The Next 25 Years of Malaysian Society [2015 2040]
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The Next 25 Years of Malaysian Society [2015 2040]



Malaysia has a rich history and its own generational cycle. We examined the political, economic, and social conditions of each era in history and how they changed as they moved to the next season of ...

Malaysia has a rich history and its own generational cycle. We examined the political, economic, and social conditions of each era in history and how they changed as they moved to the next season of the cycle. The results suggest Malaysia will be witnessing their Crisis era in a few years.



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The Next 25 Years of Malaysian Society [2015 2040] The Next 25 Years of Malaysian Society [2015 2040] Document Transcript

  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) The Next 25 Years of Malaysian Society [2015-2040] Shamim Zia, MBA American Skills Training and Team Building Asia, Malaysia ABSTRACT History is a series of generational cycles which includes various seasons, which were first introduced by William Strauss and Neil Howe in 1991. They brought the concept of a symbiotic relationship between history and generations which reveals itself in a four-stage cycle called turnings. Each turning last about twenty years each where people change how they feel about their nation, culture, themselves, and the future. These generational cycles are also identified in various developing countries. These seasons spanning roughly twenty years are called the High, Awakening, Unraveling, and Crisis eras. Malaysia has a rich history and its own generational cycle. The current generations within this cycle include the Matures, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, Millenials, and Generation 2000 (people born after 2000). We examined the political, economic, and social conditions of each era in history and how they changed as they moved to the next season of the cycle. The results suggest Malaysia will be witnessing their Crisis era in a few years however its citizens will be going through a revival. Keywords: Malaysia, Generations, History, Culture, Baby Boomers, Generation X, Millenials, and Team Building 1. Introduction In 1991 authors William Strauss and Neil Howe introduced their concept of recurring generational cycles in American history. The authors also examined generational trends elsewhere in the world and identified similar cycles in several developed countries. Strauss and Howe discovered a pattern of generational events called turnings which identify the mood during one particular era lasting around 20 years. Twenty years is the number where the next generation enters the workforce and affects change in society. Four turnings lead to one generational cycle lasting about 80 years. At the beginning of each turning, people change how they feel about themselves, the culture, the nation, and the future. The human life is divided into four phases: childhood, young adulthood, midlife, and elderhood. The first turning is called the High where institutions are strong and individualism is at its weakness during a post-Crisis era. The second turning is called the Awakening where institutions are attacked and individualism is recognized again. The third turning is the Unraveling period where institutions are distrusted and individualism is flourishing. The final turning is the Crisis period where institutions are destroyed and individualism locates themselves in larger group. The four turnings represent growth, maturation, entropy, and destruction, respectively. Below is a timeline of the previous two generational cycles and the current one. Each cycle begins with a change for the better and matures before decaying and imploding. The implosion is necessary to create a better society and a new generational cycle. The 18th and 19th Century Malaysian Generational Cycle 1795 – High begins as British occupies Malacca 1819 – Awakening begins with British acquiring Singapore 1831 – Unraveling begins with the Naning War 1850 – Crisis era begins leading to civil war between states in the 1860s 9
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) The 19th and 20th Century Malaysian Generational Cycle 1874 – High begins with the British Rule of Malaya 1895 – Awakening begins more states join Malaya 1914 – Unraveling begins with the Battle of Penang (WWI) 1941 – Crisis begins with Japanese Occupation The Current Malaysian Generational Cycle 1957 – High begins Federation of Malaya becomes independent 1981 – Awakening begins with Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad 1997 – Unraveling begins with Asian Financial Crisis 2017 – Crisis of Malaysia The 18th and 19th century Malaysian generational cycle began with the British occupying Malacca and continued until civil war broke out between the Malaya states. The 19th and 20th century Malaysian generational cycle began with the British ruling Malaya and ending with the Japanese occupation. The current Malaysia cycle begins with an independent Malaysia and ending with a crisis which will change the political, economic, and social structure of the country. Each of the three generational cycles begins with institutions at their peaks and continuing into a downward spiral while individualism begins to ascend to their peaks during the end of the Crisis period. 