Final RitesBrief discussion on Birth process, Sickness, Pre/During & Post Death Rites
Contents1    Birth...........................................................................................................
3.1.2        Engage in Remembrance of Allah .................................................................... 10    3.2...
5.1.1.2      Time period ............................................................................................ 20  ...
1 Birth    1.1 Biological Source     1.1.1 Surah as-Sajjdah 32, Ayat 8          Muhsin Khan: Then He made his offspring fr...
1.2 Islamic Biological Process 1.2.1 40 – 42 Days :: Sperm drop ~ nut’fa         a) Allah sends an Angel to give form     ...
1.3 Stages of Sperm           1.3.1 Nutfa :: Zygote / morula           1.3.2 ‘Alaqa :: Blastocyst / Embryo           1.3.3...
2 Sickness       2.1 What a Patient needs to know         2.1.1 Sickness Expiates SinSahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, N...
2.2 Etiquettes of Visiting Sick           •   It his right upon you that you visit him           •   Give him comfort and ...
3 Final Moments       3.1 People Around         3.1.1 Turn him towards Qibla              Based on Sunnah         3.1.2 En...
4        Death                                                    Sahih International: Who, when disaster strikes them, sa...
4.1 Signs of good Death         4.1.1 MatyrdomNasaai 2065 ::Why do all believers undergo trials in the grave except the sh...
4.1.5 Types of Martyrdom                    1. Plague                    2. Death by Stomach Ailment                    3....
4.2 Cause of an Evil End 4.2.1 Incorrect Belief 4.2.2 Persistence in Sin 4.2.3 Curses of Parents 4.2.4 Oppression upon Oth...
4.3 The Ghusl         4.3.1 Conditions for the Obligation of Ghusl           4.3.1.1   Upon the One being Washed          ...
4.3.1.2   Upon the Washer                 a) Must be a MuslimThe reason being is that this is an act of worshipHanafi scho...
4.4 Shrouding         4.4.1 Requirements                   a) Sheets of Cloth:: White                         i.    Three ...
4.6 Burial       Burial of the Muslim is a communal obligation upon the Muslims       Males oversee the burial process and...
4.6.2 Burial Steps1. Enter deceased into grave from the direction of the qiblah or the legs first.2. Say “                ...
5 Post Death        5.1 Ta’ziyah ~ Condolence            5.1.1.1   Purpose   i.   Console the family of the deceased  ii. ...
5.2 Visiting the Graveyard                5.2.1.1      VirtueAllahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "I forbade you to ...
5.3 Benefitting the Dead        5.3.1 Matters Agreed Upon                 d) Righteous Recurring DeedsSahih Muslim :: Book...
5.3.2 Matters Differed Upon          j)   Recitation of the Noble Quran          k) Salah          l)   Voluntary Fast    ...
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Final Rites - I

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... What are the etiquette in times of Sickness, Last Moment & Death ? ... What can we do to benefit our passed away loved ones, even after their death ? ... Is our deceased loved one a Shaheed / Mrtyr ? ...

