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  • Ask a question ‘do you recycle anything? Newspapers? Plastic bottles? Batteries?’ question, ‘’do you recycle your batteries? If the answer is no, then listen up, we are going to tell you the consequences of not recycling batteries.
  • When explaining your points, remember to bring the topic back to the main point, which is the title of our report.Introduce the members who are presenting each point.
  • Summarise whole classification of batteries, table, demand of batteries, bring batteries like, litium ion, alkaline
  • Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies
    They are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher, or more, than the species they consume
    eaten by the local population caused the largest case of mercury poisoning known. Minamata disease caused the deaths of over 1000 people and permanently disabled a great many more.
    Mercury released into the environ thru metal smelting
    Our concerns with the disposal of household batteries are mainly in the mercury content of batteries. However, since 1992, Singapore has banned the sale of mercury oxide batteries, zinc carbon batteries containing more than 0.001% by weight of mercury per battery, and alkaline batteries containing more than 0.025% by weight of mercury per battery.
  • However, numerous state and federal regulations in the United States control the amount of cadmium that can be released to the air from waste sites and incinerators so that properly regulated sites are not hazardous.
    Inhaling cadmium-laden dust quickly leads to respiratory tract and kidney problems which can be fatal (often from renal failure). Ingestion of any significant amount of cadmium causes immediate poisoning and damage to the liver and the kidneys. Compounds containing cadmium are also carcinogenic.
    The bones become soft (osteomalacia), lose bone mass and become weaker (osteoporosis). This causes the pain in the joints and the back, and also increases the risk of fractures. In extreme cases of cadmium poisoning, the mere body weight causes a fracture.
    The kidneys lose their function to remove acids from the blood in proximal renal tubular dysfunction. The kidney damage inflicted by cadmium poisoning is irreversible and does not heal over time. The proximal renal tubular dysfunction creates low phosphate levels in the blood (hypophosphatemia), causing muscle weakness and sometimes coma. The dysfunction also causes gout, a form of arthritis due to the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints because of high acidity of the blood (hyperuricemia). Another side effect is increased levels of chloride in the blood (hyperchloremia). The kidneys can also shrink up to 30%.
    Other patients lose their sense of smell (anosmia).
  • a research was done on 147 children. Out of these 147 children, more than 91% of them had lead poisoning with a average blood level was 71, and one child had 247 (Factiva, 2007).
    proper disposal of the lead acid left behind, and the children living near the area loiter around the plant
    decommissioning procedure of the plant was done erroneously. The batteries were buried with a cement wall constructed over the stacked buried batteries. Eventually, the wall collapsed, buried batteries crumbled, leaving the debris to slide downhill. This led to scavengers digging up the metals which are worth selling
  • The retention of lead in the soil can stay for thousands of years to come, and removal of lead would take a lot of time and money, while affecting the lives of the people
    Sulfur dioxide concentrations also exceed the World Health Organization emissions standards by ten fold. The vegetation in the surrounding area has been destroyed by acid rain due to high sulphur dioxide emissions
    concerted NGO movement is now underway to pressure the company and the government to develop effective strategies for implementation of site remediation agreements and to provide health care for affected residents. Some sampling and testing has been done in the local communities and the areas outside the plant to determine the levels of pollutants.
  • 1999 showed that ninety-nine percent of children living in and around La Oroya have blood lead levels that exceed acceptable amounts
    Ironic isnt it.
  • Go by continents, generally, elaborate on the points.
  • the recycling of primary batteries seems to have come to a screeching halt as the new policy (article 3.2) clearly states that the government does no principally support the collection of waste primary batteries due to lack of technically and economically feasible solutions for recycling such batteries. This policy is based on an understanding that most zinc- and alkaline-manganese batteries sold and used in China contain mercury weight less than 0.0001% (Guo 2003)
  • L
  • However, the effectiveness of the ban of discarding batteries into the waste stream depends a lot on the residents' sense of responsibility. The Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has said it will not sort through garbage cans to hunt down violators, but instead will “focus its enforcement resources on complaint response and on violations of the hazardous waste regulations that present immediate and significant risks to public health or the environment,” according to a department statement
    Feb 2006
  • he program will be available at no charge to public agencies as well. This includes federal, state, and local governmental agencies, public hospitals, police and fire departments, and military institutions. Since RBRC lifted its participation fees for communities, they have seen an increase in program participation of 21%.