2. The Malaysian High (1957–1981) The High era begins when institutions are the strongest and individualism is submissive. The Highs follow the Crises and teach us to be coalescing so we will build a better society. They usually begin with political treaties to conclude the Crisis eras. The culture is lead by those who are dominant where a new social order will include teamwork and trust. Those who are not dominant during the High will suffer as they are going against the establishment. Highs are a period of promoting greater social order and cohesion and reconstruction following the previous Crisis era. The events occurred during the Malaysian High will reinforce those who are dominant and institutions are the strongest during this era. Political, economic, and social conditions will also align with those who are dominant. Malaysian High Timeline 1957 – Federation of Malaya is an independent self-governing nation 1960 – Malaysia Government security forces wins over Chinese communists 1963 – Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore join Malaya to form Malaysia 1965 – Malaysia and Singapore sign a separation agreement 1966 – Indonesia and the Philippines recognize Malaysia 1969 – Ethnic riots between Malays and Chinese took place in Kuala Lumpur 1971 – UMNO becomes dominant partner in Barisan National government 1981 – The Awakening begins with the Mahathir bin Muhammad as Prime Minister 2.1 Political Conditions During the previous Malaysian High, the British ruled Malaya in 1874 and now Malaysians finally ruled themselves during the new High era. During the previous Malaysian Crisis era (1941-1957), the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) was founded to oppose postwar political settlement. An institution formed during the Crisis era will remain in power until the next Crisis. The independence of Malaysia occurred toward the end of 12 years of guerrilla activity, known as the Malay Emergency, where 10
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) the largely ethnic Chinese Communist Party called the Malay Races Liberation Army (MRLA) attempted to overthrow the Malay-dominated federation. Their reason for MRLA’s existence ceased once Malaya became independent. During the independence, 55 percent of Malaya’s population was Malay, 35 percent ethnic Chinese, and 10 percent Indian. Under the constitution the Malay majority maintained their privileges including Malay as the official language and Islam the official religion, while non-Malays gained citizenship. At the time their was an unwritten understanding that Malays would hold main positions in government and politics, while the Chinese continued to dominate business and economic affairs. In 1965 Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra asked the national parliament to sever all ties with Singapore’s state government. The UMNO-dominated federal government considered Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew too socialist and the federation became unworkable due to the relationship between the Kuala Lumpur federal authorities and Singapore’s state government. Following Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, his deputy Tun Abdul Razak took over and advocated pro- Malay action including a controlled form of democracy, restricted freedom of speech, and pro-Malay policies. The political actions taken during the High was to establish and maintain a set Malay status quo after gaining independence. It was to promote the Malay dominance over the country. 2.2 Economic Conditions An affirmative action program known as the Malaysian New Economic Plan (NEP) was launched by the Malaysian government to reduce poverty by 1990 and to remove the link between race and prosperity. The Malays worked mainly in agriculture while 5 percent were in the professionals. The NEP was envisioned to favor the Bumiputras (ethnic Malays) and move the population towards professional occupations. During the High era, the economic policies favored those who are in dominant positions in the government which were the Malays. 2.3 Social Conditions Ethnic tensions erupted between the Malays and Chinese on May 13th in Kuala Lumpur. The rivalry was the result of favoritism by the Malaysian authorities toward Bumiputras (ethnic Malayas) leading to riots. The Malays saw the ethnic Chinese as immigrants leading to tensions between the two races. During the High, the Malays see it as an era of teamwork and trust, while the Non-Malays would see this era as repressive due to the favoritism for the Malays. 