SHAMSHAD AHMED COUNSELOR EDUCATION PROGRAM NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
MENTAL HEALTH of MUSLIMS
Muslim- “One who practices
Who are they?-Followers of Islam
Tenets of Islam- Peace, Harmony, Respect, and Love.
Mujahid (2001) around 9 million Muslims.
79% fall between 16-65 years old.
Average Muslim household has 4.9 people.
20% live in California, 16 % in New York, 8% in Illinois, 4% in New Jersey and Indiana, 35% each in Michigan, Virginia, Texas, and Ohio.
2/3 are immigrants.
42% are African Americans, 24% are South Asians, 12 % are Arabs.
STATISTICS Bukhari (2002) 58 % of Muslims are reported to have experienced discrimination. Zaheeruddin(2002) American Muslims condemned the attacks, arranged blood drives, once donated generously. Khan (2001) Over 1000 Muslims were detained on suspicion. Zaheeruddin (2002) War time situations in the Middle East, Afghanistan and now in Iraq make it difficult to reconcile their loyalty towards their original countries and towards America. Gilbert( 2002) Polled 521 Muslims who were subjected to discrimination, harassment, verbal abuse, physical attacks.
LITERATURE REVIEW Miller et al (2002) Qualitative study on Bosnian refugees living in Chicago. Most of them had nightmares and had the possibility of depression. Miller et al (2002) Studied the mental health of Iraqi refugees. Iraqis had more PTSD symptoms than other clients. Golding (1988) Women are at higher risk for depression. People who are less educated, have lower incomes, lower socio economic status, and who are under employed are at higher risk. Pantin (2003) Hispanic immigrants were exposed to terrorists attacks through T.V, 14% satisfied the DSM 1V criteria.
PURPOSE of STUDY To explore anxiety and depression experienced by Muslims. The study will advance the knowledge about anxiety and depression in Muslims and will suggest ways to improve the quality of counseling services fro Muslims.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Is there a significant difference in depression between Muslims from Arab and non-Arab countries? 2. Is there a significant difference in State anxiety between Muslims from different Arab and non-Arab countries? 3. Is there a significant difference in Trait anxiety between Muslims from Arab and non-Arab countries? 4. Is there a significant difference in depression among Muslims from Arab countries?
R esearch Questions,cont. 5. Is there a significant difference is state anxiety among Muslims from Arab countries? 6. Is there a significant difference in trait anxiety among Muslims from Arab countries? 7. Is there a significant difference in depression among Muslims from non-Arab countries? 8. Is there a significant difference in state anxiety among Muslims from non-Arab countries? 9. Is there a significant difference in trait anxiety among Muslims from non-Arab countries?
Beck’s Depression Inventory
Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Scale
Form Y1- 20 items
Form Y2- 20 items
No Time limit
BECK’S MODEL Essential component is a negative cognitive set- tendency to view self, world and future in a dysfunctional manner. Depressed people regard themselves as unworthy, incapable, undesirable, and expect failure, rejection and dissatisfaction.
Speilberger’s State Trait Anxiety The trait anxiety factor was interpreted as personality characteristic. The state anxiety factor was based on a pattern of variables that covaried over occasions of measurement, defining a transitory state or condition of the organism which fluctuated over time.
PROCEDURE Two main lists were prepared. The researcher then sent out packets which included a letter briefly explaining the purpose of the study, assuring participants’ anonymity, and requesting their participation. The packet also contained the Beck’s depression Inventory and Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Scale. Both the inventories were self administered and carried clear instructions. Those who completed and returned the packet of inventory materials were included in the sample.
The level of depression was significantly higher among the Muslims from non Arabs in comparison to the Muslims from Arab countries .
The Muslims from Arab countries scored higher on Spielberger’s state anxiety.
The Muslims from Arab countries scored higher on Spielberger’s trait anxiety.
There was a significant difference in the level of depression among Muslims from Arab countries.
There was a significant difference in the state anxiety scores among Muslims from Arab countries.
The Muslims from non Arab countries differed significantly on Spielberger’s trait anxiety.
There was a significant difference in trait anxiety among the males and females .
The Muslims from non Arab countries differed significantly on levels of depression.
The Muslims from non Arab countries differed significantly on state anxiety.
LIMITATIONS Sample was drawn from one Islamic Center in a southeastern city in United States and may not be representative of other Islamic centers. The sample was measured during the ongoing events in Iraq and the tragedy that struck the Asian countries particularly Indonesia. This study used extant data which limited the questions the investigator was able to ask. All sample data were collected using self-administered written response inventories.
Extensive research is needed comparing larger samples of Muslims from the Arab countries and the non Arab countries with more variables.
Research is needed to ascertain not only the differences in refugees and immigrants, but also to develop a better understanding of how to assess and utilize their strengths.
A gap continues in the literature in understanding the mental health of Muslims in America.
MESSAGE Nassar-McMillan (2003, p.12) stated that, “In the wake of the twin tower bombings, elected officials publicly discouraged the media and others form associating that deplorable act with Islam or any other specified group of individuals while simultaneously attempting to link the incident with the Arab Israeli conflict. Even though no connection had been officially documented, in the American public’s mind the association has been created and continues to be lodged there”.