Islam - Fiqh of Food - Halal & Haram

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- Courtesy of Al-Maghrib Class "Precious Provision"
- Brief discussion of Fiqh of Food in light of Quran, Sunnah & the four Imams' Interpretation.

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  • Why Halal ?- Simply because it is the Devine Decree and a believer abides by it with/without the understanding of the wisdom/reason behind it. This is the Faith and/or the test of the Faith.Wisdom / Reason => it is sometimes explained in the Devince Decree=> found in the knowledge of the time=> eventually found
  • Surah Al-Ma'idah 5, Ayat 3 – 5 :: Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.They ask you, [O Muhammad], what has been made lawful for them. Say, "Lawful for you are [all] good foods and [game caught by] what you have trained of hunting animals which you train as Allah has taught you. So eat of what they catch for you, and mention the name of Allah upon it, and fear Allah." Indeed, Allah is swift in account.This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. And whoever denies the faith – his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.
  • Surah Al-Ma'idah 5, Ayat 3 – 5 :: Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.They ask you, [O Muhammad], what has been made lawful for them. Say, "Lawful for you are [all] good foods and [game caught by] what you have trained of hunting animals which you train as Allah has taught you. So eat of what they catch for you, and mention the name of Allah upon it, and fear Allah." Indeed, Allah is swift in account.This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. And whoever denies the faith – his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.
  • Surah an-Nahl 16, Ayat 114 – 115 :: Then eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And be grateful for the favor of Allah, if it is [indeed] Him that you worship. He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.Surah al-An'am 6, Ayat 145 :: Say, "I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it unless it be a dead animal or blood spilled out or the flesh of swine – for indeed, it is impure – or it be [that slaughtered in] disobedience, dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], then indeed, your Lord is Forgiving and Merciful."
  • Ibn Kathir – Story of the ProphetsWhen the time drew near to breathe the spirit into Adam, as Allah the Almighty decreed, He commanded the angels: 'When I breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him." Allah breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: "Say all praise belongs to Allah." Adam repeated: "All praise belongs to Allah." Allah said to him: "Your Lord has granted you mercy." When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: Man is created of haste. Surah 21: 37
  • Surah Baqarah 2, Ayat 35And We said, "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.“Surah Ta-Ha, Ayat 118In the garden you will never go hungry, feel naked...” [Ta-Ha: 118]Surah Al A’raf, Ayat 27O ye Children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you, in the same manner as He got your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their raiment, to expose their shame: for he and his tribe watch you from a position where ye cannot see them: We made the evil ones friends (only) to those without faith. [Al A‘raf: 27]
  • Doubtfull MattersProphet (saw) said :: 'Both legal and illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (suspicious) things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honor. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he is liable to get in it. [ SahihBukhari ]
  • Self ControlSahihBukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, Number 481 :: It has been related on the authority of SahlibnSa'd, that the Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever can guarantee what is between his jaws and what is between his legs, I guarantee him the Garden.“
  • On the authority of Abu Hurairah, who said : I heared the messenger of Allah say :: "What I have forbidden to you, avoid; what I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. It was only their excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their prophets that destroyed those who were before you." [related buBukhari and Muslim]  On the authority of Al-Hasan bin Ali, the grandson of the messenger of Allah, who said : I memorized from the messenger of Allah his saying : "Leave that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt." [ narrated by Tirmidhi and Nasaee]  On the authority of Abu Hurairah, who said : The messenger of Allah said :: "Part of someone's being a good Muslim is his leaving alone that which does not concern him." [ hadith narrated by Tirmidhi]  Jaabir (RadiyallaahuAnhu) narrates that Rasulullah (SallallaahuAlaihiWaSallam) said, “No meat (i.e. person) that was nourished with haraam will enter paradise. Every meat (i.e. person) that was nourished with haraam is more deserving of the Fire.” (Musnad Ahmad, Baihaqi)
