gets :: 1/5 Allah Says in Surah Al-Qasas, 28 :: 77 Sahih International: But seek, through that which Allah has given you, the home of the Hereafter; and [yet], do not forget your share of the world. And do good as Allah has done good to you. And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters.” Number Issue Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah, 2 :: 249 Sahih International: And when Saul went forth with the soldiers, he said, "Indeed, Allah will be testing you with a river. So whoever drinks from it is not of me, and whoever does not taste it is indeed of me, excepting one who takes [from it] in the hollow of his hand." But they drank from it, except a [very] few of them. Then when he had crossed it along with those who believed with him, they said, "There is no power for us today against Goliath and his soldiers." But those who were certain that they would meet Allah said, "How many a small company has overcome a large company by permission of Allah. And Allah is with the patient." Historical Count Battle of Badr :: 317 vs 1000 Battle of Yarmouk :: 40k vs 100-200k Most early Muslim accounts place the size of the Muslim forces between 24,000 and 40,000 and the number of Byzantine forces between 100,000 and 200,000. Modern estimates of the sizes of the respective armies vary: estimates for the Byzantine army are mostly between 80,000 and 120,000, with some estimates as low as 50,000 and 15,000–20,000. [37] Estimates for the Rashidun army are between 25,000 and 40,000. These figures come from studying the logistical capabilities of the combatants, the sustainability of their respective bases of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting the Romans and Arabs. Most scholars, however, agree that the Byzantine army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizeable margin. m [›] Battle Qadisiyyah :: 30k vs 240k Whether it’s Battle of Thermopylae or Battle of Qadisiyyah, the size of the Persian army had always been highly exaggerated. In the absence of any primary Persian source, Muslims sources are the only available option to estimate about the strength of Sassanid Persian army at Qaddasiyyah. These sources are highly exaggerated and are unreliable as far as the size of Sassanid Persian army is concern. Modern estimates suggest the size of Sassanid forces about 60,000 strong and Muslims around 30,000 strong (after being reinforced by the Syrian contingent on second day of the battle). These figures come from studying the logistical capabilities of the combatants, the sustainability of their respective bases of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting the Sassanids and Arabs. Most scholars, however, agree that the Sassanid army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizeable margin.
  • Expansion of Andalus :: Refer to Page 11 Tarik sent groups of 700 soldiers to Cordoba, Granada & Malaga Cities starts to willingly give in and some had to fought All who gave in or taken by force agreed to pay Jiziya Tarik went to Jean Musa sent message to Tarik not to go beyond Jean Tarik still went to Toledo with 3000 soldiers Same mistake of Uqba repeated. Lack of experience vs excitement / over confidence Revolt happens in mid region, Tariq isolated Musa rushes in with 18000 soldiers accompanied by his son Abdul Aziz Takes Jaen, Murcia, Granada and Sagunto Abdul Aziz goes off to take Portugal Musa heads North to meet with Tariq @ Toledo Christians of Seville and Toledo revolt, Abdul Aziz puts down revolt Aziz, Musa and Tariq meets @ Zaragoza Heads to Conquer France and heads till Gerona of the Pyrenees Mountain Caliipn al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik calls back both Tariq and Musa as they are 6 months away from reinforcement. Too risky Story of Tariq and Musa Expansion stops as Caliph Walid dies and new Caliph is Sulaiman ibn Abd Al Malik Mean time Aziz kept on ruling Seville as the capital of Muslim Iberia Later Aziz was assassinated due to possible rumor of converting to Christianity as he married Igolona, wife of Roderic
  • 2/3 of France has been taken Period of Walis 22 Walies in matter of 24+ years What does is say ? Unstable situation Mean time Andalus building started Mosques were built on new lands or by buying churches No force used to buy churches Berber vs Arab racism started Due to Walis who favored Arabs more than Berbers Introduced internal conflict Muslim military power rising in the region Faith started to fade away Striving for the sake of Allah is no more A new wali came ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Comparatively improved the unrest Could get rid of racism Moral conduct is no longer presence Love for the worldly pleasure is high France and Europe prepares to get rid of the Muslims once and for all Catholic church declares Devine Contract of Expiation for soldiers who will fight for the cause Great reinforcement from all around Europe Charles Martel aka The Hammer leads the army Muslim military 50,000 affected by the earlier mentioned issues Muslims did not do home work of the opponent Too confident Battle of Tours :: Though muslims were close to winning Martel took advantage of the love of wealth Ghafiqi was killed Due to internal conflict muslims failed to choose a leader overnight Muslims fled the battle field in disgrace Upon return the tension intensified as both sides started accusing each other Separation moved within the same community and ethnicity Civil war erupts France was lost Mean time, Abbasids over throw Ummayyad Caliphate Starts extensive search to kill all Ummayyad males who might claim to the Caliphate in the future Last Wali :: Yusuf ibn Abdur Rahman Al Fihri
  • Origin Abd ar-Rahman was the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al- Malik , the tenth Umayyad Caliph . He was the son of Mu'awiyah, son of Hisham, grandson of Abd al- Malik . His family was originally from the holy city of Mecca . His mother was a Christian berber slave from the Nafza tribe. [3] [4] The child-prince, said to be tall and slender, was groomed from an early age to be a caliph. According to sources, Abd ar-Rahman had red hair, was unable to see from one of his eyes, had a distinctive mole on his face, and had a poor sense of smell . [5] [ edit ] Flight from Syria Abd ar-Rahman was sixteen when his family, the ruling Umayyads , were overthrown by a popular revolt known as the Abbasid Revolution , occurring in the year 750. Abd al-Rahman and a small selection of his family fled Damascus , where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahiya, his four-year old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his former Greek slave (a freedman), Bedr. The family fled south from Damascus following the River Euphrates . All along the way the path was filled with danger, as the Abbasids had dispatched horsemen across the region to try and find the Umayyad prince and kill him. The Abbasids were merciless with all Umayyads that they found. While hiding in a small village, Abbasid agents closed in on Abd ar-Rahman and his family. He left his young son with his sisters and fled with Yahiya . Accounts vary, but Bedr likely initially escaped with Abd ar-Rahman. Some histories indicate that Bedr met up with Abd ar-Rahman at a later date. [6] Abd ar-Rahman, Yahiya and Bedr quit the village narrowly escaping the Abbasid assassins. Later, on the way south, Abbasid horsemen again caught up with the trio: Abd ar-Rahman and his companions then threw themselves into the River Euphrates. While trying to swim across the dangerous Euphrates, Abd ar-Rahman is said to have become separated from his brother Yahiya, who began swimming back towards the horsemen, possibly from fear of drowning. The horsemen beseeched the escapees to return, and that no harm would come to them. 17th century historian Ahmed Mohammed al- Maqqari poignantly described Abd ar-Rahman's reaction as he implored Yahiya to keep going: "O brother! Come to me, come to me"! [7] Yahiya returned to the near shore, and was quickly dispatched by the horsemen. They cut the head off their prize, leaving Yahiya's body to rot. Al-Maqqari quotes prior Muslim historians as having recorded that Abd ar-Rahman said he was so overcome with fear at that moment, that once he made the far shore he ran until exhaustion overcame him. [8] Only he and Bedr were left to face the unknown. [ edit ] Exile years After barely escaping Syria with their lives, Abd ar-Rahman and Bedr continued south through Palestine , the Sinai , and then into Egypt . Abd ar-Rahman had to keep a low profile as he traveled. It may be assumed that he intended to go at least as far as northwestern Africa ( Maghreb ), the land of his mother, which had been partly conquered by his Umayyad predecessors. The journey across Egypt would prove perilous. Ibn Habib was the governor of East Africa , and had been a former supporter of the Umayyad Dynasty. However, with the Abbasids now in control Ibn Habib dispatched spies to look for the surviving Umayyad prince. Abd ar-Rahman and Bedr stayed at the camp of a Berber chieftain friendly to their plight. Ibn Habib's soldiers one day entered the camp looking for the wayward Umayyad. The Berber chieftain’s wife Tekfah hid Abd ar-Rahman under her personal belongings to help him go unnoticed. [9] In 755 Abd ar-Rahman and Bedr reached modern day Morocco near Ceuta . Next step would be to cross to sea to al-Andalus, where Abd ar-Rahman could not have been sure if he would be welcomed or not in that far-flung province of the empire. He eventually sent Bedr to Iberia with a message, in which he proclaimed himself