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Final Rites - I

  1. 1. Final RitesBrief discussion on Birth process, Sickness, Pre/During & Post Death Rites
  2. 2. Contents1 Birth........................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Biological Source ................................................................................................... 5 1.1.1 Surah as-Sajjdah 32, Ayat 8 ............................................................................. 5 1.1.2 Surah al-Qiyamah 75, Ayat 37 .......................................................................... 5 1.1.3 Surah al-Insan 76, Ayat 2 ................................................................................ 5 1.2 Islamic Biological Process ....................................................................................... 6 1.2.1 40 – 42 Days :: Sperm drop ~ nut’fa ................................................................. 6 a) Allah sends an Angel to give form .................................................................. 6 b) Surah as-Sajjdah 32, Ayat 9 .......................................................................... 6 c) Surah Abasa 80, Ayat 19 .............................................................................. 6 1.2.2 40 – 45 nights :: The Sperm drop falls in to the Uterus ........................................ 6 a) Male or Female ............................................................................................ 6 b) Will it be wretched or happy .......................................................................... 6 c) The sustenance ............................................................................................ 6 d) All has been written down ............................................................................. 6 1.2.3 120 days or 18th week :: Respiratory Circulation ................................................. 6 a) Angel is sent down to breathe in the Soul........................................................ 6 b) Respiratory kicks in ...................................................................................... 6 1.3 Stages of Sperm ................................................................................................... 7 1.3.1 Nutfa :: Zygote / morula .................................................................................. 7 1.3.2 ‘Alaqa :: Blastocyst / Embryo ........................................................................... 7 1.3.3 Mudgha :: Fetus.............................................................................................. 7 a) Surah Al-Hajj 22, Ayat 5 ............................................................................... 7 b) Surah Al-Mu’minun 23, Ayat 12 – 14 .............................................................. 7 c) Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 430 ............................................... 7 d) Sahih Bukhari Volume 8, Book 77, Number 594 ............................................... 72 Sickness ..................................................................................................................... 8 2.1 What a Patient needs to know ................................................................................. 8 2.1.1 Sickness Expiates Sin ...................................................................................... 8 2.1.2 Increase Remembrance in Allah ........................................................................ 8 2.1.3 Seek Medical Help ........................................................................................... 8 2.1.4 Hope for Recovery, Never Wish for Death ........................................................... 8 2.1.5 Write out a Wasiyah, if required ........................................................................ 8 2.1.6 Settle all Outstanding Debts ............................................................................. 8 2.2 Etiquettes of Visiting Sick ....................................................................................... 93 Final Moments ........................................................................................................... 10 3.1 People Around .................................................................................................... 10 3.1.1 Turn him towards Qibla .................................................................................. 10
  3. 3. 3.1.2 Engage in Remembrance of Allah .................................................................... 10 3.2 The Person ......................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1 Have hope in Allah’s Mercy ............................................................................. 10 3.2.2 Endeavour to say .......................................................................................... 104 Death ....................................................................................................................... 11 4.1 Signs of good Death ............................................................................................ 12 4.1.1 Matyrdom .................................................................................................... 12 4.1.2 Pronounce Testification .................................................................................. 12 4.1.3 Perspiration on the Brow ................................................................................ 12 4.1.4 Death on Friday ( Gharib ).............................................................................. 12 4.1.5 Types of Martyrdom ...................................................................................... 13 4.2 Cause of an Evil End ............................................................................................ 14 4.2.1 Incorrect Belief ............................................................................................. 14 4.2.2 Persistence in Sin .......................................................................................... 14 4.2.3 Curses of Parents .......................................................................................... 14 4.2.4 Oppression upon Others ................................................................................. 14 4.2.5 Geebah & Nameemah .................................................................................... 14 4.3 The Ghusl ........................................................................................................... 15 4.3.1 Conditions for the Obligation of Ghusl .............................................................. 15 4.3.1.1 Upon the One being Washed..................................................................... 15 a) Must be a Muslim ....................................................................................... 15 b) Must have been alive .................................................................................. 15 c) Must not be a Martyr .................................................................................. 15 4.3.1.2 Upon the Washer .................................................................................... 16 a) Must be a Muslim ....................................................................................... 16 b) Must be Sane ............................................................................................ 16 c) Likeness of the Sex .................................................................................... 16 4.4 Shrouding .......................................................................................................... 17 4.4.1 Requirements ............................................................................................... 17 4.4.2 Remember ................................................................................................... 17 4.5 Funeral Procession............................................................................................... 17 4.6 Burial................................................................................................................. 18 4.6.1 Types of Grave ............................................................................................. 18 4.6.1.1 The Pit ~ shaqq ...................................................................................... 18 4.6.1.2 The Niche ~ lahd (Preferred) .................................................................... 18 4.6.2 Burial Steps .................................................................................................. 195 Post Death ................................................................................................................ 20 5.1 Ta’ziyah ~ Condolence ......................................................................................... 20 5.1.1.1 Purpose ................................................................................................. 20