  • The success of RBRC recycling efforts doesn’t come easy and major factors contributed to each other to make the recycling programme work. With increased concerns on batteries in the waste stream, they pushed for stringent legislation for batteries. But yet at the same time with stringent legislation, they also increased more awareness and compulsory participation of the residents in California. Since close to 97% of lead acid batteries in USA are being recycled, there are almost nil worries of lead contaminating the waste stream. So therefore, United States diverted their attention to rechargeable batteries that contains hazardous substances like cadmium and lithium, determined to remove them from their municipal solid waste stream. Formed in 1994 to collect rechargeable batteries, citizens of USA have more choices on where to dispose their batteries, either with RBRC or the rubbish dump. With RBRC recycling boxes easily accessible to, convenience is given to them, but efforts ultimately still depend on the citizens.
  • Global Renewables, municipal landfill sites are so contaminated they probably require special containment. Half a million car batteries end up in Australian landfills each year. Global Renewables pulls out 60 to 80 lead aicd batteries a day from the Eastern Creek landfill in Sydney, and that 3 per cent of the rubbish is contributing for a disproportional percentage of the hazardous substances present in the rubbish.
  • though the lead acid battery industry claims a recycling rate of over 90%, up to one third of Australia’s batteries have been recycled outside Australia in Third World countries, sometimes by children and always with much less stringent control for occupational health and safety and environmental protection.
  • 2006, CleanAway introduced a new battery-recycling programme in Australia. It is almost similar to RBRC in USA. Their battery-recycling programme aims to remove rechargeable batteries from the waste stream and to respond to increasingly concerns of the Australian government and community towards hazardous waste in the waste stream.
    Act 1989 to send the batteries to France for recycling (WME, 2005). The only other company with a permit is Saft, but it is only handling its own brand batteries. The batteries are then sorted and repackaged into drums, placed in a shipping container and taken to Sydney for shipment to France. Their first load of batteries arrived in France on August 2005 for processing by specialist battery recycler SNAM. SNAM is a prominent nickel-cadmium recycling facility in France following stringent legislation regulations
  • Sustainability Victoria is a governmental organization established under the Sustainability Victoria Act 2005. They work across all industry sectors, as well as with schools, State and local governments, community groups and individuals to promote and encourage environmental sustainability (Sustainability Victoria, 2007). UniRoss, established in 1968, is one of the world leaders in manufacturing rechargeable batteries. They have a worldwide presence in more than 70 countries, and are committed in protecting the environment too.
    Restricted to Victoria, the smallest mainland state in area, but the most densely populated and urbanized with 25% of Australia’s population at 5.1 million people situated in Victoria
  • Legislation before 1996, meant that people had to throw their lead acid batteries into the MSW or sent for reccycling, which they only have 3 recycling plants.
    . The lack of legislation in Australia regarding batteries is a major disadvantage to recycling programmes in Australia as throwing a battery into the bin is more convenient than going to a specified place to drop the battery.
    But regarding their awareness towards the toxicity of batteries would be hard to tell as the earliest battery recycling programme in Australia only started in 2006. With no previous statistics to tell, we can say that the improvement is evident, as long as the first battery recycling program is launched and on-going for a year to date.
    Sustainability Victoria, shows that they are concerned about the importance of getting rid of rechargeable batteries out of the waste stream by supporting and sponsoring the initial launch of a battery recycling programme BatteryBack.