the rightful Umayyad heir to the land. Al-Andalus had been conquered during Abd al-Rahman's grandfather's reign. A great many supports of the umayyad were in al-Andalus, and Abd ar-Rahman hoped to appeal to their Umayyad loyalty. The province however was in a state of confusion caused by the weak rule of the current Emir, Yusef al-Fihri. The Muslim community was torn by tribal dissensions between the Arabs and racial tensions between the Arabs and Berbers. Bedr made haste to return to Africa. At the invitation of loyal Umayyad followers, Abd ar-Rahman was told to go to al-Andalus. Shortly thereafter, he set off with Bedr and a small group of followers for Europe. When some local Berber tribesmen learned of Abd ar-Rahman's intent to set sail for al-Andalus, they quickly rode to catch up with him on the coast. The tribesmen might have figured that they could hold Abd ar-Rahman as hostage, and force him to buy his way out of Africa. He did indeed have to hand over some amount of dinars to the suddenly hostile local Berbers. Just as Abd ar-Rahman launched his boat yet another group of Berbers arrived, also with the intent of making him pay a fee for leaving. One of the Berbers held on to Abd ar-Rahman's vessel as it made for al-Andalus, and allegedly had his hand cut off by one of the boat's crew [10] . Abd ar-Rahman landed at Almuñécar in al-Andalus, to the east of Málaga , in September 755; however his landing site was unconfirmed.
  • - Makes Cordoba the capital - Abbasids tried to get rid of Abd Ar-rahman using internal opposition - There were over 25 such revolts and all were dealt with Abbasids gave up and named him Eagle of the Quraish and was happy that he was on the other side of the Ocean or else they would have been seriously concerned Abd ar-Rahman had two sons Sulaiman :: Eldest Hisham :: Youngest and Pious Made Hisham the ruler. No sibling rivalry Sulaiman was the Army Chief
  • Hisham ibn Abd ar-Rahman 138H, Andalus is fully controlled by muslims Again conquers portion of France Creates buffer zone between France and Andalus :: Marca Hispanica 300+ of Muslim ruling in Andalus Created knowledge center of the world, rivaling Baghdad Starts collecting Scholars Increases salary of the Scholars Maliki school made as the national standard :: At that time there was not just 4 school as we know today, there was multiple based on the locality Al-Hakam becomes the ruler Stayed away from leadership Spent more time hunting Indulged in poetry rather than state affair Became a tyrant Increased tax Burned homes to stop rebellion Political disaster, lost North, Aragon kingdom is established At the end of life he did Tawba Returned back to faith and started rebuilding Abd Al-Rahman II comes to power Continues battle north Increases pay of the Scholars Started importing brain from all over the place, from all faith Creates architectured gardens, roads First time ever, no poverty, no beggars Vikings sneak and attack. 100 days fight Learns from mistake Builds 2 navy fleet Builds city wall Denmark volunteers jiziyaa Decline :: Starts from Muhammad I onwards
  • Muhammad I King Pop revolution :: Zeeriyab Song Night Club Fashion rule 3 meal course Story Telling Chess introduced to Al Andalusis Umar Ibn Hafsoon :: Apostate A Muwallad, hungry for power Captures south A first in muslim history which started repeating since then till now Converts to Christianity to get assistance of Christian power Takes Christians as allies to over throw mulims for the sake of power Only 10% belonged to the Umayyad Abd Allah, Al-Mundhir and Muhammad dies fighting each other Extreme chaos, no one wants Caliphate Scholars considered that this is the possible end of Islam Mean time Fatimaid Caliphate starts in North African region Starts killing all Sunni Scholars Abbasids in war with the Fatamaids Abbasdids not willing to help Andalus as too far and Fatamaids in the middle Fatamaids gaining control
  • Muhammad I King Pop revolution :: Zeeriyab SongA Night Club Fashion rule 3 meal course Story Telling Chess introduced to Al Andalusis Umar Ibn Hafsoon :: Apostate A Muwallad, hungry for power Captures south A first in muslim history which started repeating since then till now Converts to Christianity to get assistance of Christian power Takes Christians as allies to over throw mulims for the sake of power Only 10% belonged to the Umayyad Abd Allah, Al-Mundhir and Muhammad dies fighting each other Extreme chaos, no one wants Caliphate Mean time Fatimaid Caliphate starts in North African region Starts killing all Sunni Scholars Abbasids in war with the Fatamaids Abbasdids not willing to help Andalus as too far and Fatamaids in the middle Fatamaids gaining control
  • Replaced corrupted leaders Established Shura of the Scholars Protection for Scholars Freedom of Speech - One such scholar :: Almunthir ibn Sa’eed - Did not like Caliph - Picked on him for any short comings - Accused him of the Caliphate wealth and castle - During Khutba would publicly argue with him Established Shariah Recaptures Umar ibn Hafsoon Dealt with 3 Major attacks Leons / North Christian Fatimaids Umar ibn Hafsoon
  • Establish FedEx Same day or next day delivery Establish specialized shopping center Establish specialized Ministries Mastered Paper production XEROX revolution Translation movement Female Translation movement Female Scribe movement Andalusia Female Scribing was popular in the World Establish Search Engine Revolutionary Math & Architectural leap Ultra Modern Hospital of the time Introduced Medicine with Psychology Practice of Herbal Medicine ONLY State of the Art Surgery
  • Establish FedEx Same day or next day delivery Establish specialized shopping center Establish specialized Ministries Mastered Paper production XEROX revolution Translation movement Female Translation movement Female Scribe movement Andalusia Female Scribing was popular in the World Establish Search Engine Revolutionary Math & Architectural leap Ultra Modern Hospital of the time Introduced Medicine with Psychology Practice of Herbal Medicine ONLY State of the Art Surgery
  • This system was used to water all trees and plantation of Cordoba Underground pipe system Later this became the cause of trouble
  • Establish FedEx Same day or next day delivery Establish specialized shopping center Establish specialized Ministries Mastered Paper production XEROX revolution Translation movement Female Translation movement Female Scribe movement Andalusia Female Scribing was popular in the World Establish Search Engine Revolutionary Math & Architectural leap Ultra Modern Hospital of the time Introduced Medicine with Psychology Practice of Herbal Medicine ONLY State of the Art Surgery
  • Establish FedEx Same day or next day delivery Establish specialized shopping center Establish specialized Ministries Mastered Paper production XEROX revolution Translation movement Female Translation movement Female Scribe movement Andalusia Female Scribing was popular in the World Establish Search Engine Revolutionary Math & Architectural leap Ultra Modern Hospital of the time Introduced Medicine with Psychology Practice of Herbal Medicine ONLY State of the Art Surgery
  • Significant advancement of the Greek Technology
  • Significant advancement of the Greek Technology
  • Step system agriculture Also introduced Land Rent based cultivation system
  • Qanat Provided water to agriculture and people’s house
  • Introduced to Europe
  • Still used now Perfected paper making system that was know from China
  • Paper copying system Greek philosophy got modernized and Islamized and handed over to Europe Politics, reform, rule of the land and so on
  • Introduced to Europe
  • Natural Light system Berbers were close to nature, therefore always any architecture had nature and animal kingdom infused with it Sound system was excellent Imam would stand inside a room like are that would work as a megaphone Shell like roof structure carried voice to the back Imam’s room in the mosque was taken from here
  • Introduced to Europe
  • Ibn al-Haytham (died ca. 1040 CE), known in Latin translation as Alhazen, was a scholar in Cairo whose work was widely translated into Latin during the 12th century CE and is still studied by historians of science today. Ibn al-Haytham described his experiments and investigations about light and vision in an innovative work called The Book of Optics . He analyzed the structure of the human eye and described how it sees. He overturned theories held since Aristotle and Ptolemy that either the eye sent out rays that allowed objects to be seen, or objects sent some force toward the eye. Ibn al-Haytham demonstrated how light enters the eye through the pupil. Using mathematical formulas, he described how light falling on the eye is refracted through its lens, allowing the eye to sense forms of light and color, and the mind to perceive and order the images. Other optical experiments and investigations included projecting the sun’s image on a wall through a small opening, which is the camera obscura similar to early photographic cameras of later centuries. (The light-sensitive film to capture the image was a much later invention.) He investigated mirror theory, described spherical and parabolic mirrors, calculated how light is refracted (bent), and how light passing through a lens is broken into the color spectrum -- the rainbow. His investigation of glass and water lenses led to the creation of mathematical formulas that allowed advancements in refining the shape of lenses. European scholars studied these ideas, which led to lenses for telescopes, magnifying lenses, and eyeglasses.
