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Solid waste mgt_india

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  • 1. SOLID WASTEMANAGEMENT IN INDIA
  • 2. India’s Population = 1027 MillionAs per 2001 CensusUrban Population = 285 MillionUrban Areas = 5161(Cities / Towns)
  • 3. TREND OF URBANIZATION Year Year Year Year 1951 1991 2001 20211. Number of Urban 2795 3768 5161 -- Agglomerations / Towns2. Urban Population 62.0 217.0 285.0 550.0 (in million)3. As percentage of total 17.3% 25.72% 27.8% 41% Population
  • 4. MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM- Per capita waste generation increasing by1.3% per annum- With urban population increasing between3 – 3.5% per annum- Yearly increase in waste generation isaround 5% annually
  • 5. - India produces 42.0 million tons ofmunicipal solid waste annually at present.- Per capita generation of waste varies from200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Averagegeneration rate at 0.4 kg per capita per dayin 0.1 million plus towns.- Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to 90% of the solid waste generated.
  • 6. - Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid wastemanagement of which, * 60-70% of the amount is on collection alone * 20% - 30% on transportation * Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste- Crude dumping of waste in most of the cities
  • 7. QUANTITY OF WASTE GENERATIONTOTAL QUANTITY OF SOLID WASTE 1.15 LAKH TONNEGENERATED IN URBAN AREAS PER DAY (TPD)OF THE COUNTRY % OF TOTAL GARBAGEWASTE GENERATED IN 6 MEGA CITIES 21,100 TPD 18.35%WASTE GENERATED IN METRO CITIES 19,643 TPD 17.08%(1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS)WASTE GENERATED IN OTHER 42,635.28 TPD 37.07%CLASS-I TOWNS(0.1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS) ____________ _________ 83,378.28 TPD 72.50%IF WASTE PRODUCED IN ALL CLASS-I CITIES IS TACKLED, PERCENTAGEOF WASTE SCIENTIFICALLY MANAGED WOULD BE 72.5% OF TOTALWASTE.
  • 8. Characteristics of Municipal Solid WasteCompostable / Bio-degradable = 30% - 55%matter (can be converted into manure)Inert material = 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)Recyclable materials = 5% - 10% (Recycling)These percentages vary from city to city dependingon food habits
  • 9. PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT- STORAGE OF WASTE AT SOURCE IS LACKING - DOMESTIC WASTE THROWN ON STREETS - TRADE WASTE ON ROADS / STREETS - CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS LEFT UNATTENDED - BIO-MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSED IN MUNICIPAL WASTE STREAM - INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSED OF IN OPEN AREAS- SEGREGATION OF RECYCLABLE WASTE AT SOURCENOT DONE- PRIMARY COLLECTION OF WASTE NOT DONE AT PLACE OF GENERATION
  • 10. Contd../..- DESIGN & LOCATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE STORAGE DEPOTS INAPPROPRIATE, RESULTING IN LITTERING OFGARBAGE .- STREET SWEEPING NOT DONE EVERYDAY- WASTE TRANSPORTATION DONE IN OPEN VEHICLES- WASTE PROCESSING PARTIALLY PRACTISED IN 35ULBs ONLY- FINAL DISPOSAL DONE THROUGH CRUDE DUMPING- RAG PICKERS COLLECT RECYCLABLES FROMMUNICIPAL BINS / DUMPSITES AND LITTER THE WASTECAUSING INSANITARY CONDITIONS
  • 11. REASONS FOR IMPROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE Lack of planning for waste management while planning townships Lack of proper institutional set up for wastemanagement, planning and designing in urban local bodies Lack of technically trained manpower Lack of community involvement Lack of expertise and exposure to city waste management using modern techniques / best practices Lack of awareness creation mechanism Lack of Management Information Systems Lack of funds with ULBs Indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges andsustainability
