Tobacco smoke toxicity

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Learning the dangers of second hand smoke.

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Tobacco smoke toxicity

  1. 1. Tobacco Smoke Toxicity<br />by Chris Lanham<br />
  2. 2. Tobacco Smoke<br />Formation process<br />Combustion<br />Tobacco and paper<br />Pollutants emitted<br />Particulate matter<br />
  3. 3. Particulate Matter<br />Smoke and gas particles<br />PM2.5<br />Extremely small<br />25,000 = 1 inch<br />14 mg per 0.9 g cigarette<br />
  4. 4. Types of Cigarette Smoke<br />Mainstream (Primary)<br />Secondhand (Secondary)<br />
  5. 5. Pollutants in Tobacco Smoke<br />4,000 Chemical byproducts<br />172 known toxins<br />67 known carcinogens<br />Figure 1.1 – Some common, dangerous chemicals found in cigarette smoke<br />
  6. 6. Pollutants in Secondhand Smoke<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Carcinogenicity of NNK in Rats<br />NNK<br />4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone<br />Tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA)<br />Among the most important carcinogens<br />Observe dose-response for carcinogenicity<br />3 TSNAs<br />NNK, NNN, NAT<br />
  9. 9. Experimental Preparation<br />Synthesize 30 g of each TSNA<br />Used HPLC to ensure purity<br />Purchase 6-week-old male/female rats<br />Placed in groups of three inside each cage<br />Given Purina chow and water<br />Rat weight recorded weekly<br />
  10. 10. Injection<br />9 weeks-old<br />Subcutaneous injection<br />3 injections/week for 20 weeks<br />3 doses<br />9.0 mmol/kg body weight (high)<br />3.0 mmol/kg body weight (medium)<br />1.0 mmol/kg body weight (low)<br />
  11. 11. Groupings<br />
  12. 12. Observation<br />Cessation<br />Moribund<br />20 % survival in group<br />Sacrificing<br />Gross lesions and organ samples collected<br />Examined microscopically<br />
  13. 13. Tumor Formation<br />
  14. 14. Important Findings<br />NNK carcinogenicity<br />Respiratory tract tumors<br />Lowest dose (1.0 mmol/kg)<br />High occurrence of lung tumors<br />85 % in males<br />
  15. 15. NNK Metabolites in School Children<br />Background studies<br />ETS and lung cancer<br />~20 % increase<br />Several major agencies<br />US HHS<br />NRC<br />US EPA<br />Investigate amount of lung carcinogen NNK<br />Quantified by two metabolites<br />
  16. 16. Sample Selection<br />Minneapolis school children<br />Public elementary schools<br />Caregiver asked 2 main questions<br />Packs of cigarettes/month<br /># of smokers in house<br />> 1 answer considered exposure<br />Several other questions<br />Indicate outside exposure<br />Urine samples obtained at school<br />Provided organic fruit juices<br />
  17. 17. Sample Analysis<br />Cotinine measured<br />10 ng/mL cut-off<br />Indicates high exposure to ETS<br />
  18. 18. Sample Analysis<br />Urine sample centrifuged<br />HPLC used to measure NNK metabolites<br />
  19. 19. Results<br />Cotinine/metabolite relationship<br />
  20. 20. Results<br />Positive for carcinogen metabolites<br />96 % students > 5 ng/mL cotinine <br />50 % students < 5 ng/mL cotinine<br />Significant uptake of NNK<br />
  21. 21. Conclusion<br />Tobacco smoke extremely toxic<br />High amount of carcinogens<br />NNK potent carcinogen<br />Mouse studies reveal danger<br />Significant amount of NNK in exposed children<br />Still present in “unexposed” category<br />Relationship uncertainty<br />Future studies<br />Safety perspective<br />
  22. 22. Resources<br />http://tobaccosmoke.org/book/export/html/4<br />“Dose-Response Study of the Carcinogenicity of Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in F344 Rats”<br />“Metabolites of a Tobacco-specific Lung Carcinogen in the Urine of Elementary School-aged Children.”<br />

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