  • Hunayn ibn Ishaq (also Hunain or Hunein) ( Syriac : Hunein Bit Ishak, Arabic : أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي ‎ , ’Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn ’Isḥāq al-‘Ibādī; known in Latin as Johannitius) (809-873) was a famous and influential Assyrian Nestorian scholar, physician , and scientist , known for his work in translating scientific and medical works in Greek into Arabic and Syriac during the glory years of the Abbasid Caliphate . [1] Ḥunayn ibn Isḥaq was the most productive translator of Greek medical and scientific treatises. He was originally from southern Iraq but he spent his working life in Baghdad, the center of the great ninth-century Greek-into-Arabic/Syriac translation movement. Impressively, Hunayn's translations did not require corrections at all. This perfection possibly came about because he mastered four languages: Arabic, Syriac, Greek and Persian. He studied Greek and became known among the Arabs as the "Sheikh of the translators." Hunayn’s method was widely followed by later translators. In the Abbasid era, a new interest has arisen in extending the studies of Greek science in the Middle East. At that time, there was a vast amount of information in Greek language pertaining to philosophy, mathematics, natural science, and medicine. [2] [3] However, this valuable information was at that time accessible only to a very small minority of Middle Eastern scholars who knew the Greek language. Therefore, a need for an organized translation move was immanent. Within time, Hunayn ibn Ishaq became arguably known as the chief translator of that era, beside laying out the foundations of Islamic medicine . [2] In his lifetime, Ishaq translated 116 writings, a few of which were Plato’s Timaeus , Aristotle’s Metaphysics , and the Old Testament , into Syriac and Arabic. [4] [3] Additionally, Ishaq produced 36 of his own books, in which 21 covered the fields of medicine. [4] His son Ishaq ibn Hunayn and nephew Hubaysh (also Hubaish) worked together with him at times to help translate some of his works. Hunayn ibn Ishaq is known mostly for his translation and his method and also his contributions to medicine. [3]
  • An Arabic manuscript titled Anatomy of the Eye , authored by al-Mutadibih (active ca. 1170-1199). This manuscript, dated ca. 1200CE, is kept at the Cairo National Library. "From 800-1300 C.E. the World of Islam produced not less than 60 renowned Eye Specialists or Occulists, authors of textbooks and producers of monographs in Ophthalmology. Meanwhile in Europe prior to the 12th century an Occulist was unheard of." Professor J. Hirschberg told this to an enthralled audience at the American Medical Association. It was not until the 18th century that the method of removal of cataract by a hollow needle was employed in Europe.
  • Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (known in the west as Abulcasis) was born in 936 C.E. in Zahra in the neighbourhood of Cordova. He became one of the most renowned surgeons of the Muslim era and was physician to King Al-Hakam-II of Spain. After a long medical career, rich with significant original contribution, he died in 1013 C.E. He is best known for his early and original breakthroughs in surgery as well as for his famous Medical Ecyclopaedia called Al-Tasrif , which is composed of thirty volumes covering different aspects of medical science. The more important part of this series comprises three books on surgery, which describe in detail various aspects of surgical treatment as based on the operations performed by him, including cauterization, removal of stone from the bladder, dissection of animals, midwifery, stypics, and surgery of eye, ear and throat. He perfected several delicate operations, including removal of the dead foetus and amputation. Al-Tasrif was first translated by Gherard of Cremona into Latin in the Middle Ages. It was followed by several other editors in Europe. The book contains numerous diagrams and illustrations of surgical instruments, in use or developed by him, and comprised a part of the medical curriculum in European countries for many centuries. Contrary to the view that the Muslims fought shy of surgery, Al-Zahrawi's Al-Tasrif provided a monumental collection for this branch of applied science. Al-Zahrawi was the inventor of several surgical instruments, of which three are notable: (i) an instrument for internal examina- tion of the ear, (ii) an instrument for internal inspection of the urethra, and (iii) and instrument for applying or removing foreign bodies from the throat. He specialized in curing disease by cauterization and applied the technique to as many as 50 different operations. In his book Al-Tasrif , Al-Zahrawi has also discussed the preparation of various medicines, in addition to a comprehensive account of surgical treatment in specialized branches, whose modern counterparts are E.N.T., Ophthalmology, etc. In connection with the preparation of medicines, he has also described in detail the application of such techniques as sublimation and decantation. Al-Zahrawi was also an expert in dentistry, and his book contains sketches of various instruments used thereof, in addition to a description of various important dental operations. He discussed the problem of non-aligned or deformed teeth and how to rectify these defects. He developed the technique of preparing artificial teeth and of replacement of defective teeth by these. In medicine, he was the first to describe in detail the unusual disease, haemophelia.
  • Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyās ( منصور ابن محمد ابن احمد ابن يوسف ابن الياس ) was a late 14th century physician from Shiraz , Timurid Persia . Mansur was from a family of scholars and physicians active for several generations in the city of Shiraz. He dedicated both of his major medical writings, a general medical encyclopaedia and a study of anatomy, to rulers of the Persian province of Fars .
  • Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qurashi al-Dimashqi ( Arabic : علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ‎ ) (born 1213), commonly known as Ibn al-Nafis ( Arabic : ابن النفيس ‎ ), was an Arab Muslim polymath —a physician, anatomist, physiologist, surgeon , ophthalmologist , Hafiz , Hadith scholar , Shafi`i jurist and lawyer , Sunni theologian , Islamic philosopher , logician , Arabic novelist , science fiction writer, and scientist . He also wrote on Islamic psychology , Islamic sociology , astronomy , Islamic cosmology , futurology , geology , Arabic grammar and linguistics, and history . He was born in Damascus , Syria , and worked in Cairo , Egypt . Ibn al-Nafis is now most famous for being the first physician to describe the pulmonary circulation , or pulmonary transit of blood. His discovery disproved the thousand year-old theory of Galen who suggested invisible pores in the intraventricular septum. Ibn Nafis clearly stated that the "blood in the right ventricle of the heart must reach the left ventricule by way of the lungs alone and not through a passage connecting the ventricle, as Galen maintained." [1] In addition, he is credited with early insight into capillary and coronary circulations , [2] which in addition to the pulmonary circulation form the basis of the circulatory system , for which he is has been called the father of circulatory physiology , [3] and "the greatest physiologist of the Middle Ages ." [4] His work would not be surpassed until the 17th century, when the theory of the entire circulatory system , i.e. the continuous circular motion of the blood throughout the whole body, was proposed by William Harvey . [5] Biography He was born in 1213 in Damascus , Syria . He attended the Medical College Hospital ( Bimaristan al-Noori) in Damascus. Besides medicine, Ibn al-Nafis learnt many other subjects, including Arabic literature , Fiqh (jurisprudence), Kalam (theology) and early Islamic philosophy . He became an expert on the Shafi`i school of jurisprudence and an expert physician . The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis's medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th centuries. In 1236, Ibn al-Nafis moved to Cairo , Egypt . He worked at the Al-Nassri Hospital, and subsequently at the Al-Mansouri Hospital, where he became the "Chief of Physicians". [15] In 1242, by which time he was about 29 years old, he published his most famous work, the Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon , which contained many new anatomical discoveries, most importantly the pulmonary and coronary circulations. Soon afterwards, he began work on The Comprehensive Book on Medicine , for which he had already published 43 volumes by 1244, by which time he was about 31 years old. Over the next several decades, he would write down notes for 300 volumes, though he was only able to publish 80 volumes before he died. [16] Nevertheless, even in its incomplete state, The Comprehensive Book on Medicine was the largest encyclopedia up until that time, and still remains one of the largest medical encyclopedias to date. Ibn al-Nafis grew up in a time of political turmoil in Syria and Egypt, during the Crusades and Mongol invasions . After the sack of Baghdad in 1258, Syria was soon temporarily occupied by the Mongol Empire in 1259, who were then subsequently repelled by the Egyptian Sultan Baibars at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. Like other traditionalist Muslims in his time, Ibn al-Nafis believed that these invasions may have been a divine punishment from God against Muslims deviating from the Sunnah . [17] The sack of Baghdad in 1258, which saw the loss and destruction of many important books, was followed by intense scientific activity across Damascus and Cairo, as many Muslim scholars, especially Ibn al-Nafis, wrote huge encyclopedias in an attempt to preserve the scientific legacy of the Islamic world. [18] Between 1260-1277, he became the personal physician of Sultan Baibars. [15] Ibn al-Nafis died on 17 December 1288, and posthumously donated his house, library and clinic to the Mansuriya Hospital. [15]
  • In 875 CE, Ibn Firnas did something that made him famous, but almost ended his career. He constructed a glider, and launched himself into the air. The flight was successful, and was viewed by a crowd of invited guests. As an experimental vehicle, however, the design was not perfected, and it had no tail to help with landing, a fact which he later noted when observing birds. He injured his back upon landing. Historian Philip Hitti wrote, “Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying.” A crater on the map of the moon is named Ibn Firnas to honor his achievement as one of the first people to fly.
  • Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī ( Persian : ابوریحان محمد بن احمد بیرونی ), often known as Alberuni , Al Beruni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm (now in Uzbekistan ), died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni , today's Afghanistan ) was a Persian scholar and polymath of the 11th century. [1] [2] Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation:  [ galiˈlɛo galiˈlɛi ] ; 15 February 1564 [4]  – 8 January 1642) [1] [5] was an Italian physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution . His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism . Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy ," [6] the "father of modern physics ," [7] the "father of science ," [7] and "the Father of Modern Science." [8] Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science." [9]
  • Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī ( Persian : ابوریحان محمد بن احمد بیرونی ), often known as Alberuni , Al Beruni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm (now in Uzbekistan ), died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni , today's Afghanistan ) was a Persian scholar and polymath of the 11th century. [1] [2] Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation:  [ galiˈlɛo galiˈlɛi ] ; 15 February 1564 [4]  – 8 January 1642) [1] [5] was an Italian physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution . His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism . Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy ," [6] the "father of modern physics ," [7] the "father of science ," [7] and "the Father of Modern Science." [8] Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science." [9]
  • Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (circa 898-980) ( Arabic : أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني ‎ ), was an influential 10th-century Arab Muslim physician who became famous for his writings on Islamic medicine . He was born in Qayrawan in modern-day Tunisia . [1] He was known in Europe by the Latinized name Algizar . His major work was Zād al-Musāfir . He also had some books on geriatric medicine and health of elderly (Kitāb Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh) [2] or (Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh wa-ḥifẓ ṣiḥḥatihim) [3] . Also a book on sleep disorders and another one on forgetfulness and how to strengthen memory (Kitāb al-Nisyān wa-Ṭuruq Taqwiyat al-Dhākira) [4] [5] and a Treatise on causes of mortality (Risāla fī Asbāb al-Wafāh) [2] . Also he had other books on pediatrics , fevers, sexual disorders, medicine of the poor [6] , therapeutics, vaticum, coryza, stomach disorders, leprosy, separate drugs, compound drugs, and this is in addition to his books in other areas of science, e.g., history, animals and literature.
  • Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (circa 898-980) ( Arabic : أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني ‎ ), was an influential 10th-century Arab Muslim physician who became famous for his writings on Islamic medicine . He was born in Qayrawan in modern-day Tunisia . [1] He was known in Europe by the Latinized name Algizar . His major work was Zād al-Musāfir . He also had some books on geriatric medicine and health of elderly (Kitāb Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh) [2] or (Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh wa-ḥifẓ ṣiḥḥatihim) [3] . Also a book on sleep disorders and another one on forgetfulness and how to strengthen memory (Kitāb al-Nisyān wa-Ṭuruq Taqwiyat al-Dhākira) [4] [5] and a Treatise on causes of mortality (Risāla fī Asbāb al-Wafāh) [2] . Also he had other books on pediatrics , fevers, sexual disorders, medicine of the poor [6] , therapeutics, vaticum, coryza, stomach disorders, leprosy, separate drugs, compound drugs, and this is in addition to his books in other areas of science, e.g., history, animals and literature.
  • Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (circa 898-980) ( Arabic : أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني ‎ ), was an influential 10th-century Arab Muslim physician who became famous for his writings on Islamic medicine . He was born in Qayrawan in modern-day Tunisia . [1] He was known in Europe by the Latinized name Algizar . His major work was Zād al-Musāfir . He also had some books on geriatric medicine and health of elderly (Kitāb Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh) [2] or (Ṭibb al-Mashāyikh wa-ḥifẓ ṣiḥḥatihim) [3] . Also a book on sleep disorders and another one on forgetfulness and how to strengthen memory (Kitāb al-Nisyān wa-Ṭuruq Taqwiyat al-Dhākira) [4] [5] and a Treatise on causes of mortality (Risāla fī Asbāb al-Wafāh) [2] . Also he had other books on pediatrics , fevers, sexual disorders, medicine of the poor [6] , therapeutics, vaticum, coryza, stomach disorders, leprosy, separate drugs, compound drugs, and this is in addition to his books in other areas of science, e.g., history, animals and literature.