  • 12. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT1. Possible Waste Management Options : (a) Waste Minimisation (b) Material Recycling (c) Waste Processing (Resource Recovery) (d) Waste Transformation (e) Sanitary Landfilling – Limited land availability is a constraint in Metro cities.2. Processing / Treatment should be : (i) Technically sound (ii) Financially viable (iii) Eco-friendly / Environmental friendly (iv) Easy to operate & maintain by local community (v) Long term sustainability
  • 13. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSALI WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATIONII RECYCLING OF WASTEIII SANITARY LANDFILLINGIV TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY
  • 14. VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS RECOMMENDED FOR WASTE PROCESSINGTOWNS GENERATING GARBAGEUPTO 50 METRIC TONS / DAY(MT/DAY) = VERMI-COMPOSTINGBETWEEN 50 MT & 500 MT / DAY = VERMI-COMPOSTING + MECHANICAL COMPOSTINGMORE THAN 500 MT / DAY = MECHANICAL COMPOSTING + REFUSE DERIVED FUEL(RDF) FROM REJECTS KEEPING IN VIEW THE TYPE OF THE CITY (INDUSTRIAL OR NON- INDUSTRIAL) OR BIO-METHANATION
  • 15. TENTH PLAN PROPOSALSRequirement of funds as per 10th Plan document for0.1 million plus towns as per 1991 Census are asunder:-Capital Investment = Rs.23226.00 millionEquipment replacement = Rs. 1355.00 millioncost ________________ Rs.24581.00 million ________________ Based on January, 2000 prices
  • 16. INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA Bio-medical Waste Handling Rules, 1998 - Notified Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules, 2000 – Notified. Reforms Agenda (Fiscal, Institutional, Legal) Technical Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management Technology Advisory Group on Municipal Solid Waste Management Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Integrated Plant Nutrient Management from citycompost.
  • 17.  Tax Free Bonds by ULBs permitted by Government of India Income Tax relief to Waste Management agencies Public-Private Partnership in SWM Capacity Building Urban Reforms Incentive Fund Guidelines for PSP and setting up of Regulatory Authority Introduction of Commercial Accounting System in ULBs & other Sector Reforms Model Municipal Bye-Laws framed / circulated for benefit of ULBs for adoption Financial Assistance by Government of India - 12th Finance Commission Grants
  • 18. DEVOLUTION OF 12TH FINANCE COMMISSION GRANTS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT – RS.2500.00 CRORES ( RS. IN MILLION)(I) COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION - 3864.4 EQUIPMENT & MACHINERY(II) COMPOST PLANTS - 10012.3(III) SANITARY LANDFILL DEVELOPMENT - 10568.8 ------------------- TOTAL 24445.5 ------------------DEVOLUTION TO ULBs BY 12TH FINANCE - Rs.19439.4 MillionCOMMISSIONPRIVATE SECTOR INVESTMENT - Rs.5006.2 MillionENVISAGED THROUGH PPP INCOMPOSTING / SANITARY LANDFILLING
  • 19. NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION CENTRAL / STATE GRANTS ARE PROPOSED TO BE PROVIDED FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Grant Centre State LoanCities with 4 million plus 35% 15% 50%populationCities with one million plus 50% 20% 30%population but less than 4millionOther cities 80% 10% 10%
  • 20. MAIN ISSUES- ABSENCE OF SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE- LACK OF TECHNICAL EXPERTISE ANDAPPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT- UNWILLINGNESS OF ULBs TO INTRODUCE PROPERCOLLECTION, SEGREGATION, TRANSPORTATION ANDTREATMENT / DISPOSAL SYSTEMS- INDIFFERENT ATTITUDE OF CITIZENS TOWARDS WASTE MANAGEMENT DUE TO LACK OF AWARENESS- LACK OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION TOWARDS WASTE MANAGEMENT AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS- LACK OF FUNDS WITH ULBs
  • 21. RECOMMENDATIONS- Outsourcing of all activities under Solid WasteManagement Services recommended by 12thFinance Commission for using grants- ULBs to concentrate on segregation of waste atsource- Waste processing like composting, bio-methanation should be done through public-privatepartnerships / private sector- Final disposal viz. sanitary landfilling to be doneunder public private partnerships / private sector- Bio-medical waste to be managed by Central Bio-Medical Waste Management Facilities.