Novel drug delivery system nanotechnology


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  • by definiton as you can see ”it’s the art of manipulating matter at the nanoscale level”
  • Novel drug delivery system nanotechnology

    3. 3. Contents  Drug delivery  Targeted drug delivery  Nanotechnology  F i e l d s u s i n g n a n o t e c h n o l o g y  Dendrimers  Applications in drug delivery (dendrimers)  Mechanism of drug delivery (dendrimers)  Liposome  Liposomes in drug delivery  Liposome preparation  Micelle  Micellar shape  Micelle formation mechanism  Miclle as drug carrier
    4. 4. Drug Delivery  Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect.  Drug delivery technologies that modify  Drug release profiles  Absorption  Distribution  Elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety and patient convenience and compliance.
    5. 5. Drug Delivery Most common methods of delivery include the  Non-invasive peroral (through the mouth)  Topical (skin)  Transmucosal (nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal)  Inhalation routes.  Parental (IV, IM, IA, ISp etc)
    6. 6. Generation of Drug Delivery System 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generation Tablet Capsule Ointment Suspension Emulsion Suppositories Repeat action tablet Prolonged action tablet Enteric Coated tablet Timed Release tablet Osmotically Control System Swelling Controlled Magnetic Controlled System Diffusion Controlled System Targeted DDS Modulated DDS Self Regulated DDS Gene Therapy
    7. 7. TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY Targeted drug delivery, sometimes called smart drug delivery • A method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. • The goal of a targeted drug delivery system is to prolong, localize, target and have a protected drug interaction with the diseased tissue.
    8. 8. Advantage of targeted drug delivery system over traditional drug delivery system • Increased efficacy of the drug. • Site specific delivery. • Decreased toxicity/side effects. • Increased convenience. • Better patient compliance. • Viable treatments for previously incurable diseases.
    9. 9. Novel drug delivery system It is advance drug delivery system which improve • Drug potency • Control drug release to give a sustained therapeutic effect • Provide greater safety • Finally it is to target a drug specifically to a desired tissue
    10. 10. “Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating matter at the nanoscale” which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology
    11. 11. 1.Medicine 2.Energy i) Reduction of energy consumption ii) Increasing the efficiency of energy production iii) The use of more user friendly energy systems 3.Information and Communication 4.Heavy Industries i) Aerospace ii) Refineries iii) Vehicle manufactures Fields using Nano Technology
    13. 13. DRUG DELIVERY - Employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs. - Oral administration of drugs.
    14. 14. THERAPY TECHNIQUES - Buckyballs - Nanoshells - Nanoparticles - Aluminosilicate Nanoparticles - Nanofibers
    15. 15. ANTI-MICROBIAL TECHNIQUES - Nanoparticle Cream - Nanocapsules - Cell repairs using Nanorobots
    16. 16. i) Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. ii) Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. iii) Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample.
    17. 17. i) Nanotechnology can help to reproduce or to repair damaged tissue. ii) “Tissue engineering” makes use of artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. iii) Tissue engineering might replace today’s conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Advanced forms of tissue engineering may lead to life extension.
    18. 18. Applications of Nanoparticles to Drug Discovery and Biology  Fluorescent biological markers  Detection of proteins  Probing of DNA structures  MRI contrast enhancement  Separation and purification of biological molecules and cells  Tumor destruction via heating  Tissue engineering  Drug and gene delivery
    19. 19. Possible Opportunities for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery Enhanced drug properties such as:  Solubility  Rate of dissolution  Oral bioavailability  Targeting ability Enhanced dosing requirements: Lower dosed administered Better side effect profile More convenient dosage forms
    20. 20. FDA-Regulated Products Expected to be Impacted by Nanotechnology  Drugs (delivery systems)  Medical devices  Biotechnology products  Tissue engineering products  Vaccines  Cosmetics  Combination products
    21. 21.  Tree-like polymers, branching out from a central core and subdividing into hierarchical branching units - Not more that 15 nm in size, Mol. Wt very high - Very dense surface surrounding a relatively hollow core (vs. the linear structure in traditional polymers) Dendrimers
    22. 22.  In 2008 there were over 10 000 scientific reports and 1000 patents dealing with dendritic structures. Courtesy of: Dendrimers
    23. 23. Dendritic Family
    24. 24. Structural Components of Dendrmers
    25. 25. drugs drug delivery –  Small molecules  Proteins  Tissue targeting Drug solublization RNA/DNA delivery Diagnostics & materials applications Applications in Pharmaceutical Industry
    26. 26.  Improved efficacy of drugs  Extension of drug half-life  Reduced toxicity  Active or passive targeting  Product lifecycle management  Improved solubility of drugs  Drug “rescue” Applications in Drug Delivery
    27. 27.  Utilizing a dendrimer construct the aqueous solubility of the drug Paclitaxel was increased >9,000X. Paclitaxel aqueous solubility 0.8 mg/mL Improved Drug Solubility
