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Battery recycling slide presentation Battery recycling slide presentation Presentation Transcript

  • A Detailed Study on Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries. By: Lim Zhong Yan 0521170 Lin Shan 0514600 Tay Jing Yun 0520434
  • Overview
    • Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries.
    • Importance of battery recycling
    • Case study on programmes in other countries
    • Formulate a suitable program to implement in Singapore
    View slide
  • Classification of Batteries Batteries Primary Secondary
    • Alkaline Manganese
    • Zinc Carbon
    • Button
    • Lead Acid
    • Nickel Cadmium
    • Nickel Metal Hydride
    • Lithium Ion
    View slide
  • Primary Batteries Alkaline Manganese
  • Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Zinc Carbon
  • Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Button cells
  • Secondary Batteries Lead Acid
  • Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Cadmium
  • Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Metal Hydride
  • Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Lithium Ion
  • Demand for Primary Batteries
  • Demand for Secondary Batteries
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
    • Mercury
    • Cadmium
    • Lead
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
    • Mercury
      • Dumping of mercury compounds in Minamata Bay, Japan, polluting the bay in 1932–1968.
      • Since 1992, Singapore banned mercury in batteries with concentrations more than 0.025%.
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
    • Cadmium
      • Cadmium is known to cause cancer
      • Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death.
      • NEA have already controlled the types of consumer batteries allowed to be sold.
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination
    • Haina, Dominican Republic
    • Toxic fumes produced were over the limits
    • Improper decommissioning of recycling plant
    • 91% of 147 children had lead poisoning
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination
    • La Oroya, Peru
    • Heavy lead mining and smelting
    • High risk of developing lung cancer as well as other respiratory ailments, skin conditions, and digestive disorders.
  • Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination
    • La Oroya, Peru (cont’d)
    • Report done in 1999 showed out of 147 children, 99% had lead poisoning.
    • Doe Run is the main driver of the local economy and hence able to exercise control over the livelihood of the population.
  • Exploration of countries
    • Deciding factors for choosing countries for case study:
    • Impact
    • Efforts
    • Public awareness
    • Scale
    • Person per battery disposed
    • Recycling techniques
    • Storage and sorting facilities
  • Exploration of countries
    • There were other countries that also displayed the factors mentioned but did not do so on a large scale. Examples are :
    • Philippines
    • Malaysia
  • Case Studies
  • China
    • Increased technological advancements and higher standards of living
    • Produces 15 billion batteries a year which amounts to a third of the world’s total production of batteries
    • Domestic market still consumes around 6 billion units
  • China Lead Acid Batteries
    • More than 50 million waste lead-acid batteries are recycled annually in China
    • About 140 thousand tons of secondary lead are recovered
    • 80 – 85% secondary lead recovery rate
  • China Household Batteries
    • Only 1 – 2% are recycled
    • Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB)
    • Policy based on an understanding that most zinc- and alkaline-manganese batteries sold and used in China contain mercury weight less than 0.0001%
  • China Efforts
    • In 2006, a campaign was launched to promote the recycling of used batteries in the Guangdong province of China
    • In 2001, Beijing’s high schools and primary schools took part in a waste battery recycling project
  • China Governmental Efforts
    • In 2003, the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), together with nine other government bodies, co-issued a new policy on battery recycling called Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).
    • The government has gradually increased the proportion of GDP allocated to environmental protection from 0.72 percent in 1989 to 1.33 percent in 2003.
  • China Legislation
    • “ Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution to the Environment” which was implemented in 1996, hazardous wastes should be treated separately according to their property
    • In 2003, Policy on Technique adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).
  • China Analysis
    • Lack of Strong Governmental Support
    • Lack of Public Awareness and Participation
    • Lack of Proper Storage and Sorting Facilities
    • Lack of Advanced Recycling Techniques
  • China Conclusion
    • A more enthusiastic and supportive government would help greatly.
    • Introduce a rigid legal system so organisations, companies and its people will follow strictly.
  • USA
    • Lead consumption alone by United States can reach as high as 1.54 million tons of lead
    • Americans throw away over 3 billion primary and secondary batteries, 745 million SGD worth.
    • Lead acid batteries make up 74% of lead in USA
    • 98% of all recycled lead is produced in USA with 17 recycling facilities
  • USA Legislation
    • All rechargeable batteries have to bear a symbol.
    • California have the strictest legislation directly affecting batteries.
    • Disposal of lead-acid batteries in landfills and incinerators prohibited and retailers are required to accept used batteries.
    • Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) is a non-profit, public service organization
    • Started in 1994.