  4. 4. 5.1.1.2 Time period ............................................................................................ 20 5.1.1.3 Wordings ............................................................................................... 20 5.1.1.4 Help the Family....................................................................................... 20 5.1.1.5 Gathering at the House ? ......................................................................... 205.2 Visiting the Graveyard ......................................................................................... 21 5.2.1.1 Virtue .................................................................................................... 21 5.2.1.2 Why Visit ............................................................................................... 21 5.2.1.3 Supplication in the Graveyard ................................................................... 21 5.2.1.4 Women visiting the Graveyard .................................................................. 21 5.2.1.5 Recitation of the Qu’ran in the Graveyard ................................................... 21 5.2.1.6 Seeking aid from the inhabitant of the grave .............................................. 215.3 Benefitting the Dead ............................................................................................ 22 5.3.1 Matters Agreed Upon ..................................................................................... 22 d) Righteous Recurring Deeds .......................................................................... 22 e) Deeds of Righteous Children ........................................................................ 22 f) Settling Debts ............................................................................................ 22 g) Supplication .............................................................................................. 22 h) Charity ..................................................................................................... 22 i) Hajj or Umrah ............................................................................................ 22 5.3.2 Matters Differed Upon .................................................................................... 23 j) Recitation of the Noble Quran ...................................................................... 23 k) Salah ........................................................................................................ 23 l) Voluntary Fast ........................................................................................... 23 m) Slaughter .................................................................................................. 23 n) I’tikaaf ...................................................................................................... 23 o) Zikr .......................................................................................................... 23
  5. 5. 1 Birth 1.1 Biological Source 1.1.1 Surah as-Sajjdah 32, Ayat 8 Muhsin Khan: Then He made his offspring from semen of worthless water (male and female sexual discharge). Yusuf Ali: And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised: Sahih International: Then He made his posterity out of the extract of a liquid disdained. 1.1.2 Surah al-Qiyamah 75, Ayat 37 Muhsin Khan: Was he not a Nutfah (mixed male and female discharge of semen) poured forth? Yusuf Ali: Was he not a drop of sperm emitted (in lowly form)? Sahih International: Had he not been a sperm from semen emitted? 1.1.3 Surah al-Insan 76, Ayat 2 Muhsin Khan: Verily, We have created man from Nutfah drops of mixed semen (discharge of man and woman), in order to try him, so We made him hearer, seer. Yusuf Ali: Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. Sahih International: Indeed, We created man from a sperm-drop mixture that We may try him; and We made him hearing and seeing.
  6. 6. 1.2 Islamic Biological Process 1.2.1 40 – 42 Days :: Sperm drop ~ nut’fa a) Allah sends an Angel to give form 1. Hearing 2. Sight 3. Skin 4. Flesh 5. Skeleton b) Surah as-Sajjdah 32, Ayat 9 Muhsin Khan: Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul (created by Allah for that person), and He gave you hearing (ears), sight (eyes) and hearts. Little is the thanks you give! Yusuf Ali: But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding): little thanks do ye give! Sahih International: Then He proportioned him and breathed into him from His [created] soul and made for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful. c) Surah Abasa 80, Ayat 19 Muhsin Khan: From Nutfah (male and female semen drops) He created him, and then set him in due proportion; Yusuf Ali: From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then mouldeth him in due proportions; Sahih International: From a sperm-drop He created him and destined for him; 1.2.2 40 – 45 nights :: The Sperm drop falls in to the Uterus a) Male or Female b) Will it be wretched or happy c) The sustenance d) All has been written down 1.2.3 120 days or 18th week :: Respiratory Circulation a) Angel is sent down to breathe in the Soul b) Respiratory kicks in
  7. 7. 1.3 Stages of Sperm 1.3.1 Nutfa :: Zygote / morula 1.3.2 ‘Alaqa :: Blastocyst / Embryo 1.3.3 Mudgha :: Fetus a) Surah Al-Hajj 22, Ayat 5Sahih International: O People, if you should be in doubt about the Resurrection, then [consider that] indeed, Wecreated you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed andunformed – that We may show you. And We settle in the wombs whom We will for a specified term, then We bring youout as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity. And among you is he who is takenin [early] death, and among you is he who is returned to the most decrepit [old] age so that he knows, after [oncehaving] knowledge, nothing. And you see the earth barren, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and swells andgrows [something] of every beautiful kind. b) Surah Al-Mu’minun 23, Ayat 12 – 14Sahih International: And certainly did We create man from an extract of clay. Then We placed him as a sperm-drop ina firm lodging. Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a lump [of flesh], and Wemade [from] the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh; then We developed him into another creation. Soblessed is Allah, the best of creators. c) Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 430Narrated Abdullah bin Musud: Allahs Apostle, the true and truly inspired said, "(The matter of the Creation of) ahuman being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for asimilar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who is ordered to write four things.He is ordered to write down his (i.e. the new creatures) deeds, his livelihood, his (date of) death, and whether he will beblessed or wretched (in religion). Then the soul is breathed into him. So, a man amongst you may do (good deeds tillthere is only a cubit between him and Paradise and then what has been written for him decides his behavior and he startsdoing (evil) deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire. And similarly a man amongst you may do (evil) deeds tillthere is only a cubit between him and the (Hell) Fire, and then what has been written for him decides his behavior, and hestarts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise." d) Sahih Bukhari Volume 8, Book 77, Number 594Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "Allah puts an angel in charge of the uterus and the angel says, O Lord, (itis) semen! O Lord, (it is now ) a clot! O Lord, (it is now) a piece of flesh. And then, if Allah wishes to complete itscreation, the angel asks, O Lord, (will it be) a male or a female? A wretched (an evil doer) or a blessed (doer of good)?How much will his provisions be? What will his age be? So all that is written while the creature is still in the motherswomb."