  • Worship Void unless HalalAbu Hurairah (RadiyallaahuAnhu) narrates that Rasulullah (SallallaahuAlaihiwaSallam) said, “Verily, Allah is Pure and He only accepts pure, and indeed Allah commanded the Believers what He commanded the Messengers. He said: ‘O Messengers, eat of the pure things and perform righteous acts. Verily, I am Well-Aware of what you do.’ And He said ‘O you who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided you with, and give thanks to Allah if Him it is that you serve.’ Then the narrator of the hadith says: Then he (i.e. the Prophet) made mention of a man who is constantly in journeys and has dishevelled hair and dusty appearance (due to constant journeys for performing acts of righteousness such as Hajj, Umra, seeking knowledge etc.) and he raises his hands towards the sky saying “O my Rabb. O my Rabb”. But his food is from haraam. His drink is from haraam. His clothes are from haraam. He is nourished from haraam. How can it (his prayer) be accepted?” (Muslim)
  • Surah Al-Ma'idah 5, Ayat 3 - 5Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience….. They ask you, [O Muhammad], what has been made lawful for them. Say, "Lawful for you are [all] good foods and [game caught by] what you have trained of hunting animals which you train as Allah has taught you. So eat of what they catch for you, and mention the name of Allah upon it, and fear Allah." Indeed, Allah is swift in account.
  • Surah Al-Ma'idah 5, Ayat 3 - 5…. This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. And whoever denies the faith – his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.
  • Take Allah’s nameEat with Your Right HandEat with 3 fingersEat from that which is Close to YouEat from the Corner not the CenterEat from Common PlateWiping the Plate & Fingers cleanWashing Hands Before & After
  • Be generous with FoodDo not Criticize Food even if You do not like itPraising Allah AfterwardsMake Du’a for the HostControl your BelchingDo not do IttikaDrink with 3 sipsDo not breathe into the cup that is common for allDrinking while standing
  • DomesticatedWildPredatoryNon-Predatory
  • Cattles (cows, sheep, goat, camels, llamas)Gazelles, deer, antelopes, etcWild BovinesZebrasThe Prophet (SAW) passed by a group of people who were cooking donkey in the conquest of Makkah. He asked them, “What meat is this?” They replied, “This is donkey meat.” The Prophet (SAW) said, “Allah and His Messenger have prohibited al Humur al ahliyah and have allowed al humur al washiyah.‖ [Muslim] Al humur al ahliyah is donkey and al humur al washiya is zebra (This hadith has been commonly mistranslated)RabbitsNarrated Anas: We chased a rabbit at Mar-al-Zahran and the people ran after it but were exhausted. I overpowered and caught it, and gave it to Abu Talha who slaughtered it and sent its hip or two thighs to Allah's Apostle. (The narrator confirms that he sent two thighs). The Prophet accepted that. (The sub-narrator asked Anas, "Did the Prophet; eat from it?" Anas replied, "He ate from it.") [Bukhari, 746]
  • All Types of pigs and all that directly derived from it.All typed of dogs. Exception Maliki school, it is Makruh.Donkeys Domesticated Donkeys and donkeys in general made haram in the battle of Khaibar.SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 405:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 429:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 430:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 431:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 432:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 433:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 434:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 435:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 436:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 437 SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 405:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 429:Mules
  • HorseHanafi :: HaramSurah Nahl :: 016.008 :: Sahih International: And [He created] the horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride and [as] adornment. And He creates that which you do not know.Maliki, Shafi & Hanbali :: HalalAt the time of the Prophet SAW, the Sahaba (companions) use to sacrifice horses in Madina in a public manner. Since the Prophet SAW did not object, this can be used as a silent hadith. Also following hadith references.SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 398:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 433:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 400:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 406:SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 418:many more ……..