2.4 Malaysian High Summary The Malaysian High was a period in history where Malays promoted their dominance for the sake of raising their prosperity. It was a time where Malaysian institutions grew and remained strong. Highs are times where individualism is repressed for the sake of the nation. Other races including Chinese and Indians may view the Malaysian High as a repressive part of Malaysian history due to the policies that were implemented at the time. However it is a time where demand and supply for social order are rising. The stability created room for a new era where the High ends and the Awakening begins. 3. The Awakening Of Malaysia (1981–1996) The Awakening era is remembered for its extremes as the institutions do not know when to stop growing. The Awakening of Malaysia begins with Mahathir bin Muhammad as the new Prime Minister. Mahathir imposes autocratic leadership and becomes a leading force in making Malaysia into a major industrial power. The Awakening is a period of cultural upheaval and spiritual renewal. Memories of the previous Crisis are buffered by the Malaysian High who brought calm and comfort. 11
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) Awakening of Malaysia Timeline 1981 – Prime Minister Mahathir bin Muhammad is elected 1984 – TV3 was launched 1985 – First Malaysian car the Proton Saga is produced 1991 – Vision 2020 plan to make Malaysia a developed country status by 2020 1994 – Construction of Petronas Towers begins 1995 – Construction of Kuala Lumpur Tower begins 1996 – Multimedia Super Corridor opened to public service 1996 – The Unraveling begins on the eve of the Asian Financial Crisis 3.1 Political Conditions Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamed imposed autocratic leadership because he believed a form of controlled democracy was necessary in an ethnically divided nation to ensure social stability and minimize racial tensions. In 1987 Mahathir invoked the Internal Security Act (ISA) including members of the opposition party, shut down three newspapers, and suspended the head of the judiciary including five members of the Supreme Court. 3.2 Economical Conditions Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamed introduced the New Development Policy (NDP) where Malaysia would develop a more diversified economy under his leadership. Projects included the Multimedia Super Corridor, Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur Tower, and the Kuala Lumpur National Stadium. In 1991 Mahathir introduced the globalization of Malaysia through Wawasan 2020 (Vision 2020) calling for Malaysia to be self-sufficient industrialized nation by the year 2020. After the first half of the 1980s, Malaysia’s growth rate was above 6% GDP. 3.3 Social Conditions People’s individual lives were better than the collective social order. The collective social order was still divided after the Independence of Malaysia. Non-Malays were considered as second-class citizens as affirmative action and special status favored the Malays. When Malaysia institutions were attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy, Mahathir imposed autocratic leadership to repress them. Mahathir wanted Malaysians to be modernized through science and technology however neglected ideas of the values of freedoms. 3.4 The Awakening of Malaysia Summary Malaysia became a diversified economy and a major industrial power. Malaysia society has built big projects including the Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur Tower, and the Multimedia Super Corridor. It was a period of expansion. However the calm and comfort brought by the High gave away to the Asian Financial Crisis which exposed Malaysia’s economic weakness. 4. The Unraveling Of Malaysia (1997–2017) As the Awakening period ends, people are immersed within their own purposes leading to social entropy and disintegration. Strauss and Howe describe the mood of the Unraveling era as the opposite of the High. It is a period where institutions are weak and distrusted, while individualism is strong and flourishing. Self-defined values will triumph over old group-defined values. It is a period where culture feels exhausted, civic authority is weak and cynicism is on the rise. This is amplified with the rise of social 12
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) media platforms which allowed Malaysians to communicate with one another and bypassing the government-controlled news organizations. Social entropy continues to build by stripping away the old order and making it look corrupt and useless. Political, economic, and social conditions will also align to seem to be attacking the institutions and giving rise to individualism. The Asian Financial Crisis marks the beginning of the Unraveling period of Malaysia. Unraveling of Malaysia Timeline 1997 – Asian Financial Crisis begins 2004 – Malaysia’s 11th General Election begins decline BN 198 seats 2007 – Berish Rally 2008 – Malaysia’s 12th General Election BN 140 seats 2009 – Scorpene submarine scandal breaks 2011 – Berish 2.0 Rally 2012 – Berish 3.0 Rally 2013 – Malaysia’s 13th General Election BN 133 seats 2014 – Malaysia draws attention worldwide with missing Malaysian airline 4.1 Political Conditions This is an era when institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy. The Malaysian High is now seen as an era of cultural poverty. According to the World Bank, corruption increased in Malaysia from 1996 through 2004. In 2003 Mahathir voluntarily steps down after 22 years as Prime Minister and was replaced by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi who stepped up efforts to eradicate corruption. The citizens of Malaysia organized three rallies for fair and clean elections. 