Department Of Pharmaceutics
Under The Guidance Of:
Dr.Jagadeesh Induru M.Pharm ,M.B.A, PhD
Mrs. Tripti Suxena M.Pharm
Types of current
Dangers of electricity to the living tissue
Conditions that effect the shock
Saving the electrified person
Protection against electrical hazards
Electric hazard control
Things to be avoided
Regular safety Inspection
An electrical hazard can be defined as
- adangerouscondition whereaworker could makeelectrical contact
with energized equipment or aconductor, and from which theperson
may sustain an injury from shock
Thelaw requiressafework practices. Under
theOccupational Health and Safety Act
and Regulationsfor Construction Projects,
employers, supervisors, and workerseach
havelegal responsibilitiesto ensurethat work
isbeing carried out in asafemanner.
Electrical hazards are caused by
❑ Theimproper useof machinery or apparatus
❑ Theimproper useof electrical outlets
❑ Theimproper useof electrical equipment, such ascablesand power
❑ Theimproper maintenanceof apparatus, outlets, and electrical
Basically, electrical hazards can be categorized into three
types. Thefirst and most commonly recognized hazard iselectrical
shock. Thesecond typeof hazard iselectrical burnsand the third is
theeffectsof blastswhich includepressureimpact, flying particles
from vaporized conductors
Both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) can produce
injury to living tissue and can destroy equipment. However, the AC (60
Hz and 120 V) that electric companies supply to most electrical outlets
disturbs human nerve impulses more readily than DC of the same voltage
or AC at other frequencies do because human nerve impulses resonate at
approximately 60 Hz. In addition, the DC circuits often used in classroom
experiments are relatively harmless. Yet, DC can still be dangerous, and
burn hazards are created in many common uses of DC. So, all circuits
should betreated cautiously.
Electrical hazardscan burn equipment and causeafire. Thesehazardscan also
causeseriousinjuries. Specifically, current passing through abody may
produceoneor moreof thefollowing symptoms:
Shock should not beconfused
with electric shock. Shock is
an excitation or disturbanceof
thenormal function of nerves
Involuntary muscle reaction
A person who experiencesan
electric shock may not beableto
control themuscles, such asthe
heart, may operateabnormally.
An electric shock may
moving (for example,
flex) or operating (for
cannot pump blood).
Burning of tissue and organs
Tissueand organsmay beburned so
badly that they haemorrhage.
Death can result from electrocution, which
iscaused by electric shock. 6
Electric shock occurs when the body becomes part of an
electrical circuit. Shocks can happen in three ways.
• A person may comein contact with both conductorsin acircuit.
• A person may provideapath between an ungrounded conductor and
• A person may provideapath between theground and aconducting
material that isin contact with an ungrounded conductor.
An electric shock can injure you in eitherorboth of the
• A severeshock can stop theheart or thebreathing muscles, or both.
• Theheating effectsof thecurrent can causesevereburns, especially
at pointswheretheelectricity entersand leavesthebody.
Current in milli
1 or less No sensation; probably not noticed
1 to 3 Mild sensation not painful
3 to 10 Painful shock.
10 to 30 Muscular control could belost or
30 to 75 Respiratory paralysis
75mA to 4 amps Ventricular Fibrillation
Over 4 amps Tissuebeginsto burns. Heart
musclesclamp andheart stops
Effects of Electrical Current On the Human Body
Electric shocksarelesssevereif thecurrent path doesnot include
LENGTHOFTIMETHEELECTRIC SHOCKACTS ON THE
Theduration of theelectric shock effectstheextent of injury the
longer theduration of theelectric shock on thebody, thegreater
risk of severeinjury. In addition, theelectric shock can influence
theduration of exposureif avictim cannot let go of theconductor
of electricity that iscausing theelectric shock becauseof lossof
❑ LOCATION ON THEBODY OFTHEELECTRICALCONTACT
An electric shock that startsat afinger and exitsthrough thegrounded
elbow on the same arm will do less damage than an electric shock that starts
at afinger and exitsthrough thevictim’sgrounded feet.
The latter scenario is more dangerous because more tissue is affected and
thepath of current iscloser tointernal organs.
Current can burn vital organs even if the current does not pass through
This type of damage may occur externally because of arcing or thermal
contact (avital organ isnear tissuethat isexperiencing electric shock).
❑ SKIN RESISTANCE
Theresistanceof thebody greatly affectstheseverity of theelectric
Human tissue has very low resistance because the cellular fluid in
tissueisagood conductor of electricity.