  8. 8. 2 Sickness 2.1 What a Patient needs to know 2.1.1 Sickness Expiates SinSahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, Number 545:Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri and Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "No fatigue, nor disease, norsorrow, nor sadness, nor hurt, nor distress befalls a Muslim, even if it were the prick he receivesfrom a thorn, but that Allah expiates some of his sins for that." 2.1.2 Increase Remembrance in AllahSahih al Jaamil :: Treat your sick with charity. 2.1.3 Seek Medical HelpSunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 28, Number 3865:Narrated AbudDarda: The Prophet (saw) said: Allah has sent down both the disease and thecure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically, but usenothing unlawful. 2.1.4 Hope for Recovery, Never Wish for DeathSahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, Number 575:Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "None of you should wish for death because of acalamity befalling him; but if he has to wish for death, he should say: "O Allah! Keep me alive aslong as life is better for me, and let me die if death is better for me. " 2.1.5 Write out a Wasiyah, if requiredSunnah an-Nasai :: Hadith 3633Don’t let three nights pass without your wasiyah prepared with you. 2.1.6 Settle all Outstanding DebtsSahih Muslim :: Book 020, Number 4650:It has been reported on the authority of Amr b. al-As through a different chain of transmittersthat the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Death in the way of Allah blots outeverything except debt.
  9. 9. 2.2 Etiquettes of Visiting Sick • It his right upon you that you visit him • Give him comfort and hope of recovery • Mention words as belowSahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, Number 548:Narrated Abu Huraira: Allahs Apostle said, "If Allah wants to do good to somebody, He afflictshim with trials."Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, Number 579:Narrated Aisha: Whenever Allahs Apostle paid a visit to a patient, or a patient was brought tohim, he used to invoke Allah, saying, "Take away the disease, O the Lord of the people! Cure himas You are the One Who cures. There is no cure but Yours, a cure that leaves no disease."Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 7, Book 70, Number 566:Narrated Ibn Abbas: Allahs Apostle entered upon sick man to pay him a visit, and said to him,"Dont worry, Allah willing, (your sickness will be) an expiation for your sins." The man said, "No,it is but a fever that is boiling within an old man and will send him to his grave." On that, theProphet said, "Then yes, it is so." • Encourage and advise him • Don’t over stay the visit
  10. 10. 3 Final Moments 3.1 People Around 3.1.1 Turn him towards Qibla Based on Sunnah 3.1.2 Engage in Remembrance of Allah Many recommends the recitation of Surah Yaseen but the Hadiths are not free of weakness 3.2 The Person 3.2.1 Have hope in Allah’s Mercy a. Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 8, Book 76, Number 515:Narrated Abu Musa: The Prophet said, "Whoever loves the meeting with Allah, Allah too, loves themeeting with him; and whoever hates the meeting with Allah, Allah too, hates the meeting withhim." b. Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 9, Book 93, Number 596:Narrated Abu Huraira: Allahs Apostle said, "Allah said, I am to my slave as he thinks of Me, (i.e.I am able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him). (See Hadith No. 502) 3.2.2 Endeavour to say Abu Dawud :: Hadith 3118 ::