4.2 Economical Conditions People are beginning to harvest and not sowing which will lead to the beginnings of the Crisis era. Before the Asian Financial Crisis, Malaysian industries were involved in assembly rather than manufacturing, which created a dependence on other countries to supply parts for assembly. As a result, Malaysia was badly affected by the Asian Financial Crisis. The KLSE lost more than 50% of its value from above 1,200 to under 600 by the end of 1997. Output fell by 10.2 percent due to weak external demand in semiconductors and similar hardware. At first Mahathir introduced policies approved by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) however the deepening crisis led to Mahathir to introduce his own plans. These included lowering interest rates so borrowing was easier, isolating foreign speculators to prevent currency manipulation, and spending $2.7 million on projects to encourage growth. Since 2000 trade with China has doubled suggesting Malaysia can benefit from the growth of Chinese economy. However Malaysia is dependent on foreign investments to sustain their level of growth. 4.3 Social Conditions Many media outlets in Malaysia are either directly owned by the Malaysian government or owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition government called the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), which is a right-wing Malay political party. These media machines include Bernama, The Star, The Sun, and the New Strait Times. On April 28th, 2012, Malaysia held its third rally by the Bersih organization for free and fair elections in the form of Bersih 3.0. The word “Bersih” in Malay means clean and the organization’s goals is for revising the current electoral system of Malaysia. The organization held a rally on July 9th 2011 where a mixed race of Malaysians including 13
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) Chinese, Indians, and Malays took to the streets in Kuala Lumpur. The government announced then that the rally was illegal for Bersih 2.0. During Berish 2.0 in 2011, Bernama ran with the headlines “Illegal Rally: Don’t Be Fooled By It!” and “Illegal Rally Was To Serve Opposition’s Agenda.” In 2012 Bernama was quiet during the day of the Bersih 3.0 rally. Their main headline during the rally was “Economic Strength Enables Government to Provide More Aid – by PM Najib.” Instead of highlighting the protest and giving coverage towards the Bersih 3.0, Bernama has conveniently ignored the event entirely for that day. The Star newspaper went with “PM: Government allows gatherings if they are peaceful, at appropriate venues” after the 2012 Berish 3.0 rally. In 2011 the Star headlines were “Street demonstrations not part of Malaysian culture, says PM.” after the Bersih 2.0 rally. Many of these so-called Malaysian news organizations are turning into public relations style reporting for the government rather than when they were propaganda machines. The incident shows how the Malaysian government is adapting their image as they lose credibility with its citizens. 4.4 The Unraveling of Malaysia Summary The Unraveling slowly exposes the flaws that existed in Malaysian society as institutions have become complacent and individuals find a new spirit to flourish. The multicultural Malaysian citizens want to be represented within their democracy with their right to a fair and clean vote. Malaysians felt they are drifting toward a cataclysm especially as they lose their faith in their institutions while individualism is rising during the Unraveling era of Malaysia. 5. The Malaysia Crisis (2017-2037) Strauss and Howe revealed the Crisis era begins with a catalyst or a sequence of events that produces a sudden shift in mood. The society will be expected to reunify and reenergize civic life. The Crisis era will climax with a resolution that confirms the death of the old order and the birth of a new one leading towards the new High era. The regeneracy occurs one to five years after the era begins and climaxes one to five years before it ends. The spark that ignites the Crisis era is less important than how the society responds to it. The sparks are usually something foreseeable and poorly protected which gives society a sense of urgency concerning how dysfunctional institutions have become. Remnants of the old social order will disintegrate, political and economic trust will implode which will lead to severe distress that could involve questions of class, race, nation, and country. However the crisis will bring