However, dry skin has very high resistance where as Resistance of
wet skin islow.
Skin resistanceiseven lower than theresistanceof wet skin if acut
or deep abrasion ispresent.
The exposure of moist and deeper skin layers increases the severity
of injury that results from theelectric shock.
If someoneiselectrified , call for emergency personnel.
Then, remove the person from contact with the energized
Do not try to touch theperson or you may beelectrified aswell.
You can turn off the power of the device that is causing the
electric shock if this can be done safely (for example, turning off
thecircuit breaker for theoutlet in which thedeviceisplugged).
Or you can obtain an insulator, such as a wooden meter stick, and
break the contact between the person who is being electrified and
After theperson who issuffering from electric shock hasbeen
removed from thesourceof theshock, check to seeif thisperson is
having breathing problemsor isexperiencing ventricular fibrillation.
Artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be
performed on theperson who experienced electric shock, if necessary.
Also, useblanketsto keep theperson warm.
Although a person who is electrified may appear unharmed, call
emergency personnel because this person may have suffered internal
injuries, such asburnsto organsduring theelectric shock.
Most electrical accidentsresult from oneof thefollowing three
• unsafeequipment or installation,
• unsafeenvironment, or
• unsafework practices.
Somewaysto prevent theseaccidentsarethrough theuseof
insulation, guarding, grounding, electrical protectivedevices, and
Insulators such as glass, mica, rubber, or plastic used to coat metals and
other conductors help stop or reduce the flow of electrical current. This helps
prevent shock, fires, and short circuits. To be effective, the insulation must be
suitable for the voltage used and conditions such as temperature and other
environmental factors like moisture, oil, gasoline, corrosive fumes, or other
substancesthat could causetheinsulator to fail
Insulation on conductors is often colour coded.
Insulated equipment grounding conductors usually are
either solid green or green with yellow stripes.
Insulation covering grounded conductors is generally
white or gray. Ungrounded conductors, or “hot wires,”
often are black or red, although they may be any
colour other than green, white, or gray.
Grounding a tool or electrical system means intentionally creating a
low resistancepath that connectsto theearth.
This prevents the buildup of voltages that could cause an electrical
Grounding is normally a secondary protective measure to protect
against electric shock. It does not guarantee that you won’t get a shock
or beinjured or killed by an electrical current.
A threepronged cord offersagrounding connection
Whitewire(neutral or common wire), returnsthepower.
Black wire (hot wire), is connected to the switch and fuse and carries
Green (or ground wire).
Threewiresfor each cord and terminal.
DO NOTuseextension cordsaspermanent wiring. They
may not beableto carry theload. However, if it isnecessary to
usean extension cord, never run it acrosswalkways
Wall receptaclesshould bedesigned and
installed so that no current-carrying partswill be
Replaceor repair electrical appliancesthat over heated,
sparked, shorted out, smoked or havedamaged cordsor cracked
equipment If wiresareexposed, they may causeashock to aworker
comesinto contact with them.
Cordsshould not behung on nails, run over or wrapped
around objects, knotted or twisted. Thismay break thewire
Short circuitsareusually caused by barewirestouching
dueto breakdown of insulation.
Electrical tape orany otherkind of tape is not
Pull theplug not thecord. Pulling thecord
could break awire, causing ashort circuit.
Plug your microwaveor any other largeappliances
into an outlet that isnot shared with other appliances.
Do not overload circuitsasthismay causethewires
to heat and igniteinsulation or other combustibles
Keep officeequipment properly cleaned and
Ensurelampsarefreefrom contact with flammable
Beawareof theodor of burning plastic or wire.18
Wateris VERY conductive! Overloading!
Missing grounding prong! 19
Missing outlet cover!
Electrical tape is not a fix! Damaged casing!
Don’t wear metal objects
Turn power off
Don’t touch liveparts
Don’t install or repair electrical equipment
Clean and dry leadsand plugsbeforeuse
Heed warning signs
Study theoperation manual
Takecareof extension leads
Useonly approved extension lamps 21
Electrical equipment should bechecked each timebefore
If not tagged or thetag isout of datethen report it and
placeit out of service
The key messages are…
Therisk of electric shock from correctly installed and maintained
power sourcesisnegligible, provided that sensibleprecautionsare
taken by theoperator and correct work proceduresarefollowed
Ensurethat theright person iscarrying out electrical work
Electricity isessential but, improperly used, it can be
TO STAY ALIVE, YOU HAVETO STAY ALERT