  • Predators with Fangs Every predator that has fangs is haram because Abu Tha‟laba narrated: Allah's Messenger forbade the eating of the meat of beasts having fangs. (Bukhari: 438)  The Malikis say that it is not haram but makruh. Animal that is Mustakhbath Examples: scorpions, snakes, rats, mice, monkeys of all types, hedgehog, porcupine, squirrels, etc. Mustakhbathmeans anything that is considered disgusting. Allay says: Surah Al-Araf :: 007.157 :: Sahih International: Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel, who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them. So they who have believed in him, honored him, supported him and followed the light which was sent down with him – it is those who will be the successful. Based on this ayah, the Hanafi, Shafi, and Hanbali understood that every animal that you find disgusting is haram. (Note: what is disgusting is labeled by the Shariah, not the individual itself).  The Malikis said that the others have misunderstood the ayah. ―I have allowed that which is pure and I have forbidden that which is filthy” means that the halal is pure and the haram is filthy. It is not our prerogative to decide what is filthy and pure because Allah has told us what is halal and haram. Therefore the Malikis say that whatever is haram is filthy and there is no such thing as a disgusting animal.
  • A jallalahanimal is one that eats as its primary consumption something najas(filthy). The scholars say that the jallalahanimal is not allowed because  The Prophet forbade riding and drinking the milk of the camel, which feeds on filth.[So other animals will be the same i.e. cow, sheep, goat and so on in regard to drinking its milk] (Abu Dawud: 3778) Hadith :: Abu Dawood :: Book 21, Number 3776: Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) prohibited eating the animal which feeds on filth and drinking its milk. Book 21, Number 3777: Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) prohibited to drink the milk of the animal which feeds on filth. Book 21, Number 3778: Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) forbade riding the camel which feeds on filth and drinking its milk.  All the madhabs consider the jallalahanimal to be makruhand not haram. They differed on what is considered a jallalahanimal.  -Hanbalis and Hanafis: Majority of its food is najas -Shafis: change in its smell (sweat) and taste (milk) occurs NOTE :: To feed an animal najas is haram but to eat the animal is not haram
  • Elephants It depends on whether the tusks are classified as fangs or not. Majority of scholars say that the elephant is haram because it has fangs. However, we now know that the elephant is a docile creature and not a predator, and the tusks are not fangs. This shows cultural effects upon our own scholars. At the time, the elephant was looked at a predator and a beast and on top of that the scholars did not visit Africa where the elephants resided. Hyena Many scholars (standard Hanbali and Shafi position) say that they are allowed because they are scavengers and not predators. Imam Hanafi says it is haram. Fox The majority of scholars said that it is haram because it has fangs. Imam Shafi said that they are halal because foxes are not predators. The hadith says ―every predator that has fangs”; therefore, there are two conditions: 1) predator and 2) fangs. Foxes are known for snatching chickens. Dabb Khālid b. al-Walīd narrated that the Messenger of Allah entered upon Maymūnah along with him, and Maymūnah was his [Khālid‟s] maternal aunt, and the maternal aunt of IbnʿAbbās, and found that she had some roasted lizard that her sister Hafīdah bint al-Hārith had brought from Najd. She offered the lizard to the Messenger of Allah, and [it was his habit] that he would rarely stretch forth his hand to food until he had been told what it was. The Messenger of Allah stretched forth his hand, then one of the women (Hafiza) who were present said, “Tell the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that what has been offered to him is the dab”. The Prophet withdrew his hand from the lizard. So Khalid b. al-Walid asked, “Is it prohibited, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “No, but it is not found in the land of my people, and so I find myself having no need for it.” Khalid said, “Then I chewed it and ate it, and the Messenger of Allah was looking at me.” (Narrated by al-Bukhārī:5085 and Muslim)
  • Fish :: Allah praises fish in the Quran in a way that He does not praise anything elseSurah Fatir :: 035.012 :: And not alike are the two bodies of water. One is fresh and sweet, palatable for drinking, and one is salty and bitter. And from each you eat tender meat and extract ornaments which you wear, and you see the ships plowing through [them] that you might seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.Surah Al-Maidah :: 005.096 :: Lawful to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you and the travelers, but forbidden to you is game from the land as long as you are in the state of ihram. And fear Allah to whom you will be gathered.
  • SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 401 :: Narrated Jabir :: We went out in a campaign and the army was called The Army of the Khabt, and Abu 'Ubaida was our commander. We were struck with severe hunger. Then the sea threw a huge dead fish called Al-'Anbar, the like of which had never been seen. We ate of it for half a month, and then Abu 'Ubaida took one of its bones (and made an arch of it) so that a rider could easily pass under it. SahihBukhari :: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 402 :: Narrated Jabir: :: The Prophet sent us as an army unit of three hundred warriors under the command of Abu 'Ubaida to ambush a caravan of the Quraish. But we were struck with such severe hunger that we ate the Khabt (desert bushes), so our army was called the Army of the Khabt. Then the sea threw a huge fish called Al-'Anbar and we ate of it for half a month and rubbed our bodies with its fat till our bodies became healthy. Then Abu Ubaida took one of its ribs and fixed it over the ground and a rider passed underneath it. There was a man amongst us who slaughtered three camels when hunger became severe, and he slaughtered three more, but after that Abu 'Ubaida forbade him to do so.
  • lobster, octopus, shrimp, etc :: The Hanafis use the mustakhbath rule. They found everything besides fish and whales to be mustakbath. The Shafis and Hanbalis, however, said there is not mustakhbath rule for animals in sea because Allah says:Lawful to you is the game of the sea and its food, a provision for you and for the travellers, and the game of the land is forbidden to you so long as you are on pilgrimage, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, to Whom you shall be gathered. (Al-Maidah: 96)Hadith of the sailor coming to the Prophet. The sailor said, ―O Messenger of Allah, I am a sailor and sometimes we run out of water. Can we make wudu with salty water?‖ The Prophet gave a general rule and said, ―Its water is pure and its dead is halal to eat.‖ You can make wudu with ocean water even if you have fresh water. The sailor did not ask about seafood, but the Prophet gave the verdict anyway. Based upon this hadith, the Prophet said ―its dead is allowed.‖ The three madhabs say that ―its dead‖ refers to anything in the ocean.
  • The Malikis, Hanbalis & Shafis said that those animals whose ―land-equivalent‖ are prohibited are also prohibited. This is an opinion within the latter two madhabs. Examples include sea-dog seal, sea-pig dolphin. The Hanafis said that sharks have fangs and so it is haram but the fang rule does not apply to sea because the ocean is halal.
  • Animals that live on shore such as crabs, turtles and sealsHanafi position :: none of these animals is permitted. There is no evidence to permit it. Maliki position :: all such animals are allowed. Shafi and Hanbali position :: blood-flowing animals require slaughter, rest are permitted, except frogs (and crocodiles) for the Hanbalis. The Hanafis said that sharks have fangs and so it is haram but the fang rule does not apply to sea because the ocean is halal.
  • The Shafis and Hanbalis considered frogs to be impermissible based upon an exception. Hanafis say mustakhbath and Malikis say that it is halal. Abd al-Rahmaanibn „Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him), according to which a doctor asked the Prophet (saw) about using frogs in medicine, and the Prophet (saw) forbade killing them. (Abu- Dawood: 5269)  Also, the Prophet forbade the killing of frogs and said that their croaking is tasbih. If every animal makes tasbih, then how are we allowed to kill animals and not the frog? Response: This is an exception and we do not ask why.
  • Prohibited Birds that hunt with talons Talons are the claws that the bird hunts with. The Malikis consider them to be makruh.  Other scholars say it is haram because Ibn „Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade every wild animal with fangs and every bird with talons. (Muslim: 1934). Birds that feed off carrion The three madhabsdefine the mustakhbathbird as one that eats carrion.  The Hanafis, Shafis, and Hanbalis consider it haram to eat large black crows and speckled crows, which are both types that usually eat only carrion, so they are abhorrent to those of a sound nature. This type also include vulture, because they only eat carrion, even though they do not have talons with which they catch prey
  • The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade killing four kinds of animals: ants, bees, hoopoes and sparrow-hawks. (Abu Dawud: 5267 and IbnMajaah: 3224).