  11. 11. 4 Death Sahih International: Who, when disaster strikes them, say, "Indeed we 1) Say belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return." Surah Baqarah 2, Ayat 156 Sahih Muslim :: Book 004, Number 2000: Umm Salama, the wife of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him), reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: If any servant (of Allah) who suffers a calamity 2) Close his eyes and jaws says:" We belong to Allah and to Him shall we return; O Allah, reward me for my affliction and give me something better than it in exchange for it," Allah will give him reward for affliction, and would give him something better than it in exchange. She (Umm Salama) said: When Abu Salama died. I uttered (these very words) as I was commanded (to do) by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). So Allah gave me better in exchange than him. i. e. (I was taken as the wife of) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). 3) Loosen his Limbs Sahih Muslim :: Book 004, Number 2003: Umm Salama reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon came to Abu Salama (as he died). His eyes were fixedly open. He closed them, and then said: When the soul is taken away the sight follows it. Some of the people of his family wept and wailed. So he said: Do not supplicate for yourselves anything but good, for angels say" Amen" to what you say. He then said: O Allah, forgive Abu Salama, raise his degree among those who are rightly guided, grant him a successor in his descendants who remain. Forgive us and him, O Lord of the Universe, and make 4) Cover the entire body with a sheet his grave spacious, and grant him light in it. 5) Accept the will of Allah 6) Praise the deceased Sahih Muslim :: Book 020, Number 4650: It has been reported on the 7) Announce the death as to increase the authority of Amr b. al-As through a different chain of transmitters that the number of people at the funeral prayer Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Death in the way of Allah 8) Pass condolence to the family blots out everything except debt. 9) Hasten in burial preparations 10) Pay off debts as soon as possible Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3157: Narrated Aisha, Ummul Muminin: I saw the Apostle of Allah (saw) that he kissed Uthman ibn Mazun while he was dead, and I saw that tears were flowing (from his eyes). 11) Kissing the forehead is permissible Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3165: Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (saw) said: A bier should not be followed by a loud voice (of wailing) or fire. Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3125: Narrated A woman who took oath of allegiance: Usayd ibn AbuUsayd, reported on the authority of a woman who took oath of allegiance (to the Prophet): One of the oaths which the Apostle of Allah (saw) received from us about the virtue was that we would not disobey him in it (virtue): that we would not scratch the face, nor wail, nor tear 12) Crying is permitted the front of the garments nor dishevel the hair. Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3122: Narrated AbuSaid al- Khudri: The Apostle of Allah (saw) cursed the wailing woman and the woman who listens to her. • Remain at her home !!! • Avoid beautification • Reference 13) The wife of the deceased is now in the o Surah al-Baqarah 2, Ayat 234 state of mourning for four months and o Surah al-Baqarah 2, Ayat 240 ten days o Sahih Muslim, Book 9, Hadith 3547 o Sahih Muslim, Book 9, Hadith 3552 o Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 6, Number 310
  12. 12. 4.1 Signs of good Death 4.1.1 MatyrdomNasaai 2065 ::Why do all believers undergo trials in the grave except the shaheed ? “The swords above hishead were enough of a trial” 4.1.2 Pronounce TestificationSunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3118:”Whoever’s last words are laa ilaha illa Allah enters paradise” 4.1.3 Perspiration on the BrowAl-Tirmidhi Hadith - 503 ::Narrated Buraydah ibn al-Hasib :: Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "The believerdies with the sweat on his brow." Tirmidhi, Nasai and Ibn Majah transmitted it. 4.1.4 Death on Friday ( Gharib )Al-Tirmidhi Hadith - 414 ::Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr :: Allahs messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Any Muslim whodies on Friday or on Thursday night will be protected by Allah from the testing in the grave."