    • Removed fees associated with its community recycling program starting in January 2003
  • USA RBRC’s program
  • USA Analysis
    • Stringent Legislation
    • Weak Governmental support
    • Strong Public Awareness and Participation
    • Safe Recycling Techniques
  • USA Conclusion
    • Stringent legislation and strong public awareness contribute to USA’s successful recycling campaign.
    • Major advantage is the removal of charges for sending batteries for recycling, and easy access to battery recycling bins.
  • Belgium Case Study Introduction
    • In Belgium, BEBAT is the company responsible for collection and recycling of batteries
    • They have been operational since 1995/1996 and are fully backed by the government
    • The number of used batteries they collect keep increasing through the years
  • Belgium Case Study Introduction (Cont’d) Graph showing BEBAT’s collection rate since they started in 1996
  • Belgium Case Study Belgium’s Effort in Recycling
    • BEBAT was founded by the battery industry in 1995 for the purpose of collection and recycling of batteries
    • They are backed by federal and regional authorities
    • Companies register themselves with BEBAT to comply with environmental legislations
    • They are partners with other battery recycling companies
  • Belgium Case Study Governmental Efforts
    • EPBA (European Portable Battery Association) was established in Belgium with consent of the government
    • They are responsible for the development of the battery industry in Europe
    • The Belgian government helped BEBAT by using the media and broadcasting commercials to get the public aware
    • They also allowed BEBAT to place over 20,000 collection points in public areas in the country
  • Belgium Case Study Legislation
    • On 6 September 2006, there was a new directive of the EU parliament and council on batteries
    • The new directive states that there shall be specific standards that each country must fulfill
    • The minimum standard for collection rate of batteries is as follows:
      • (a) 25 % by 26 September 2012 ;
      • (b) 45 % by 26 September 2016
    • In Belgium’s case, this is not a problem for them as they have highest amount for collection of spent batteries at 59%
  • Belgium Case Study Analysis
    • Efficiency of collection network
    • Strong governmental and retailer support
    • Strong Environmental awareness and public participation
  • Belgium Case Study Conclusion
    • Belgium is considered to be one of the most successful countries in battery recycling
    • Their battery collection and recycling network should be a model to other countries
    • However, they still needed the help of various other factors
    • All in all, Belgium can be said to be unparalleled in their effective system and network of battery recycling
  • Australia
    • Second waste country on earth
    • Australians discard about 8,000 tons of used batteries
    • Municipal landfill sites are so contaminated they probably require special containment
    • 60 to 80 lead acid batteries are pulled out from a landfill each day.
  • Australia
    • Three lead acid battery plants operate within Australia in SA, Queensland and NSW.
    • Up to one third of Australia’s batteries have been recycled outside Australia in Third World countries
    • Proposed lead battery recycling facility in Wagga Wagga rejected
  • Australia Cleanaway
    • Cleanaway is Australia’s largest waste management operator.
    • In 2006, CleanAway introduced a new battery-recycling programme in Australia.
    • Major disadvantage is, recycling box provided, but costs are borne by companies.
    • Batteries are sent overseas with export permit exclusive only to 2 companies.
  • Australia Battery Back
    • Started in June 2007
    • A joint initiative of Sustainability Victoria, UniRoss and CleanAway
    • Harvey Norman and Michaels Camera Video and Digital provide collection points.
  • Australia Legislation
    • Few relevant legislation to back battery recycling.
    • Hazardous Waste Act was updated in 1996 for wastes with financial value to be destined overseas for recycling and recovery operations .
  • Australia Analysis
    • Lack of Legislation
    • Mild Environmental awareness and Public participation
    • Strong Australian Governmental support
    • Backward Reycling Techniques
  • Australia Conclusion
    • Australia’s battery recycling programs are still at a initial stage.
    • Still room for improvement compared to other countries.
    • But progress is the first step to a successful battery recycling program.
  • Analysis
  • Analysis Table of Comparison      Australia      Belgium      China      USA Storage and Sorting Facilities Legislations Recycling Technique Public Awareness Governmental Support Countries
  • Analysis Governmental Support
    • Amount of effort poured in by the country’s government and authorities for their battery recycling programmes
  • Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)
    • Belgium’s government was the most supportive.
    • They supported BEBAT by funding them and supporting them throughout their entire process.
    • Educational programs on recycling batteries.
  • Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)
    • China has the least support from the government among the 4 countries.
    • They do not have a rigid workable system from collecting to recycling of batteries.
    • Do not wish to be involved in battery recycling activities.