    28. 28.  Dendrimers are particularly attractive as they offer a high drug-loading capacity.  2 methods of dendrimer drug delivery are  Encapsulation of drugs  Dendrimer –drug conjugates Mechanism of drug delivery: Dendrimer
    29. 29.  Interactions between the dendrimer and drug to trap the drug inside the dendrimer. Such a system can be used to encapsulate drugs and provide controlled delivery.  ,eg: DNA was complexed with PAMAM dendrimers for gene delivery applications, and hydrophobic drugs and dye molecules were incorporated into various dendrimer cores. Mechanism of drug delivery: Dendrimer
    30. 30. Dendrimer–Drug Conjugates In dendrimer–drug conjugates, the drug is attached through a covalent bond either directly or via a linker/spacer to the surface groups of a dendrimer. Dendrimers have been conjugated to various biologically active molecules such as drugs, antibodies, sugar moieties and lipids Mechanism of drug delivery: Dendrimer
    31. 31.  The drug loading can be tuned by varying the generation number of the dendrimer  Release of the drug can be controlled by incorporating degradable linkages between the drug and dendrimer  Conjugates of PAMAM dendrimers with cisplatin, a potent anticancer drug with non-specific toxicity and poor water solubility.  The conjugates show increased solubility, decreased systemic toxicity and selective accumulation in solid tumors Mechanism of drug delivery: Dendrimer
    32. 32. Drugs Delivered Through Dendrimers
    33. 33. Phospholipids Polar Head Groups Three carbon glycerol
    34. 34. An artificial microscopic vesicle consisting of an aqueous core enclosed in one or more phospholipid layers. Used to convey vaccines, drugs, enzymes, or other substances to target cells or organs. Liposome
    35. 35. Liposome  Spherical vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer Hydrophilic Hydrophobic
    36. 36. Liposomes can be subcategorized  Small unilamellar vesicles (SUV), 25 to 100 nm in size that consist of a single lipid bilayer  Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), 100 to 400 nm in size that consist of a single lipid bilayer  Multilamellar vesicles (MLV), 200 nm to several microns, that consist of two or more concentric bilayers  Vesicles above 1 µm are known as giant vesicles.
    37. 37. 1. Conventional Liposomes  Prepared form natural neutral and anionic lipids and have nonspecific interactions with their environment  Relatively unstable  Have low carrying capacities  Tend to be “leaky” to entrapped drug substances . Types of Liposomes
    38. 38.  Non-conventional Liposomes  Small sized, surface modified to overcome some of the short comings of conventional liposomes  Modified to reduce negative charge, decrease fluidity and cause steric hinderance to phagocytosis  Properties altered (e.g. by incorporation of cholesterol)  Polymerized liposomes more stable and less “leaky” Types of Liposomes
    39. 39. Uses of Liposomes  Chelation therapy for treatment of heavy meta poisoning  Enzyme Replacement Diagnostic imaging of tumors  Study of membranes  Cosmetics  Drug Delivery
    40. 40.  They can deliver agents directly into cells.  Routes:  Intravenous (iv)  Subcutenuous (sc)  Intramuscular (im)  Topical  Pulmonary Route of Liposomes in Drug Delivery
    41. 41.  Improved therapeutic response  Achieve appropriate tissue or blood levels  Reduced adverse reactions  Less drug administered  Targeted drug release  Lower dosing frequency  Improved patient compliance  Simpler dosing regimens  Lower cost per dose Advantages of Liposomes in Drug Delivery
    42. 42.  Doxil Daunorubicin 1995  Daunoxome Daunorubicin 1996  Ambisome Amphotericin B 1997  Depocyt Cytarabine 1999 APPROVED LIPOSOME PRODUCTS
    43. 43. Liposome Preparation Lipid in organic solvent solutionEvaporation Extrusion (or sonication) Liposomes and unencapsulated SRB Lipid film Freeze/thaw cycles Gel filtration Purified liposomes Hydrate with sulforhodamine B (SRB) solution
    44. 44. Liposome Preparation
    45. 45. Critical factors in Liposome preparation  Particle size  Method of manufacture  Lipid types  Polymerization  Interfacial charge  Steric stabilization  Sterilization
    46. 46. Modes of Liposome/Cell Interaction
    47. 47. Media and Methods that can affect Release  Solvents  pH  Temperature  Agitation  Enzymes  Cell culture  Sink conditions  Volume  Sampling interval
    48. 48. Liposomes Help Improve Therapeutic index Rapid metabolism Unfavorable pharmokinetics Low solubility Lack of stability Irritation Custom design Lipid content Size Surface charge Method of preparation
    49. 49. Micelle  Micelles are like tiny balls of molecules.  They are made out of amphipathic molecules.  An amphipathic molecule is a molecule that is Both hydrophilic (polar) and hydrophobic (non-polar).  A micelle is a ball that forms when amphipathic molecules are put in a liquid. The liquid can be polar (like water) or non-polar (like butane or octane).
    50. 50. MICELLAR SHAPE
    51. 51.  Stepwise growth model (Isodesmic model)  Closed aggregation model Micelle formation mechanism
    52. 52. Micelle formation mechanism  Stepwise growth model (Isodesmic model) Aggregation is a continuous process broad aggregation, no cmc
    53. 53.  Closed aggregation model Aggregation number n dominates Micelle formation mechanism
    54. 54. H2O
    55. 55. Miclle as Drug Carrier
    56. 56. Miclle as Drug Carrier
    57. 57. - From being a theory to something we can now see, words turned into reality. - Nanotechnology has evolved over the period of time for many decades, and is now showing its potential to the whole world. - The development of nanomachines such as: I-switch, nanoimpellers, nanobots etc. - Nanotechnology will increase your standard of living. - Up to today nanotechnology is what's in, what's new, and what's the latest technology being developed all over the world.