  • Land vermin is everything else such as insects, rats, snakes, lizards, etc LOCUSTSAllowed by unanimous consensus.:: Narrated IbnAbiAufa: We participated with the Prophet in six or seven Ghazawat, and we used to eat locusts with him. (Bukhari, 403)
  •  Majority of scholars prohibited or considered them makruh (mustakhbat) Maliki’s considered most permissible.Imam al-Nawawi said that land insects are haram. This is the view of Hanafis, Hanbalis, and Dhahiris. Imam Malik, however, consider them halal. IbnHazm said that it is not permissible to eat geckos, wasps, worms, flies, bed bugs, etc. because Allah has forbidden everything that is khabeeth. When Imam Malik was asked by some people of North Africa about eating a snail, he replied, ―This is the same as the locust, so I do not think there is anything wrong with eating it.‖ This shows that he considered it to be permissible.
  • DabhNahr These animals must be slaughtered either by the method of dhabh or nahr. Dhabh is done about the adam‘s apply, closer to the throat. Nahr is done above the collar bone. The difference is half an inch in goats and three feet in camels.Nahr is done for the camel. Dhabh is done to other domesticated animals. However, nahr can also be used—its just a matter of what is most comfortable and convenient.
  •  Non-predatory are usually hunted. For example a deer which is not under your control. Hunting is a concession—you shoot any part of the body and the animal bleeds to dead. This is a concession because you cannot physically have the animal in your hand to do dhabh.  Hunting is a separate chapter of fiqhwhich we will not discuss in deal here. Allah says :: They ask you as to what is allowed to them. Say: The good things are allowed to you, and what you have taught the beasts and birds of prey, training them to hunt-- you teach them of what Allah has taught you-- so eat of that which they catch for you and mention the name of Allah over it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is swift in reckoning. [Māʾidah: 4]Who is allowed to hunting ? A person in the state of ihram is forbidden from hunting. Also, people of religions other than the Abrahamic religions are not allowed to hunt for us. With what one may hunt ? Scholars agree that you can hunt with a dog, birds, and sharp instruments (i.e., kill by bleeding and not by weight). You cannot beat an animal to death or starve them to death. Animals traps are forbidden in Islam. A bullet is allowed because it pierces and bleeds. Scholars different over black dogs. Characteristics of a trained dog ? The books of fiqhdiscuss dog training because Allah says in the Quran that you can hunt with a trained dog. The scholars of fiqhthen have to clarify what constitutes a trained dog. Simply rule: if you tell your dog to stop eating and it stops eating, then it is a trained dog. The dog has to hunt for you and not for itself.
  • Intelligence or Niyah Religion of the one who Slaughters Instrument used to Slaughter Veins that need to be cutTasmiya First Opinion :: Hanafi Position Second Opinion :: Maliki & Hanbali Position Third Opinion :: Shafi Position
  • First Opinion :: Obligatory in every CircumstancesHanafi PositionSacrifice is an act of a worship, so Allah’s name needs to be taken and intended to be for AllahStrictness of Tasmiya shown while hunting then when in a position of ease why Tasmiya will be relaxedTasmiya was still present in Pre-Islamic times in ArabiaShaytan eats from food on which Allah’s name has not been takenSecond Opinion :: Obligatory to mention Allah’s Name but forgiven if accidentally forgottenMaliki & Hanbali PositionThird Opinion :: Mentioning Allah’s Name is MustahabShafi Position
  • Religion of the one sacrificing. In European countries, it is not safe to extrapolate and say that they are all Christians. They have a high percentage of atheists and agnostics. They do not have large number of immigrants working in their meat factories. Therefore, for European countries, this is a huge factor. In America, we can assume that the people working in these plants are Christian. State of animal as instrument cuts throat. By and large, we an assume that chicken passes this test because the voltage level is low and only stuns it. When it comes to livestock, 20-40% are dead before the knife reaches the throat. Therefore, poultry is halal and beef is haram. Mentioning Allah‘s name. The three madhahibsay that it is a condition. Ritual slaughters are only done by the Muslims and orthodox Jews. Cleanliness of the animal itself. Even if the animal is fed najasor has hormones, the majority of scholars say that it is makruhand not haram.
