Learning and Teaching should take account of Multiple Intelligence: Teaching Approaches Teachers have individualistic approaches to teaching - and pupils have traditionally recognised, even celebrated this. There is no standard approach to teaching which every teacher should strive to adopt, but certain strategies are valuable in the classroom. Both formal and informal teaching approaches can be very effective when these principles are observed. Points Arising from Research Teachers’ own preferred ways of learning tend to affect the ways in which they teach. A greater awareness of learning preferences in general, and of their own in particular, can help teachers to be more aware of their own personal teaching ‘style’ Learning more about their own teaching style does not necessarily mean that teachers should be encouraged to change their style Teachers tend to be most effective when they teach to their own preferred style, but do so in a way that takes account of and respects different learning preferences An awareness of different learning styles can help teachers to sustain motivation by encouraging and facilitating pupils’ use of preferred styles but also providing support when using alternative approaches. Effective teaching involves effective organisation and management, but no single style or approach to class organisation is best Key Elements of Teaching Approaches Pupil Perceptions Pupils appreciate teachers who value and appreciate them
as individuals Good discipline is important, but pupils need to understand/recognise the need for it Pupils look for consistency of approach from a teacher Showing genuine interest in pupils’ lives is important, as is sharing aspects of your own life Pupils respond to teachers who genuinely care about them and want them to succeed Pupils react positively when the teacher listens and responds to their ideas rather than just assessing or judging - this will involve being prepared to deviate from the lesson plan Pupils need to feel that the teacher is on the ball and aware of what is going on in the class Pupils respond well to teachers who show personal enthusiasm for what they are teachingBeing Clear About Learning Purposes And LearningOutcomes Be aware of differences among learners e.g. preferred learning styles (see Toolkit sections on Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences). Teaching styles should accommodate all learning styles by providing opportunities to see the written word, to respond physically etc. Be aware that pupils learn at different speeds, some pupils will require much greater support and/or time in completing tasks. Develop a sense of when it is appropriate to move on to the next phase of teaching, when to stop and go back over things, when to pause for consolidation, when to accelerate the pace of learning.Using Different Interactions To Match DifferentPurposes And Outcomes(informing, describing, explaining, modelling,demonstrating, coaching, listening, watching, questioning) Allow time for pupils to be actively involved in their
learning, to rehearse new learning, to reflect, to do something with their new learning, to make concrete links between new and prior learning Pay particular attention to opening and closing sessions: use established but varying routines Pull the class together at the start to motivate, enthuse, clarify, focus Make specific links between what has gone before and how that fits into the ‘big picture’ - be clear on the overall aims of the study Allocate some time at the close to ‘pull’ things together, reiterating what has been learned, praising pupil effort and achievement Use peripherals and archetypes. Visual display of the subject material around the classroom improves the long- term learning by 90%. Archetypes are positive role models Memory maps for note taking. Use colour, bold images and space on the page to enable learners to build up their own unique way of making sense of the material.Use Flexible Groupings Be clear about the appropriateness of group work: the learning outcomes should determine the method of working and will include direct interactive teaching, whole class, group and individual work Pupils should be encouraged to work collaboratively and independently.Skilful Use Of Questions Use a variety of questions Offering alternative answers gives additional listening input to the learners, gives time for reflection and is useful in developing problem-solving skills Use open questions Phrase ideas in straightforward language appropriate to the level of the class Ensure careful listening to the answers given
Allow adequate thinking and answering time.Managing Time To Observe, Circulate, Respond AndIntervene Ensure that you are available to interact with pupils as they undertake their tasks e.g. observing and listening, evaluating individual responses, intervening to support and/or inject a degree of unpredictability into the conversation When possible, differentiate material by providing open- ended, problem-solving activities with a holistic approach to a topic Provide opportunities to demonstrate the new knowledge Circulate among the pupils to ensure that they remain on- task and to provide support and assistance when needed Build in fun. If we can build in open-mindedness, receptivity and sense of exploration to learning then outcomes will be achieved more quickly.Reflection and DiscussionWhich of the above approaches do you recognise in yourcurrent classroom practice?Are there any approaches that you would consider adoptingto improve your current classroom practice?Is there a conflict between letting your guard down withpupils and maintaining discipline? Some Activities Relating To the Issue of Teaching Approaches Key Objective Action element Some examples and suggestionsPupil Pupils respond well Pupils often appreciatePerceptions to teachers who personal show personal anecdotes/details which enthusiasm demonstrate our personal commitment to the work of the class. Can you build in more
opportunities for this? When opportunities arise, allow pupils to explore such anecdotes, bringing in their own experiences.Being clear Teaching styles A set of historical dates, shouldabout mathematical formulae or accommodate alllearning learning styles by the elements of thepurposes periodic table rapped or providing sung to a powerful beatand opportunities to will stay in the memoryoutcomes see the written longer than the familiar word, to respond tones of the teacher. physically etc. Journey around the room using peripherals,Using flashbacks andDifferent flashcards. Topics can beInteractions outlined on visual displays either stuck up at eyeTo Match Use peripherals level or above around theDifferent and archetypes. room or on differentPurposes cards. Pupils then go toAnd each in turn, talkingOutcomes through what is described there and how it all ties together. Divide class into groups of 4/5/. Brainstorm key facts, words or ideas about topic onto board. Pupils should be Give pupils 1 minute to encouraged to memorise the facts thenUse Flexible work erase. Each group is givenGroupings collaboratively and 2 minutes to reproduce independently. the same facts by brainstorming. Game ends when group has the full list. New subject then chosen.Skilful Use Use a variety of Factual/closed: When? questions Where? Who? What? willOf only have one rightQuestions answer. Thought provoking/open: How? Why? What do you think? How do you feel? promote discussion, stimulate critical thinking
and encourage problem- solving. Can have a number of right answers. Verbal Football. Divide class into two teams. The ‘ball’ is passed by asking and answering questions.Managing Pupil in Team A asksTime To question, if it is answeredObserve, Provide first by member of hisCirculate, opportunities to own team the ‘ball’ has demonstrate the been passed. ThreeRespond And new knowledge passes scores a goal. AIntervene tackle is made if a member of the other team intercepts the ‘ball’ by answering the question first. He then asks a question etc.