seeds of social rebirth and a new consensus on how to resolve issues. The Crisis of Malaysia will create a unique opportunity to achieve greatness as a people. Baby Boomers who were children during the Malaysian High will do all they can to manage the Malaysian Crisis before succumbing to the pragmatic Generation Xers’ leadership. History has taught us the children of the High and the Awakening will rise to the occasion and lead society out of the Crisis era. 5.1 The Malaysian Crisis Summary The previous Malaysian Crisis consisted of the civil wars and the Japanese occupation. The upcoming one will be either internal or external and will reevaluate the political, economic, and social status quo of Malaysia. As institutions begin to falter, individuals will energize visionary leadership through unusually strong teamwork and discipline. 5.2 Preparation for The Crisis Era Strauss and Howe stressed we cannot stop the seasons of history however we can prepare for them. Future forecasters believed the next phase of life will behave like the current occupants. However 14
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) one generation will replace the next. During the Crisis era the current Baby Boomers will disappear to make way for Generation Xers to bring in fresh experience. Strauss and Howe encourages a proper plan should be in place to move with the seasons and not against it. These include: 1. Participating in seasonal activities 2. Avoiding post-seasonal behavior 3. Making pre-seasonal preparations Participating in seasonal activities involves Malaysia engaging within the current Unraveling era. It would mean embracing its current political, economical, and social changes and avoid controlling these excesses now as they will be addressed during the Crisis. Diversity is producing new enclaves whether its race (Malays, Chinese, Indians), religion (Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism), or social status (Upper-income, Middle-income, Lower-income classes). Technologies are eroding human interaction. All these divisions will be addressed during the Crisis era. Avoiding post-seasonal behaviors includes Malaysians stopping High and Awakening-era behaviors. The Unraveling-era Malaysian society must let go of old habits that made sense twenty-years ago. When public figures speak about or do something that conjures up prior turnings, they become relics to the individuals of the current era. Malaysia should be making pre-seasonal preparations to prepare for their Crisis era. Institutions should not be expanding their influence like they did within the Malaysian High and the Awakening of Malaysia. They should be limiting their influence so they will be able to quickly adapt to the changes of the upcoming Crisis. Credibility and reputation will be a commodity for individuals during the Crisis era as their success will be dependent on trust. 5.3 How should Malaysia Prepare Strauss and Howe offer the following aspects of society that will be affected during a Crisis era. They transcend countries and cultures so Malaysia will be responding to these changes. 1. Values will be forged by consensus to uplift the culture however it will take time to develop to achieve the results. 2. Institutions will find out what works and what does not. As long as the institutions are not too big to fail, they will be accommodating with the changes. 3. Politics should speak candidly concerning the issues and future challenges for the country. 4. Society must be ready to solve community problems through teamwork and not on a national scale. 5. Youth will be the nation’s highest priority however let them contribute and develop the skills necessary for teamwork. 6. Elders need to be more self-sufficient and the aging population must be taken care of. 7. Economy must be based on proper fundamentals to achieve sustainability however current performance should not be influenced through changes. 8. Defense of the country depends on its ability to mobilize however don’t precommit to any one response. 15
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) Malaysians should be prepared themselves for the Crisis era by: 1. Returning to the classic virtues as people who can be counted on and those who cannot will be distinguished. Reputation becomes a commodity in the upcoming Crisis era. 2. Community will be the norms as team, brand, and standards create an environment of sustainability. One must not isolate themselves during this period. 3. Building personal relationships of all kinds will help you as well as face-to-face contacts to build credibility. 4. Prepare yourself and your children for teamwork as integration with others are important. 5. Look for family support as they become the ultimate safety net. 6. Brace of weakening and collapsing Malaysian institutions as dependency and reliance on oneself increases. 