  • SlaughteringThough the bloodiness is not soothing to the eye but it is more humane to the animalAnimal becomes unconscious as there is blood supply to the brainTest has shown no brain activity or response of painBody & musle convulsion help to get rid of blood from the bodyAllows for draining most of the blood outCauses no damaging or harmful effects to the quality of the meat
  • “Religious Slaughter and Animal Welfare: A Discussion for Meat Scientists," by Temple Grandin and Joe M. Regenstein, Meat Focus International (March 1994), pages 115-123Dr. Temple Grandin, an expert on livestock handling facilities and a professor of animal science at Colorado State University, has witnessed ritual slaughter many times while inspecting and advising kosher slaughterhouses. She notes on her website: “When the cut is done correctly, the animal appears not to feel it. From an animal welfare standpoint, the major concern during ritual slaughter are the stressful and cruel methods of restraint (holding) that are used in some plants."
  • Professor Wilhelm Schulze from the School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover University in Germany, conducted a study with his colleagues from 1974 to 1978 titled "Attempts to Objectify Pain and Consciousness in Conventional (captive bolt pistol stunning) and Ritual (knife) Methods of Slaughtering Sheep and Calves""these experiments on sheep and calves carried out within a clinic show that during a ritual slaughter, carried out according to the state of the art using hydraulically operated tilting equipment and a ritual cut, pain and suffering to the extent as has since long been generally associated in public with this kind of slaughter cannot be registered." However, the study notes that the "objective results presented for the captive bolt application in sheep (..) rather (..) indicates that the captive bolt device used is suspect" and that these initial "scientific findings and the results presented are only a very first contribution" and that they "need to be followed as a high priority by further investigations in the continuation of the scientific clarification of the issues of loss of pain and consciousness during slaughter of this kind with and without stunning using the same experimental approach with a representative number of grown cows of various breeds."
  • Why no Pork ? Scavenger & Omnivorous  What it eats ends up in the flesh If food cannot be strictly controlled, impurity of the food & environment will be in the body. i.e swine flue50% Fat, 25% protein Digestive system similar to Human
  • General Guideline :: Whatever intoxicates in large quantities is prohibited in small quantities. Pure Alchohol (Without the OH bond)) does not intoxicateEhtylAlchohol intoxicates Difference of opinion on, is Alchohol pure or impure
  • Surah Al-Ma'idah 5, Ayat 90 – 91 :: O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful. Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist?Surah al-Baqarah 2, Ayat 219 :: They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is beyond your needs." Thus Allah makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought."Surah an-Nisa 4, Ayat 43 :: O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.
  • “O you who believe! intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness (rijs), the Shayṭan‟s work; shun it therefore that you may be successful” [al-Māʿida: 90].The command to wash dishes of AhlKitābbecause they eat pig and drink wine. :: ―O Messenger of Allah, we live in a land of Jews and Christians, can we use their utensils?” The Prophet said that if you do not have any other choice, then wash them first. The Majority say that the Prophet told us this because they eat pork and drink wine.Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: "God‟s curse falls on ten groups of people who deal with alcohol. The one who distills it, the one for whom it has been distilled, the one who drinks it, the one who transports it, the one to who it has been brought, the one whom serves it, the one who sells it, the one who utilizes money from it, the one who buys it and the one who buys it for someone else." (SunanIbn-I-Majah: 3380). In Jannah, Allah describes wine as, ―And their Lord will give them a ṭahūrdrink‖ [al-Insān:21]. The wine of Jannah does not intoxicate. Tahurmeans pure and purifying (highest level of purity).