  • Al Andalus united in 16 years Super power of the world Scholars from all over the world migrated here King of England sent scholar to be accepted with a letter addressing himself as the Obedient Servant of the Caliph European countries started sending scholars to study in Cordoba 200+ ships in the Naval Force Other nations willing paid Jiziya for protection
  • Abd al-Rahman III dies @ 72y Al Hakam II takes over power Established Umayyad Library @ Toledo 600,000+ books Cordoba Library still held 500,000+ books Introduced public education system Free school for low income people U of C founded Again, scholars pay increased Resulted to another scholar migration 3 northern kingdoms considered him as NERD and stopped Jiziya This was resolved later Got paralyzed at old age Made 12 yr old son caliph with 3 Guardians Police Chief Army Chief Mother Fight for Power starts
  • Started working on behalf of Hisham II Got rid of Prime Minister Married daughter of Army Leader Accidentally kills the Army Leader !!!! Mystery of the Caliphate Sent whole army for just 3 muslim women hostage
  • Mohammad II wins over from Al-Mansur family Division over the next 23 years out of which emerged approximately two dozen Taifa (Independent Islamic Kingdom) States 422H (1031AD) Hisham III, the last Umayyad Caliph disappears Al Andalus is now full of Taifa States Each other allying with Christian states to overthrow the other Taifa States Alfonso VI lead Castilians to besiege Zaragoza but its was called off when Al Murabitoun landed in the South Sends letter to send something to make flies go away Replies back that Al Murabitoun is coming
  • Mohammad II wins over from Al-Mansur family Division over the next 23 years out of which emerged approximately two dozen Taifa (Independent Islamic Kingdom) States 422H (1031AD) Hisham III, the last Umayyad Caliph disappears Al Andalus is now full of Taifa States Each other allying with Christian states to overthrow the other Taifa States Alfonso VI lead Castilians to besiege Zaragoza but its was called off when Al Murabitoun landed in the South Sends letter to send something to make flies go away Replies back that Al Murabitoun is coming
  • First time Islamic Caliphate social downfall in Muritania Wife swapping along with adultery, drinking and chaos Yahya ibn Ibrahim decided to resolve issue Goes to Hajj and seeks help of scholars Way back from Hajj :: He then attended the famous university at Kairouan where he gained the support of an established teacher, Abdallah ibn Yasin, a Maliki jurist. A scholar accepts the honor Muritania is tough to live The Almoravids became a dynasty ruling in the Maghrib and parts of Andalusia but began as a religious reformist movement inspired by Yahya ibn Ibrahim who after performing the hajj in 1240 returned to North Africa determined to reform what he saw as the ignorant and corrupt Islam of his fellow Berbers. He then attended the famous university at Kairouan where he gained the support of an established teacher, Abdallah ibn Yasin, a Maliki jurist. Ibn Yasin became the movement's spiritual teacher; Yahya assumed military leadership. From 1053, having attracted enough followers to the reformist cause, the Almoravids (which probably means "those who band together for the defense of the faith" (Fletcher 1992, 74) were ready to spread orthodoxy by conquest as well as preaching. By 1054, they ruled a small state in what is today Senegal . Yahya was killed fighting in 1056. Yasin named Abu Bakr ibn Umar as his successor. Under his military leadership, the movement spread out into the Atlas Mountains where they conquered, among others, the Berghouata of Aghamat. Abu Bakr married their Queen, Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyat, reputedly a rich and beautiful woman. In 1059, Abu Bakr left his gifted cousin, Yusuf ibn Tashfin in charge of the territory over which the Almoravids now ruled whole he went off the crush a rebellion in the Sahara . Divorcing Zaynab, he gave her in marriage to Yusuf (Brett, 104-105). Yusuf proved to be a very successful deputy; he subdued Morocco , Western Sahara and Mauretania in 1062 founded the city of Marrakech as his capital. In 1080, he conquered the kingdom of Tlemcen (in modern-day Algeria ) and founded the present city of Algiers, extending his rule as far east as Oran. Abu Bakr had returned to resume the leadership in 1060 but seeing his cousin well established and secure in his position, he decided to continue campaigning in the Sahara. He may have reached Ghana in 1076. He is said to have died from a poisoned arrow in 1087. Yusuf later adopted the title, "Amir of the Muslims" (Amir al Muslimin (Commander of the Muslims). and became the undisputed leader of the movement (Fletcher 1992, 74). However, he corresponded with and formally acknowledged the Abbasid caliph , whose own traditional titles included Amir al Mu'minin (Commander of the Muslims). Effectively, though, Yusuf was caliph of the West. SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition
  • SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition Scholar took refuge @ Senegal Started reorganizing 5 followers, started teaching in the jungles Taught them with Islamic Knowledge How to give Dawah Free hand Self defense Wilderness survival Each follower brought some more Eventually tribal leader and the tribe joined Yusuf ibn Tashfin emerged from a line of military rulers. Abu Bakr ibn Umar , one of the original disciples of ibn Yasin , a natural leader of Sanajha extraction who served as a spiritual liaison for followers of the Maliki school of thought, was appointed general after the death of his brother Yahya ibn Ibrahim .
  • SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition Scholar took refuge @ Senegal Started reorganizing 5 followers, started teaching in the jungles Taught them with Islamic Knowledge How to give Dawah Free hand Self defense Wilderness survival Each follower brought some more Eventually tribal leader and the tribe joined Yusuf ibn Tashfin emerged from a line of military rulers. Abu Bakr ibn Umar , one of the original disciples of ibn Yasin , a natural leader of Sanajha extraction who served as a spiritual liaison for followers of the Maliki school of thought, was appointed general after the death of his brother Yahya ibn Ibrahim .
  • SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition Scholar took refuge @ Senegal Started reorganizing 5 followers, started teaching in the jungles Taught them with Islamic Knowledge How to give Dawah Free hand Self defense Wilderness survival Each follower brought some more Eventually tribal leader and the tribe joined Yusuf ibn Tashfin emerged from a line of military rulers. Abu Bakr ibn Umar , one of the original disciples of ibn Yasin , a natural leader of Sanajha extraction who served as a spiritual liaison for followers of the Maliki school of thought, was appointed general after the death of his brother Yahya ibn Ibrahim .
  • SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition Scholar took refuge @ Senegal Started reorganizing 5 followers, started teaching in the jungles Taught them with Islamic Knowledge How to give Dawah Free hand Self defense Wilderness survival Each follower brought some more Eventually tribal leader and the tribe joined Yusuf ibn Tashfin emerged from a line of military rulers. Abu Bakr ibn Umar , one of the original disciples of ibn Yasin , a natural leader of Sanajha extraction who served as a spiritual liaison for followers of the Maliki school of thought, was appointed general after the death of his brother Yahya ibn Ibrahim .