7. Diversify everything you do including learning new languages, technologies, and cultures. Malaysia should use history as a guide as it prepares for the future. Applying these lessons will lessen the risk as one embraces themselves for the Crisis era. However one of the important points of the Crisis era is the transition of one generation to another. The Malaysian Crisis era would need strong leaders. Currently all the Prime Ministers of Malaysia were born before the Malaysian High (1957). These include Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903), Abdul Razak Hussein (1922), Hussein Onn (1922), Mahathir Mohamed (1925), Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (1939), and Najib Razak (1953). They were all either Matures and/or Baby Boomers. Malaysia will soon need a Generation X Prime Minister to whether the storms of the Crisis era. 6. Conclusion The Malaysian Crisis era would need leaders who are fiercely independent, highly educated, and technology literate. Generation Xers took greater responsibility and are committed to families. Their disperse skills will start gathering for a larger purpose essential for their nation’s survival. If Generation Xers fail to take charge according to Strauss and Howe, the old Baby Boomers will wreak havoc on the country and its foreign relationships. If Generation Xers are prepared then a new Malaysian High would be a well won reward. After the Crisis era and the formation of the New High around 2037, Malaysia would be entering into a world where according to the US Bureau of Consensus, Caucasians will become a minority in 2042. America will be at its new High as the minority of the 20th century becomes the majority in the 21st . The old order will be placed by a new one which will be stronger and more integrated following the Crisis era. Malaysians will be led by those who were dominant and a new social order will include teamwork and trust. Malaysian institutions will be renewed with fresh ideas for growth. The New Malaysian High is coming after Malaysia enters and conquers its fears and failures during the Crisis era. Correspondence Shamim Zia Training Consultant American Skills Training & Team Building Asia 1607, 16th Floor, Block A, Lobby 2, Damansara Intan, No.1, Jalan 20/27 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Fax: +603-7726 5517 • Website: Email: 16
  • Australian Society for Social Sciences – Volume 3, Number 2 (2014) Shamim Zia was born in a small rural village south of Chennai, India in 1973 and raised within the United States from 1975. He received a B.A in Psychology from Rutgers University, New Brunswick in 1999 and a Masters in Business Administration from Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, NJ in 2001. Mr. Zia worked within the financial services industry before becoming an equity trader on Wall Street. He moved to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2007 and became a corporate trainer and consultant focusing on Organizational Culture and Multi-Generational Management. References Brant, Robin (4 March 2008). "Malaysia's lingering ethnic divide". BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2013. Chau, Amy. "Minority rule, majority hate". Asia Times. Retrieved 15 November 2010. Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future 1584-2069. New York: William Morrow and Company. Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1997). The Fourth Turning. New York: Broadway Books. Jomo Kwame Sundaram (1 September 2004). "The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia". United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved 22 August 2011. Lee Poh Ping; Tham Siew Yean. "Malaysia Ten Years After The Asian Financial Crisis". Thammasat University. Retrieved 25 July 2011. Mahathir Bin Mohamad (17 November 2008). "The Way Forward". Prime Minister's Office. Mahathir regrets govt focussing too much on Bahasa. Daily Express. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013. Malaya: Token Citizenship. Time magazine. 19 May 1952. Retrieved 26 October 2010. Malaysia can be Muslim 'thought leader' – Clinton. New Straits Times. Retrieved 15 November 2010. Malaysia. CIA. Retrieved 27 March 2014 Malaysia. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 January 2013. Malaysia rejects Christian appeal. BBC News. 30 May 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2010. Malaysia's policy towards its 1963–2008 territorial disputes. Academic Journals. September 7 2009.Retrieved 1 October 2010. Malaysian opposition media banned. BBC News. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2010. Michael G. Peletz (2002). Islamic Modern: Religious Courts and Cultural Politics in Malaysia. Princeton University Press. M'sia On Track To Become High-income Nation Earlier Than Projected, Says Najib. Bernama. 12 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. The Malayan Emergency: 1948–1960. Australian Government Department of Veteran Affairs. Retrieved 1 July 2011. Vikneswary, G (28 June 2007). "TV station denies censoring opposition news". Malaysiakini. Wong Wei-Shen (7 May 2012). "Malaysia got what it takes to be developed nation". The Star. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 17