    . This is a major disadvantage as exporting batteries for recycling not only need a permit; they also have to pay high costs for shipping. The extra costs would highly discourage companies from recycling their batteries. Morever, there are only 3 lead acid batteries recycling plants in Australia, forcing them to send one third of their spent lead acid batteries to third world countries with un-regulated legislation on emissions. Rejected wagga wagga plant
  • Although Australia seemed to have more cons than pros, they are readily on their way to improvements in battery recycling. Starting the campaign of recycling rechargeable batteries from CleanAway, Australia’s largest waste management operator, would have a bigger impact on Australians to recycle more rechargeable batteries. Following into footsteps of RBRC from United States, CleanAway started with charging fees for the sent batteries for recycling. Because CleanAway is still at the initial stage, they would need sometime to improve the awareness of Australians towards the importance of battery recycling.
  • Compare and contrast
  • Australia protested against for a proposed lead acid recycling plant, and another in operation complained for polluting the neighbourhood.
  • NEA - national environmental agency
    Present past programmes, including energenics
    The Singapore Environment Council is a company limited by guarantee, incorporated on 2nd November 1995. It is a non-profit organisation with the status of an institution of public character and it is an approved charity which therefore offers tax exemption for donors.
    But the report mad about batteries is no longer with our seniors.
  • Wheelock PlaceSuntec CityCentury Square
    Causeway PointParkway Parade used Nokia handphones, handphone batteries and accessories are collected
  • Interview with NEA, future efforts
    Thanks for your concern and support in recycling. 2)        Our concerns with the disposal of household batteries are mainly in the mercury content of batteries. However, since 1992, Singapore has banned the sale of mercury oxide batteries, zinc carbon batteries containing more than 0.001% by weight of mercury per battery, and alkaline batteries containing more than 0.025% by weight of mercury per battery. 3)        We do not have separate collection and disposal for batteries except for batteries used by vehicles and industries.  The vehicle and industry batteries contain lead and are therefore harmful. Lead acid batteries are collected separately by licensed toxic waste collectors and recycled at overseas facilities. The list of these collectors is at 4)        For consumer batteries, we can avoid the collection and disposal problems as we have already controlled the types of consumer batteries allowed to be sold.  Hence, consumer batteries are disposed of together with other wastes at the incineration plants. We have been monitoring the emissions at the incineration plants and the level of mercury and other heavy metals are virtually not detectable.   5)        You may wish to note that there are recycling bins available at the Nokia Care Centres for old or used mobile phones, accessories and their batteries. The locations of the Nokia Care Centre can be found at our NEA web site : 6)        For now, NEA will continue to encourage battery manufactures, distributors and retailers to voluntarily set up more collection points and fund the battery recycling. The Singapore Green Plan 2012 Action Programme Committee on Waste Management has also identified this as an action programme to follow up on. Thanks and regards. WU WEI Environmental  Health Executive Resource Conservation Department The National Environment Agency
  • Wrt the constraints, learn from case studies
  • Battery recycling slide presentation

    1. 1. A Detailed Study on Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries. By: Lim Zhong Yan 0521170 Lin Shan 0514600 Tay Jing Yun 0520434
    2. 2. Overview Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries.  Importance of battery recycling  Case study on programmes in other countries  Formulate a suitable program to implement in Singapore
    3. 3. Classification of Batteries Batteries Primary Secondary • Alkaline Manganese • Zinc Carbon • Button • Lead Acid •Nickel Cadmium •Nickel Metal Hydride •Lithium Ion
    4. 4. Primary Batteries Alkaline Manganese
    5. 5. Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Zinc Carbon
    6. 6. Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Button cells
    7. 7. Secondary Batteries Lead Acid
    8. 8. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Cadmium
    9. 9. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Metal Hydride
    10. 10. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Lithium Ion
    11. 11. Demand for Primary Batteries
    12. 12. Demand for Secondary Batteries
    13. 13. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal  Mercury  Cadmium  Lead
    14. 14. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Mercury Dumping of mercury compounds in Minamata Bay, Japan, polluting the bay in 1932–1968. Since 1992, Singapore banned mercury in batteries with concentrations more than 0.025%.