  • SHOW THE MAP OF MURITANIA and explain the condition Scholar took refuge @ Senegal Started reorganizing 5 followers, started teaching in the jungles Taught them with Islamic Knowledge How to give Dawah Free hand Self defense Wilderness survival Each follower brought some more Eventually tribal leader and the tribe joined Yusuf ibn Tashfin emerged from a line of military rulers. Abu Bakr ibn Umar , one of the original disciples of ibn Yasin , a natural leader of Sanajha extraction who served as a spiritual liaison for followers of the Maliki school of thought, was appointed general after the death of his brother Yahya ibn Ibrahim .
  • Map of the Al Murabitoun Period and Conquer In the year 1091 the last sovereign king of al-Andalusia, al- Mu'tamid , saw his Abbadid -inherited taifa of Seville , controlled since 1069 , in jeopardy of being taken by the increasingly stronger king of Castile-León , Alfonso VI . The Taifa period followed the demise of the Umayyad Caliphate . Previously, the emir launched a series of aggressive attacks on neighboring kingdoms, as to garner more territory for himself, but his military aspirations and capabilities paled in comparison to the Castilian king, who was on a tear in the name of Christendom , in 1085 , capturing a culturally refined Toledo and inducing parias , or tribute, from proud Muslim princes in places like Granada ; al-Mu'tamid of Seville being no exception. The tribute of the emirs bolstered the economy of the Christian kingdom. These are the circumstances that led to the Almoravid conquest and the famous quote, rebuffing his son, Rashid, who advised him not to call on Yusuf ibn Tashfin, where al-Mu'tamid said I have no desire to be branded by my descendants as the man who delivered al-Andalus as prey to the infidels. I am loath to have my name cursed in every Muslim pulpit. And, for my part, I would rather be a camel-driver in Africa than a swineherd in Castile. [2] Battle of Sagrajas :: Battle of Zalaca or Zallaqa Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call of three Andalusian leaders ( Al- Mu'tamid ibn Abbad and others) and crossed to Andalusia. He marched with his army to the north of al-Andalus until he reached az-Zallaqah . The Almoravid army accumulated warriors from all over al-Andalus. Alfonso VI of Castile reached the battleground with some 60000 men but found himself outnumbered. The two leaders exchanged messages before the battle. Yusuf ibn Tashfin is reputed to have offered three choices to the Castilians: convert to Islam , to pay tribute ( jizyah ), or battle. The battle started on Friday at dawn with an attack from Castile. Yusuf ibn Tashfin divided his army into 3 divisions . The first division was led by Abbad III al-Mu'tamid, the second division was led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin and the third division consisted of black African warriors with Indian swords and long javelins . Abbad III al-Mu'tamid and his division battled with Alfonso VI alone till the afternoon, then Yusuf ibn Tashfin and his division joined the battle and circled Alfonso VI and his troops. Alfonso's troops panicked and started to lose ground, then Yusuf ordered the third division of his army to attack and finish the battle. Siege of Valencia Although the Almoravids had not gained much in the way of territory from the Christians , rather they merely offset the Reconquista , Yusuf did succeed in capturing Valencia . A city divided between Muslims and Christians, under the waffling rule of a petty emir paying tribute to the Christians, including the famous El Cid , Valencia proved to be an obstacle for the Almoravid military, despite their untouchable reputation. Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim ibn Tashfin and Yusuf's nephew Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad both failed in defeating the El Cid. Yusuf then sent Abu'l -Hasan 'Ali al-Hajj but he was not successful either. In 1097 , upon his fourth trip to al- Andalus , Yusuf sought to personally dig down and fight the armies of Alfonso VI , making way toward the all but abandoned, yet historically important, Toledo . Such a concerted effort was meant to draw the Christian forces, including those laying siege to Valencia, into the center of Iberia. On August 15, 1097, the Almoravids delivered yet another blow to Alfonso's forces, a battle in which the El Cid's son was killed. Muhammad ibn 'A'isha, Yusuf's son, who he had appointed governor of Murcia , succeeded in delivering an effective pounding to the El Cid's personnel at Alcira , still not capturing the city, but satisfied with the results of his campaigns, Yusuf left for his court at Marrakesh only to return two years later on a new effort to take the provinces of eastern Andalusia . El Cid had died in the same year, 1099 , and his wife, Jimena , had been ruling until the coming of another Almoravid campaign at the tail end of 1100 , led by Yusuf's trusted lieutenant Mazdali ibn Banlunka . After a seven month siege, Alfonso and Jimena, hopeless to the prospects of staving off the Almoravids, set fire to the great mosque in anger and abandoned the city. Yusuf had finally conquered Valencia and exerted complete dominance over the east of al-Andalus, now unquestionably the most powerful ruler in western Europe . [5] He receives mention in the Spanish epic Poema del Cid , also known as El Cantar del Mio Cid , the oldest of its kind.
  • Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (also Ibnu Tuwmart ) ( Berber : Amghār ibn Tumrt , Arabic : أبو عبدالله محمد ابن تومرت ) (c. 1080 - c. 1130), was a Berber religious scholar, teacher and later a political leader from the Masmuda tribe who spiritually founded the Berber Almohad dynasty . He is also known as El- Mahdi ( المهدي ) in reference to his prophesied redeeming. In 1125 he began open revolt against Almoravid rule. Ibn Tumart was a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas Mountains . Ibn Tumart was the son of a lamplighter in a mosque and had been noted for his piety from his youth; he was small and misshapen and lived the life of a devotee-beggar. He would light many candles at the tombs of saints and earned the appellation "lover of light." As a youth, ibn Tumart first travelled to Córdoba, then he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca , whence he was expelled on account of his severe strictures on the laxity of others. He then moved to Baghdad , where he attached himself to al- Ash'ari . He made a system of his own by combining the teaching of his master with parts of the doctrines of others, and with mysticism imbibed from the great teacher Ghazali . Ibn Tumart's main principle was a rigid unitarianism which denied the existence of the attributes of God as incompatible with his unity and therefore a polytheistic idea . Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against what he perceived as anthropomorphism in the Muslim orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law. He also laid blame in these "theological flaws" of the nation upon the ruling dynasty, and declared a Holy War against them. He also blamed them for the public sale of wine in the markets, something the Qur'an forbids. At the age of twenty-eight, Ibn Tumart returned to the Maghreb . After touching at Tripoli , he landed in Mahdia and proceed on to Tunis and then Bougie , preaching a puritan, simplistic Islam along the way. Waving his puritanical staff among crowds of listeners, Ibn Tumart complained of the mixing of sexes in public, the production of wine and music, and the fashion of veiling men unveiling women (a custom among the Sanhaja Berbers that had spread with the Almoravids). He found particular fault with the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, which was dominant in the Maghreb under the Almoravids , which he accused of departing from Sunnah and Hadith (traditions and sayings of the Prophet and his companions) and relying too much on Ijma (consensus of the jurists). The writings of al- Ghazali had been recently proscribed by Almoravid authorities precisely on account of its attacks on the Malikites on the same point. Ibn Tumart openly accused the Almoravids of impiety and obscuratism. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers headed west into Morocco . The Almoravid Amir at that time, Ali ibn Yusuf , put him to test through a debate with the scholars of Fez . The result of the debate was that the scholars reached the conclusion that ibn Tumart's views were radical and that he should be put in jail. The Amir, however, allowed him to escape unpunished. Talk from PAGE 26
  • The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.[5] The forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his Christian rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Pedro II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal in battle against the Berber Muslim Almohad rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula. The sultan Caliph al-Nasir ( Miramamolín in the Spanish chronicles) led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire. Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire, which included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and even as far away as Mauritania and Senegal and much of the Iberian peninsula's southern half. Alfonso managed to cross the mountain range that defended the Almohad camp, sneaking through the Despeñaperros Pass , so that the Christian coalition caught by surprise and smashed the Moorish army that left some 100,000 casualties at the battleground. The battle was a bloody and decisive encounter.