  • Analysis Public Awareness
    • Refers to the amount of media coverage given to the environmental concerns of battery recycling.
  • Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)
    • Belgium remains the best in public awareness.
    • Commercials broadcasted in mainstream media encouraging the recycling of batteries by BEBAT
  • Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)
    • Australia has the least public awareness.
    • There’s only two companies that recycle batteries and are not given much attention by Australians
  • Analysis Legislations
    • The laws that govern the country regarding batteries and batteries recycling
  • Analysis Legislations (cont’d)
    • Belgium has the most stringent legislation to date.
    • European Union has set a minimum standard for collection rate of batteries and it is as follows:
      • 25 % by 26 September 2012 ;
      • 45 % by 26 September 2016
  • Analysis Legislations (cont’d)
    • China currently do not have single unified law to address batteries and their recycling
    • Not clear who is responsible for storing and transporting waste batteries and how the cost will be borne
  • Analysis Recycling Technique
    • Refers ability to collect and recycle batteries efficiently with safe and advanced technology
  • Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)
    • None of the countries had a perfect recycling technique.
    • The difficulty of finding a recycling technique that is environmental friendly and yet effective still needs to be overcome.
    • USA and Belgium are not yet self sufficient, they still need to send some of their batteries overseas for recycling.
  • Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)
    • Australia’s lead acid recycling facilities do not fully comply to the environmental legislations.
    • China unwilling to invest on more technology for better recycling techniques
  • Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities
    • The process and storage, after they are collected and before they are recycled.
  • Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)
    • Belgium has the best storage and sorting facilities.
    • BEBAT’s sorting technology is automated. The mechanical processing unit sorts zinc-carbon and alkaline-batteries.
    • They have 20,000 collection points which serve as storage facilities before sending to the plants for processing.
  • Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)
    • China has an obvious lack of proper storage and sorting facility
    • Batteries collected are left in the open awaiting to be delivered to a recycling plant
  • Analysis Conclusion
    • USA and Belgium are leading countries in battery recycling
    • They each have non-profit organizations that dedicate themselves solely to the cause
    • China and Australia still have much room for improvement
    • They have the foundation, now they need to build on it.
  • Factors that made Overseas Recycling Programmes Feasible
    • Supportive Government
    • Effective Education and Promotion Program
    • Firm Legislation and Policies
    • Strong Management of Programmes
    • Safe and Advanced Recycling Technology
  • Past and Present efforts in Singapore
    • Green Plan in 2012 launched by NEA.
    • Prompted Nokia, IKEA, Singapore Environment Council (SEC), to provide collection points for batteries.
    • SEC provided previous batch of seniors with a report ‘mad about batteries’
  • Past and Present efforts in Singapore (IKEA)
    • IKEA collection of household batteries ended in 2004 due to poor response.
    • Batteries eventually sent for destruction instead of recycling facilities.
  • Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NOKIA)
    • However, used Nokia handphones, handphone batteries and accessories are still collected in Nokia retail outlets.
    • There are 5 collection points.
  • Past and Present efforts in Singapore (Energenics)
    • A MNC which is a supplier of alternative energy solutions and technologies.
    • Discovered an innovative way of reconditioning lead-acid batteries
    • The process will be shown in a video that we have recorded ourselves at the Energenics facility.
  • Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NEA)
    • Disposal of household batteries were not of main concern.
    • No collection and separation of batteries are done except for lead-acid batteries due to its harmfulness.
    • NEA encourages battery manufactures, distributors and retailers to voluntarily set up more collection points and fund the recycling of batteries.
    • The Singapore Green Plan 2012 will be looking into doing a follow up on battery recycling.
  • Constraints faced by Singapore
    • Lack of support from the government
    • Lack of land space
    • Rigid laws and legislations
    • Low volume of waste batteries collected
    • Lack of environmental awareness in Singapore
  • Implemention in Singapore Polytechnic
    • Plan Proposal for a Battery Recycling Program in Singapore Polytechnic
    • Mandatory versus Voluntary Recycling
    • Funding
    • Education and Promotion
    • Collection Points
    • After Collection
  • Conclusion
    • A battery recycling facility would not be feasible.
    • A battery collection would be a more realistic approach to battery recycling.
    • Implementation of program in Singapore Polytechnic would be the first step.
    • Collaboration with governmental authorities in pushing battery recycling awareness.
  • Future Work
    • Implement a battery collection program in Singapore
    • Use our group’s research to propose a battery collection program to government agencies
    • Use Singapore Green Plan 2012 to jump start the program
    • Model the program under an effective example like Belgium’s unparalleled battery collection and recycling network