    15. 15. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Cadmium  Cadmium is known to cause cancer  Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death.  NEA have already controlled the types of consumer batteries allowed to be sold.
    16. 16. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination Haina, Dominican Republic  Toxic fumes produced were over the limits  Improper decommissioning of recycling plant  91% of 147 children had lead poisoning
    17. 17. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination La Oroya, Peru  Heavy lead mining and smelting  High risk of developing lung cancer as well as other respiratory ailments, skin conditions, and digestive disorders.
    18. 18. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination La Oroya, Peru (cont’d)  Report done in 1999 showed out of 147 children, 99% had lead poisoning.  Doe Run is the main driver of the local economy and hence able to exercise control over the livelihood of the population.
    19. 19. Exploration of countries Deciding factors for choosing countries for case study:  Impact  Efforts  Public awareness  Scale  Person per battery disposed  Recycling techniques  Storage and sorting facilities
    20. 20. Exploration of countries There were other countries that also displayed the factors mentioned but did not do so on a large scale. Examples are :  Philippines  Malaysia
    21. 21. China  Increased technological advancements and higher standards of living  Produces 15 billion batteries a year which amounts to a third of the world’s total production of batteries  Domestic market still consumes around 6 billion units
    22. 22. China Lead Acid Batteries  More than 50 million waste lead-acid batteries are recycled annually in China  About 140 thousand tons of secondary lead are recovered  80 – 85% secondary lead recovery rate
    23. 23. China Household Batteries  Only 1 – 2% are recycled  Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB)  Policy based on an understanding that most zinc- and alkaline-manganese batteries sold and used in China contain mercury weight less than 0.0001%
    24. 24. China Efforts  In 2006, a campaign was launched to promote the recycling of used batteries in the Guangdong province of China  In 2001, Beijing’s high schools and primary schools took part in a waste battery recycling project
    25. 25. China Governmental Efforts  In 2003, the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), together with nine other government bodies, co-issued a new policy on battery recycling called Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).  The government has gradually increased the proportion of GDP allocated to environmental protection from 0.72 percent in 1989 to 1.33 percent in 2003.
    26. 26. China Legislation  “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution to the Environment” which was implemented in 1996, hazardous wastes should be treated separately according to their property  In 2003, Policy on Technique adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).
    27. 27. China Analysis  Lack of Strong Governmental Support  Lack of Public Awareness and Participation  Lack of Proper Storage and Sorting Facilities  Lack of Advanced Recycling Techniques
    28. 28. China Conclusion  A more enthusiastic and supportive government would help greatly.  Introduce a rigid legal system so organisations, companies and its people will follow strictly.
    29. 29. USA  Lead consumption alone by United States can reach as high as 1.54 million tons of lead  Americans throw away over 3 billion primary and secondary batteries, 745 million SGD worth.  Lead acid batteries make up 74% of lead in USA  98% of all recycled lead is produced in USA with 17 recycling facilities
    30. 30. USA Legislation  All rechargeable batteries have to bear a symbol.  California have the strictest legislation directly affecting batteries.  Disposal of lead-acid batteries in landfills and incinerators prohibited and retailers are required to accept used batteries.
    31. 31. USA RBRC  Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) is a non-profit, public service organization  Started in 1994.  Removed fees associated with its community recycling program starting in January 2003
    32. 32. USA RBRC’s program
    33. 33. USA Analysis  Stringent Legislation  Weak Governmental support  Strong Public Awareness and Participation  Safe Recycling Techniques
    34. 34. USA Conclusion  Stringent legislation and strong public awareness contribute to USA’s successful recycling campaign.  Major advantage is the removal of charges for sending batteries for recycling, and easy access to battery recycling bins.