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  • The Nasrid dynasty or Banuu Nasri ( Arabic : بنو نصر ‎ ) was the last Arab and Muslim dynasty in Spain . The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad dynasty in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa . Twenty-three different emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1232 by Muhammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile . Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
  • The Emirate of Granada was established in 1228 , after the Almohad dynasty was defeated by the Christians at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa . The Almohad prince Idris had left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, then ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the longest lasting Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Ferdinand III of Castile , officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Kingdom of Granada in 1238. The Nasrid emirs and kings were responsible for building most of the palaces in the Alhambra . The taifa became a vassal state of the Christian kingdom of Castile for the next 250 years. The Nasrid emirs and kings paid tribute to the Christian kings and collaborated with them in their battle against rebellious Muslims under Christian rule. Initially the kingdom of Granada linked the commercial routes from Europe with those of the Maghreb . The kingdom constantly shrank due to repeated Castilian invasions however, and by 1492, Granada controlled only a small territory on the Mediterranean coast. Arabic was the official language, and was the mother tongue of the majority of the population.
  • The Granada War ( Spanish : Guerra de Granada ) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492 during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella by Castile and Aragon against the Nasrid dynasty 's Emirate of Granada . It ended with the total defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula and completing the Reconquista . The ten-year war was not a continuous effort: it was a series of seasonal campaigns launched in the spring and postponed in the winter. The Granadans were crippled by internal conflict and civil war; meanwhile the Christians were generally unified. The war also saw the effective use of artillery by the Christians to rapidly conquer towns that would have required a long siege otherwise. The final surrender of the war took place on January 2, 1492, with King Boabdil delivering the keys to the city of Granada from the fortress-palace of the Alhambra . It is still celebrated every year on that date by the City Council of Granada . The war was a joint project between Castile and Aragon, and presaged what would later become the Kingdom of Spain . Still, the bulk of the troops and funds for the war came from Castile, and Granada was annexed into Castile's lands. The Crown of Aragon was less important: apart from the presence of King Ferdinand himself, Aragon provided naval collaboration, guns, and some financial loans. Aristocrats were offered the allure of new lands, while Ferdinand and Isabella centralized and consolidated power. The aftermath of the war saw religious and ethnic differences sharpen, as the Jews and the Muslims were forced to either convert to Christianity or be exiled. This, too, helped create the future Spain by defining it as the guardian of Christianity; tensions flared between "old Christians" and "new Christians" ( conversos ), those who had converted.
  • Promise was made not to torture muslims, jews and chirstians Eventually this was broken And so starts the Spanish Inquisition
  • Speak from page 28, 29 and 30 NOT SUITABLE for the faintest heart Torture Museum is still there in Spain Napoleon's military personal fainted when they saw these
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  • Transcript

    • 1. <ul><li>781 Years of Muslim History </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>92H – 897H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>711 – 1492 AD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Al Andalus ? 60% of Muslim Era
    • 2. Relevance of History <ul><li>Allah ordered us to Study </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of Quran is History </li></ul><ul><li>Many Surahs are just History </li></ul>
    • 3. Relevance of History <ul><li>Allah says in Surah Al-Araf, 7 : 176 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahih International :: And if We had willed, we could have elevated him thereby, but he adhered [instead] to the earth and followed his own desire. So his example is like that of the dog: if you chase him, he pants, or if you leave him, he [still] pants. That is the example of the people who denied Our signs. So relate the stories that perhaps they will give thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allah says in Surah Yusuf, 12 : 111 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahih International :: There was certainly in their stories a lesson for those of understanding. Never was the Qur’an a narration invented, but a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of all things and guidance and mercy for a people who believe. </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Oriental Empire </li></ul>
    • 5. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Phoenician Empire </li></ul>
    • 6. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Roman Empire </li></ul>
    • 7. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Visigothic Migration </li></ul>
    • 8. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Visigothic Kingdom </li></ul>
    • 9. Pre-Islamic Period <ul><li>Iberian Peninsula </li></ul>
    • 10. Pre-Andalus Muslim Expansion
    • 11. Why Iberia ?
    • 12. Situation in Iberia <ul><li>Ruled by Visigothic King Roderic / Roderigo </li></ul><ul><li>Great Oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of rape, drinking, etc </li></ul><ul><li>People looking for solution </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Great Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>At that Scandinavian countries lacked Oral Language </li></ul>
    • 13. Muslims :: A Brief Context <ul><li>Hazrat Uthman (R) envisioned </li></ul><ul><li>Uqba ibn Nafi was the first to open Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparatively forceful conversion to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached Morocco fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue :: Fast Expansion vs Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion started to happen in the middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New reverts were not strong in Emaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement was not possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Got killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Africa lost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musa ibn Nusair successfully opened North Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Tābi‘ūn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew up with knowledge and leadership skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned from Uqba’s mistakes :: HISTORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed Islamic Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No force changing of religion and culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought in Scholars </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Re-Cap :: Situation in Iberia <ul><li>Ruled by Visigothic King Roderic / Roderigo </li></ul><ul><li>Great Oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of rape, drinking, etc </li></ul><ul><li>People looking for solution </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Great Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>At that Scandinavian countries lacked Oral Language </li></ul>
    • 15. Opening of Iberia <ul><li>Successfully done by Tariq ibn Ziyad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Berber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was reverted to Islam by Musa ibn Nusair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained and appointed as army Chief of North Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Choose him ? </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Planning :: Obstacles <ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics :: 6000 sqKm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Island of Ceuta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baleric Island </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Planning :: Obstacles
    • 18. Planning :: Solution <ul><ul><li>Build Ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dawah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit from the Caliphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train in the Moroccan Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take over Baleric Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Island of Ceuta :: No Solution ???? </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Planning :: Ceuta Situation <ul><ul><li>Do what is Humanly possible and pray to Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah says in Surah Al-Anfal, 8 : 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahih International : And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged. </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Planning :: Devine Assistance <ul><ul><li>Proposal from Ceuta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julian hated Roderigo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Gayetasha sought refuge at Ceuta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julian will provide ship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gayetasha will provide inside information from Iberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOO Good to be true ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In return want 3000 lands @ Iberia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. What should Tariq do ? <ul><ul><li>Obedience to the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the proposal to Musa ibn Nusair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you think should happen ? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, accept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquest is for the cause of Allah not for land or wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check validity of the ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check validity of the inside information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 Cavalry, 400 soldiers sent </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Battle of Guadalete <ul><ul><li>7000 military personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean time Roderic hears about the invasion on the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roderic was fighting the Basques in the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was called back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved in with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 soldiers :: Arab Source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>187,000 soldiers :: Ad Sebastianum version of the Chronicle of Alfonso III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33,000 :: One Modern source disregards all of the above !!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roderic’s approach news received by the muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariq requests for reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim Soldiers praying and scholars reinforcing faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musa ibn Nusair sends Turaif ibn Malik with 5000 soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could not gather more than this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result of Dawah and recruitment from rest of the Caliphate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. <ul><li>No matching armour for muslims or cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims were faster than the Visigoths </li></ul><ul><li>8 day fight </li></ul><ul><li>Hit & Run tactic </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies of Roderigo left the battle field and this was a big cavalry that opened a gap </li></ul><ul><li>Tariq sought out Roderigo and killed him </li></ul><ul><li>IBERIA now has power vacuum </li></ul>Battle of Guadalete :: Begins <ul><li>Mental state of a believing Muslim Army </li></ul><ul><li>Armour of the Visigoth Army </li></ul>