  13. 13. 4.1.5 Types of Martyrdom 1. Plague 2. Death by Stomach Ailment 3. Drowning 4. Trampled 5. Fire 6. At Childbirth 7. In Defense of Wealth 8. For Family 9. For Life 10. For Religion 11. Thrown from horse or camel 12. Dies on the his bed 13. Bitten by poisonous creature 14. Goes forth in Allah’s pathSunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3105:Narrated Jabir ibn Atik: The Apostle of Allah (saw) came to visit Abdullah ibn Thabit who was ill. He found that he wasdominated (by the divine decree). The Apostle of Allah (saw) called him loudly, but he did not respond.He uttered the Quranic verse "We belong to Allah and to Him do we return" and he said: We have been dominatedagainst you, AburRabi. Then the women cried and wept, and Ibn Atik began to silence them. The Apostle of Allah (saw)said: Leave them, when the divine decree is made, no woman should weep.They (the people) asked: What is necessary happening, Apostle of Allah? He replied: Death. His daughter said: I hope youwill be a martyr, for you have completed your preparations for jihad. The Apostle of Allah (saw) said: Allah Most Highgave him a reward according to his intentions. What do you consider martyrdom?They said: Being killed in the cause of Allah.The Apostle of Allah (saw) said: There are seven types of martyrdom in addition to being killed in Allahs cause: one whodies of plague is a martyr; one who is drowned is a martyr; one who dies of pleurisy is a martyr; one who dies of aninternal complaint is a martyr; one who is burnt to death is a martyr; who one is killed by a building falling on him is amartyr; and a woman who dies while pregnant is a martyr.Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 4, Book 52, Number 82:Narrated Abu Huraira: Allahs Apostle said, "Five are regarded as martyrs: They are those who die because of plague,abdominal disease, drowning or a falling building etc., and the martyrs in Allahs Cause."Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 40, Number 4754:Narrated Said ibn Zayd: The Prophet (saw) said: He who is killed while protecting his property is a martyr, and he who iskilled while defending his family, or his blood, or his religion is a martyr.Sunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 14, Number 2493:Narrated AbuMalik al-Ashari: AbuMalik heard the Apostle of Allah (saw) say: He who goes forth in Allahs path and dies oris killed is a martyr, or has his neck broken through being thrown by his horse or by his camel, or is stung by a poisonouscreature, or dies on his bed by any kind of death Allah wishes is a martyr and will go to Paradise.Sahih Muslim :: Book 020, Number 4695:It has been reported on the authority of Sahl b. Aba Umama b. Sahl b. Hunaif who learned the tradition from his fatherwho (in turn) learned it from his grandfather-that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who soughtmartyrdom with sincerity will be ranked by Allah among the martyrs even if he died on his bed. In his version of thetradition Abd Tahir did not mention the words:" with sincerity".
  14. 14. 4.2 Cause of an Evil End 4.2.1 Incorrect Belief 4.2.2 Persistence in Sin 4.2.3 Curses of Parents 4.2.4 Oppression upon Others 4.2.5 Geebah & Nameemah
  15. 15. 4.3 The Ghusl 4.3.1 Conditions for the Obligation of Ghusl 4.3.1.1 Upon the One being Washed a) Must be a MuslimIt is allowed for a Muslim to wash a non-muslim relative based upon the fact that Ali(R) washedhis father Abu Talib with the knowledge of the Messenger (R) b) Must have been aliveMajority of the scholars state that ghusl is for a child that has been born with the clear signs oflifeThe Hanbali scholars state that one gives ghusl to a child reaching into four months of pregnancy c) Must not be a MartyrSahih Bukhari :: Volume 2, Book 23, Number 430:Narrated Jabir: The Prophet said, "Bury them (i.e. martyrs) with their blood." (that was) On theday of the Battle of Uhud. He did not get them washed.This is only for the shaheed of battle and not those who are shaheed in rewardNB :: In the case where only a portion of the deceased is present, those portions are washed asnormal
  16. 16. 4.3.1.2 Upon the Washer a) Must be a MuslimThe reason being is that this is an act of worshipHanafi scholars permit non-muslim to wash a Muslim although it is disliked. b) Must be SaneAs this is an act of worship. It requires skill and attention c) Likeness of the SexIn general, males wash males and females wash females.Exceptions :: 1. Those under seven can be washed by either males or females 2. Wife washing the husband by consensus 3. Husband washing the wife according to majority of the scholars a. Prophet (saw) told Ayesha (Ra) that he will wash her, shroud her, pray over her and bury her. b. Ali (R) washed Fatima (Ra) c. Analogy upon the allowance of the wife to wash the husband d. By the fact that he is allowed to view her entire body which even other females are prohibited fromNB :: a) The persons requested in terms of a wasiyah are given preference in matters of ghusl b) If the washing cannot be performed for any specific reason, the deceased is given tayammum