    35. 35. Belgium Case Study Introduction In Belgium, BEBAT is the company responsible for collection and recycling of batteries They have been operational since 1995/1996 and are fully backed by the government The number of used batteries they collect keep increasing through the years
    36. 36. Belgium Case Study Introduction (Cont’d) Graph showing BEBAT’s collection rate since they started in 1996
    37. 37. Belgium Case Study Belgium’s Effort in Recycling BEBAT was founded by the battery industry in 1995 for the purpose of collection and recycling of batteries They are backed by federal and regional authorities Companies register themselves with BEBAT to comply with environmental legislations They are partners with other battery recycling companies
    38. 38. Belgium Case Study Governmental Efforts EPBA (European Portable Battery Association) was established in Belgium with consent of the government They are responsible for the development of the battery industry in Europe The Belgian government helped BEBAT by using the media and broadcasting commercials to get the public aware They also allowed BEBAT to place over 20,000 collection points in public areas in the country
    39. 39. Belgium Case Study Legislation  On 6 September 2006, there was a new directive of the EU parliament and council on batteries  The new directive states that there shall be specific standards that each country must fulfill  The minimum standard for collection rate of batteries is as follows:  (a) 25 % by 26 September 2012 ;  (b) 45 % by 26 September 2016  In Belgium’s case, this is not a problem for them as they have highest amount for collection of spent batteries at 59%
    40. 40. Belgium Case Study Analysis  Efficiency of collection network  Strong governmental and retailer support  Strong Environmental awareness and public participation
    41. 41. Belgium Case Study Conclusion Belgium is considered to be one of the most successful countries in battery recycling Their battery collection and recycling network should be a model to other countries However, they still needed the help of various other factors All in all, Belgium can be said to be unparalleled in their effective system and network of battery recycling
    42. 42. Australia  Second waste country on earth  Australians discard about 8,000 tons of used batteries  Municipal landfill sites are so contaminated they probably require special containment  60 to 80 lead acid batteries are pulled out from a landfill each day.
    43. 43. Australia  Three lead acid battery plants operate within Australia in SA, Queensland and NSW.  Up to one third of Australia’s batteries have been recycled outside Australia in Third World countries  Proposed lead battery recycling facility in Wagga Wagga rejected
    44. 44. Australia Cleanaway  Cleanaway is Australia’s largest waste management operator.  In 2006, CleanAway introduced a new battery-recycling programme in Australia.  Major disadvantage is, recycling box provided, but costs are borne by companies.  Batteries are sent overseas with export permit exclusive only to 2 companies.
    45. 45. Australia Battery Back  Started in June 2007  A joint initiative of Sustainability Victoria, UniRoss and CleanAway  Harvey Norman and Michaels Camera Video and Digital provide collection points.
    46. 46. Australia Legislation  Few relevant legislation to back battery recycling.  Hazardous Waste Act was updated in 1996 for wastes with financial value to be destined overseas for recycling and recovery operations.
    47. 47. Australia Analysis  Lack of Legislation  Mild Environmental awareness and Public participation  Strong Australian Governmental support  Backward Reycling Techniques
    48. 48. Australia Conclusion  Australia’s battery recycling programs are still at a initial stage.  Still room for improvement compared to other countries.  But progress is the first step to a successful battery recycling program.
    49. 49. Analysis Countries Governmental Support Public Awareness Recycling Technique Legislations Storage and Sorting Facilities USA      China      Belgium      Australia      Table of Comparison
    50. 50. Analysis Governmental Support  Amount of effort poured in by the country’s government and authorities for their battery recycling programmes
    51. 51. Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)  Belgium’s government was the most supportive.  They supported BEBAT by funding them and supporting them throughout their entire process.  Educational programs on recycling batteries.
    52. 52. Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)  China has the least support from the government among the 4 countries.  They do not have a rigid workable system from collecting to recycling of batteries.  Do not wish to be involved in battery recycling activities.
    53. 53. Analysis Public Awareness Refers to the amount of media coverage given to the environmental concerns of battery recycling.