    • 24. Expansion of Andalus
    • 25. French Expansion & Period of Conspiracies
    • 26. And The Hero Comes Along <ul><li>Abd ar-Rahman Al-Dakhil : aka Abd ar-Rahman I </li></ul><ul><li>Escaped Abbasid persecution @ 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Saw his own brother killed in front of his eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Calls all Umayyads and starts recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Andalus called him :: H e is 19 years old now </li></ul><ul><li>He was unwilling to fight muslim brothers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was reminded of Surah Al-Hujurat, 49 : 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahih International : And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Umayyad Empire of Cordoba <ul><li>138H wins over Andalus </li></ul><ul><li>Unites all of Al Andalusia </li></ul><ul><li>Nation Building Starts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renovates Cordoba Mosque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds the Cordoba Library :: 500,000 books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces Court System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to sewage and water system to suburban house with hot and cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Weapon factory @ Toledo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Haram Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced Shura System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caliph was found among the people mixing without guards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died @ 171H (788 AD) </li></ul></ul>
    • 28. The Second Decline
    • 29. Chaos :: The King of Pop
    • 30. Hero Comes Along <ul><li>Abd al-Rahman III :: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandson of Abd ar-Rahman I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He was orphaned @ 3 weeks old </li></ul>
    • 31. Abd al-Rahman III :: First Step <ul><li>Replaced corrupted leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Established Shura of the Scholars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection for Scholars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established Shariah </li></ul><ul><li>Recaptures Umar ibn Hafsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt with 3 Major attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leons / North Christian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatimaids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umar ibn Hafsoon </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement <ul><li>Establish FedEx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same day or next day delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish specialized shopping center </li></ul><ul><li>Establish specialized Ministries </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered Paper production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XEROX revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female Translation movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female Scribe movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andalusia Female Scribing was popular in the World </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish Search Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary Math & Architectural leap </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Modern Hospital of the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced Medicine with Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice of Herbal Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY State of the Art Surgery </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 34. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 35. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 36. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 37. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 38. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System
    • 39. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System & Agriculture
    • 40. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Water System & Agriculture
    • 41. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Wind Mill
    • 42. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Paper System
    • 43. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Xerox System
    • 44. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Pump or Engine System
    • 45. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Mosque of Cordoba
    • 46. Abd al-Rahman III :: Social Improvement Mosque of Cordoba
    • 47. Other Muslim Development of the Time Optics :: Ibn Haytham
    • 48. Other Muslim Development of the Time Ophthalmology :: Hunayn Ibn Ishaq
    • 49. Other Muslim Development of the Time Ophthalmology :: Hunayn Ibn Ishaq
    • 50. Other Muslim Development of the Time Surgery :: Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi
    • 51. Other Muslim Development of the Time Physiology :: Mansur Ibn Ilyas
    • 52. Other Muslim Development of the Time Pulmonary Circulation :: Ibn al-Nafis
    • 53. Other Andalusian Development Gliding :: Ibn Firnas
    • 54. Other Muslim Development of the Time Solar Eclipse :: Al Biruni
    • 55. Other Muslim Development of the Time Watch System :: Al Biruni
    • 56. Other Muslim Development of the Time Pump System :: Al Jazar
    • 57. Other Muslim Development of the Time Pump System :: Al Jazar
    • 58. Other Muslim Development of the Time Pump System :: Al Jazar
    • 59. Abd al-Rahman III :: Summary <ul><li>Al Andalus united in 16 years </li></ul><ul><li>Super power of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars from all over the world migrated here </li></ul><ul><li>European countries started sending scholars to study in Cordoba </li></ul><ul><li>200+ ships in the Naval Force </li></ul><ul><li>Other nations willingly paid Jiziya for protection </li></ul>
    • 60. Al Hakam II :: Progress Continues <ul><li>Abd al-Rahman III dies @ 72y </li></ul><ul><li>Al Hakam II takes over power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Umayyad Library @ Toledo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600,000+ books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cordoba Library still held 500,000+ books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced public education system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free school for low income people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U of C founded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, scholars pay increased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted to another scholar migration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 61. Hisham II :: Al Mansur Era <ul><li>Started working on behalf of Hisham II </li></ul><ul><li>Got rid of Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Married daughter of Army Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidentally kills the Army Leader !!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mystery of the Caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>He and his family ruled while Hisham II chilled in the castle </li></ul><ul><li>Moved capital </li></ul>
    • 62. Decline Again <ul><li>Mohammad II wins over from Al-Mansur family </li></ul><ul><li>Division over the next 23 years out of which emerged approximately two dozen Taifa (Independent Islamic Kingdom) States </li></ul><ul><li>422H (1031AD) Hisham III, the last Umayyad Caliph disappears </li></ul><ul><li>Al Andalus is now full of Taifa States </li></ul><ul><li>Each other allying with Christian states to overcome the other Taifa States </li></ul>
    • 63. Decline Again :: Taifa States
    • 64. Hero Comes Along :: Al Murabitoun <ul><li>Yahya ibn Ibrahim </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from Muritania </li></ul><ul><li>Youth of the region saves the day </li></ul><ul><li>Al Murabitoun Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>478 – 543 H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1086 – 1149 AD </li></ul></ul>
    • 65. Hero Comes Along :: Al Murabitoun <ul><li>Muritania </li></ul>
    • 66.  
    • 67.  
    • 68.  
    • 69.  
    • 70. Hero Comes Along :: Al Murabitoun <ul><li>Al Murabitoun Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>478 – 543 H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1086 – 1149 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yusuf ibn Tashfin lea ds </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Zallaqa </li></ul>
    • 71. End Starts :: Al Andalus <ul><li>Al Muwahidoun Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>544 – 608 H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1150 – 1212 AD </li></ul></ul>
    • 72. End Starts :: Al Andalus Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
    • 73. End Starts :: Al Andalus <ul><li>Emirate of Granada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>633 – 887 H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1236 - 1482 AD </li></ul></ul>
    • 74. End Starts :: Al Andalus
    • 75. End Starts :: Al Andalus Emirate of Granada :: 1228 - 1492
    • 76. End Starts :: Al Andalus Granada War
    • 77. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 78. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 79. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 80. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 81. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 82. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 83. Al Andalus :: Map Summary
    • 84. Spanish Inquisition <ul><li>Isabella with help of Church commands that God wants Spain to be purified </li></ul><ul><li>Either convert to Catholicism or die </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslims did sham conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were called Moriscos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews were the most tortured after the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>975H (1568 AD) :: King Philip II introduces law prohibiting Arabic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1017H (1609 AD) :: King Philip III issues Act of Expulsion for the Entire remaining Moriscos. </li></ul><ul><li>1017H (1609 AD) :: Last remaining Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula were expelled </li></ul>
    • 85. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 86. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 87. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 88. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 89. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 90. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 91. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique
    • 92. Spanish Inquisition :: Interrogation Technique

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