  • This is the position of very minority throughout our history. Each person who held this opinion is a heavy-weightThe base ruling is that all things are pure unless explicit evidence otherwise; there is no explicit evidence hereResponse to proof 1:rijsmeans spiritually filthy and not physically filthy. Gambling poker chips are not najas, idols are not physically najas, arrows are not physically najas.  Response to proof 2: If you can taste the wine, it is haram to ingest. The two are not the same: not every haram is najas, but it may be haram for you to eat it. Poison is haram but not najas.  Response to proof 3: idolatry is prohibited more than drinking alcohol and idols are not najas. Just because something is haram, it does not make it najas. Every najasis haram, but not every haram is najas.  Response to proof 4: the wine of Jannah is tahur, and the wine of this world is tahir. Action of the Companions in pouring wine into the streets of Madinah. They say that when khamrwas prohibited in Madinah, they broke the wine bottles and spilled it into the streets, and people would walk over it for days. Are you allowed to throw najasin the street where people walk? No. If khamrhad been najas, would the sahabahhave been allowed to discard it where people walk? The very fact they discarded it in the streets and not in the restroom area or the trash area is evidence that the sahabahdid not think of alcohol as being najas.
  • Wisdom / ReasonSome Good Affects but Ambiguous- Observation study showed little (doctors do not have measure) drinking is good for teeth, heart, blood cholestoral, etc.Major Bad Affects- not in control of consciousness- possibility of alcoholism- social impact on family & community
  • Reuters :: Nov 1st, 2010 :: According to the scale, devised by a group of scientists including Britain's Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD) and an expert adviser to the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), heroin and crack cocaine rank as the second and third most harmful drugs."It is intriguing to note that the two legal drugs assessed -- alcohol and tobacco -- score in the upper segment of the ranking scale, indicating that legal drugs cause at least as much harm as do illegal substances," Nutt, who was formerly head of the influential British Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), said in a statement about the study.The scientists found alcohol was most harmful, with a score of 72, followed by heroin with 55 and crack with 54.Among some of the other drugs assessed were crystal meth (33), cocaine (27), tobacco (26), amphetamine or speed (23), cannabis (20), benzodiazepines, such as Valium (15), ketamine (15), methadone (14), mephedrone (13), ecstasy (9), anabolic steroids (9), LSD (7) and magic mushrooms (5).
  • This is the position of very minority throughout our history. Each person who held this opinion is a heavy-weightThe base ruling is that all things are pure unless explicit evidence otherwise; there is no explicit evidence hereResponse to proof 1:rijsmeans spiritually filthy and not physically filthy. Gambling poker chips are not najas, idols are not physically najas, arrows are not physically najas.  Response to proof 2: If you can taste the wine, it is haram to ingest. The two are not the same: not every haram is najas, but it may be haram for you to eat it. Poison is haram but not najas.  Response to proof 3: idolatry is prohibited more than drinking alcohol and idols are not najas. Just because something is haram, it does not make it najas. Every najasis haram, but not every haram is najas.  Response to proof 4: the wine of Jannah is tahur, and the wine of this world is tahir. Action of the Companions in pouring wine into the streets of Madinah. They say that when khamrwas prohibited in Madinah, they broke the wine bottles and spilled it into the streets, and people would walk over it for days. Are you allowed to throw najasin the street where people walk? No. If khamrhad been najas, would the sahabahhave been allowed to discard it where people walk? The very fact they discarded it in the streets and not in the restroom area or the trash area is evidence that the sahabahdid not think of alcohol as being najas.
  • Summary- Eat permissible food that are good for you- Animals are to be slaughtered and cannot be dead before slaughtering- Animals cannot be killed/slaughtered with blunt object- Permissible foods are allowed from the People of The Book (Jews & Christians)- All of the above permissible food is impermissible if slaughtered for other than One God (Muslims, Jews & Christians)- Explicitly mentioned dead flesh, blood and swine are imperssible and unclean
  • The End
  • Islam - Fiqh of Food - Halal & Haram

    1. 1. Simply because it is the Devine Decree and abeliever abides by it with/without theunderstanding of the wisdom/reason behind it.This is the Faith and/or the test of the Faith. it is sometimes explained in the Devine Decree found in the knowledge of the time eventually found

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