    54. 54. Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)  Belgium remains the best in public awareness.  Commercials broadcasted in mainstream media encouraging the recycling of batteries by BEBAT
    55. 55. Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)  Australia has the least public awareness.  There’s only two companies that recycle batteries and are not given much attention by Australians
    56. 56. Analysis Legislations The laws that govern the country regarding batteries and batteries recycling
    57. 57. Analysis Legislations (cont’d)  Belgium has the most stringent legislation to date.  European Union has set a minimum standard for collection rate of batteries and it is as follows: – 25 % by 26 September 2012 ; – 45 % by 26 September 2016
    58. 58. Analysis Legislations (cont’d)  China currently do not have single unified law to address batteries and their recycling  Not clear who is responsible for storing and transporting waste batteries and how the cost will be borne
    59. 59. Analysis Recycling Technique  Refers ability to collect and recycle batteries efficiently with safe and advanced technology
    60. 60. Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)  None of the countries had a perfect recycling technique.  The difficulty of finding a recycling technique that is environmental friendly and yet effective still needs to be overcome.  USA and Belgium are not yet self sufficient, they still need to send some of their batteries overseas for recycling.
    61. 61. Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)  Australia’s lead acid recycling facilities do not fully comply to the environmental legislations.  China unwilling to invest on more technology for better recycling techniques
    62. 62. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities  The process and storage, after they are collected and before they are recycled.
    63. 63. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)  Belgium has the best storage and sorting facilities.  BEBAT’s sorting technology is automated. The mechanical processing unit sorts zinc- carbon and alkaline-batteries.  They have 20,000 collection points which serve as storage facilities before sending to the plants for processing.
    64. 64. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)  China has an obvious lack of proper storage and sorting facility  Batteries collected are left in the open awaiting to be delivered to a recycling plant
    65. 65. Analysis Conclusion  USA and Belgium are leading countries in battery recycling  They each have non-profit organizations that dedicate themselves solely to the cause  China and Australia still have much room for improvement  They have the foundation, now they need to build on it.
    66. 66. Factors that made Overseas Recycling Programmes Feasible  Supportive Government  Effective Education and Promotion Program  Firm Legislation and Policies  Strong Management of Programmes  Safe and Advanced Recycling Technology
    67. 67. Past and Present efforts in Singapore  Green Plan in 2012 launched by NEA.  Prompted Nokia, IKEA, Singapore Environment Council (SEC), to provide collection points for batteries.  SEC provided previous batch of seniors with a report ‘mad about batteries’
    68. 68. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (IKEA)  IKEA collection of household batteries ended in 2004 due to poor response.  Batteries eventually sent for destruction instead of recycling facilities.
    69. 69. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NOKIA)  However, used Nokia handphones, handphone batteries and accessories are still collected in Nokia retail outlets.  There are 5 collection points.
    70. 70. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (Energenics)  A MNC which is a supplier of alternative energy solutions and technologies.  Discovered an innovative way of reconditioning lead-acid batteries  The process will be shown in a video that we have recorded ourselves at the Energenics facility.
    71. 71. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NEA)  Disposal of household batteries were not of main concern.  No collection and separation of batteries are done except for lead-acid batteries due to its harmfulness.  NEA encourages battery manufactures, distributors and retailers to voluntarily set up more collection points and fund the recycling of batteries.  The Singapore Green Plan 2012 will be looking into doing a follow up on battery recycling.
    72. 72. Constraints faced by Singapore  Lack of support from the government  Lack of land space  Rigid laws and legislations  Low volume of waste batteries collected  Lack of environmental awareness in Singapore
    73. 73. Implemention in Singapore Polytechnic  Plan Proposal for a Battery Recycling Program in Singapore Polytechnic  Mandatory versus Voluntary Recycling  Funding  Education and Promotion  Collection Points  After Collection
    74. 74. Conclusion  A battery recycling facility would not be feasible.  A battery collection would be a more realistic approach to battery recycling.  Implementation of program in Singapore Polytechnic would be the first step.  Collaboration with governmental authorities in pushing battery recycling awareness.
    75. 75. Future Work  Implement a battery collection program in Singapore  Use our group’s research to propose a battery collection program to government agencies  Use Singapore Green Plan 2012 to jump start the program  Model the program under an effective example like Belgium’s unparalleled battery collection and recycling network