  17. 17. 4.4 Shrouding 4.4.1 Requirements a) Sheets of Cloth:: White i. Three for Male ii. Five for FemaleNarrated AbudDarda :: Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "The best thing in whichto visit Allah in your graves and in your mosques in white." [ Tirmidhi :: Ibn Majah transmitted it ] b) Perfumes c) Cotton Wool d) Bands for tying the Shroud 4.4.2 Remember No literature should be entered into the shroud Applying kohl to the eyes should be avoided The one who passes away in the state of ihram is buried with the ihram without any perfuming It is permissible to set aside a shroud while you are living [Sahih Bukhari] It is allowed to kiss cheek or forehead of the deceased by those who were allowed during his life, before or after shrouding 4.5 Funeral Procession a) Following the procession is a communal obligation b) Amongst many rights a Muslim has upon another Muslim is following the funeral procession [Sahih Bukhari] c) Walking in front, behind or on the side of the bier is fine [Sunnah Abu Dawud] d) The head of the deceased should be at the front e) Hasten the funeral process. Prophet said, if he is righteous then you are taking him to goodness, if he is not then get the evil off your shoulders. [Sahih Bukhari] f) Funeral should not be accompanied by loud zikr and other innovations. Not found in classical traditions. g) Males follow the procession and not females
  18. 18. 4.6 Burial Burial of the Muslim is a communal obligation upon the Muslims Males oversee the burial process and not females Transportation from place/town/country to another. o Best avoided o Allowed in cases of maslaha The deceased has willed to be moved No great financial expense involved There is no harm upon the body 4.6.1 Types of Grave 4.6.1.1 The Pit ~ shaqqThe shaqq means that a trench is dug in the middle of the grave to suit the size of the deceased,and its sides are built with bricks so that it will not collapse on the deceased, and the deceased isplaced in it on his right side facing the qiblah, then this trench is covered with stones or the likeand the ceiling is raised a little so that it will not touch the deceased, then the soil is filled in. 4.6.1.2 The Niche ~ lahd (Preferred)The lahd (niche) means that a place is dug at the bottom of the grave on the side that is closestto the qiblah, in which the deceased is placed on his right side facing the qiblah, then this hole isfilled in with bricks behind the deceased, then the dirt is filled in. This was done for theMessenger (saw) and that is why preferred.
  19. 19. 4.6.2 Burial Steps1. Enter deceased into grave from the direction of the qiblah or the legs first.2. Say “ ” [Bismillaahi wa billahi wa alaa millat rasoolillah ~ In the name of Allah and on the creed, religion and faith of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam] as the body is lowered into the grave.3. The body be placed on the right hand side facing the qiblah with soil placed behind the body to keep the body on its side.4. The bands tying the shroud should be undone5. Soil brinks placed behind the body (niche grave). Planks placed above the body (pit grave).6. The grave is then covered with soil.7. Those present throw three handfuls of soil. [Ibn Majah 1565]8. Grave should be humped shaped and not raised too much.9. Sprinkling water over the grave is permissible.10. Supplicate for the deceased whilst standing. o Seek forgiveness for your brother and ask for him firmness for verily he is being questioned now. [Abu Dawud :: Book #20, Hadith #3215]
  20. 20. 5 Post Death 5.1 Ta’ziyah ~ Condolence 5.1.1.1 Purpose i. Console the family of the deceased ii. Supplicating that Allah rewards and ease their loss iii. Supplicating for the deceased 5.1.1.2 Time periodBegins after death with no specific end time 5.1.1.3 WordingsSahih Muslim :: Book 004, Number 2003:Umm Salama reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon came to Abu Salama (ashe died). His eyes were fixedly open. He closed them, and then said: When the soul is takenaway the sight follows it. Some of the people of his family wept and wailed. So he said: Do notsupplicate for yourselves anything but good, for angels say" Amen" to what you say. He thensaid: O Allah, forgive Abu Salama, raise his degree among those who are rightly guided, granthim a successor in his descendants who remain. Forgive us and him, O Lord of the Universe, andmake his grave spacious, and grant him light in it.Sahih Bukhari :: Volume 8, Book 77, Number 599:Narrated Usama: Once while I was with the Prophet and Sad, Ubai bin Kab and Muadh werealso sitting with him, there came to him a messenger from one of his daughters, telling him thather child was on the verge of death. The Prophet told the messenger to tell her, "It is for Allahwhat He takes, and it is for Allah what He gives, and everything has its fixed time (limit). So (sheshould) be patient and look for Allahs reward." 5.1.1.4 Help the FamilySunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3126:Narrated Abdullah ibn Jafar: The Apostle of Allah (saw) said: Prepare food for the family ofJafar for there came upon them an incident which has engaged them. 5.1.1.5 Gathering at the House ?Ibn Majah 1612Jabir b. Abdullah al-Bajali is reported to have said, We used to deem gathering to the relativesof the deceased and preparing food (like an act) of wailing (over the dead body).
  21. 21. 5.2 Visiting the Graveyard 5.2.1.1 VirtueAllahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "I forbade you to visit graves, but you may now visitthem, for they produce abstinence in this world and act as a reminder of the next." [ Tirmidhi :: IbnMajah transmitted it ] 5.2.1.2 Why Visit a. To remind us of the hereafter b. To make dua for the inhabitants of the grave c. Following the sunnah of the Messenger (saw) 5.2.1.3 Supplication in the GraveyardSunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 10, Number 2037:Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (saw) said: Do not make your houses graves, and do not make mygrave a place of festivity. But invoke blessings on me, for your blessings reach me wherever you may be.Sahih Muslim :: Book 004, Number 1703:Ibn Umar reported Allahs Apostle (saw) as saying: Observe some of your prayers in your houses and donot make them graves. 5.2.1.4 Women visiting the Graveyard a) Allowed b) Prohibited c) Allowed if not made into a habitHanbali position is no due to the hadith belowSunnah Abu Dawud :: Book 20, Number 3230:Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Apostle of Allah (saw) cursed women who visit graves, those who builtmosques over them and erected lamps (there). 5.2.1.5 Recitation of the Qu’ran in the GraveyardSahih Muslim :: Book 004, Number 1707:Abu Huraira reported Allahs Messenger (saw) as saying: Do not make your houses as graveyards. Satanruns away from the house in which Surah Baqarah is recited. 5.2.1.6 Seeking aid from the inhabitant of the graveSurah al-Israa 17, Ayat 56 ::Muhsin Khan: Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Call unto those besides Him whom you pretend [to be gods likeangels, Iesa (Jesus), Uzair (Ezra), etc.]. They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you noreven to shift it from you to another person."Yusuf Ali: Say: "Call on those - besides Him - whom ye fancy: they have neither the power to remove yourtroubles from you nor to change them."Sahih International: Say, "Invoke those you have claimed [as gods] besides Him, for they do not possessthe [ability for] removal of adversity from you or [for its] transfer [to someone else]."
  22. 22. 5.3 Benefitting the Dead 5.3.1 Matters Agreed Upon d) Righteous Recurring DeedsSahih Muslim :: Book 013, Number 4005:Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allahs Messenger (saw) as saying: When aman dies, his acts come to an end, but three, recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people)benefit, or a pious son (?), who prays for him (for the deceased). e) Deeds of Righteous Children f) Settling DebtsThe Prophet (saw) said: The soul of a deceased believer is held back on account of his debt tillthe debt is discharged. [ Tirmidhi :: Tirmidhi transmitted it ] g) SupplicationSurah al-Hashr 59, Ayat 10Sahih International: And [there is a share for] those who came after them, saying, "Our Lord,forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] resentmenttoward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed You are Kind and Merciful." h) CharityIf he acknowledged the Oneness of Allah and you fasted or gave charity on his behalf it wouldbenefit him. [Ahmad] i) Hajj or UmrahSahih Bukhari :: Volume 3, Book 29, Number 77:Narrated Ibn Abbas: A woman from the tribe of Juhaina came to the Prophet and said, "Mymother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May I perform Hajj on mymothers behalf?" The Prophet replied, "Perform Hajj on her behalf. Had there been a debt onyour mother, would you have paid it or not? So, pay Allahs debt as He has more right to bepaid."
  23. 23. 5.3.2 Matters Differed Upon j) Recitation of the Noble Quran k) Salah l) Voluntary Fast m) Slaughter n) I’tikaaf o) ZikrWe are an Ummah of the Living, not anUmmah of the Dead. Look to the future

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