1<br />Undergraduate Studies  ePortfolio<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Psychology, 2011<br />
Personal Statement<br />
Resume<br />
Reflection<br />
Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communica...
Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Statistics for Psychology <br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University <br />
Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Effect Size<br />		In psychology, effect size is a way in which to qualify the...
Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Effect Size<br />What is the restricted range? In this case do we find that th...
Research Skills<br />Life without Contraception <br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> <br />
Research Skills<br />					Abstract<br />		The purpose of this paper is to explore why women should receive free contracept...
Research Skills<br />Life without Contraception<br /> <br />		Contraception is the use of any practices, methods, or devic...
Research Skills<br />		In this paper the subject to discuss is the side effects of abortion and emergency pills. This issu...
Research Skills<br />		The American psychological association task force on mental health and abortion reached a similar c...
Research Skills<br />Emergency Contraception Pill<br />Unintended pregnancy, particularly in young women, is an ongoing gl...
Research Skills<br />Abortion <br />Improved continuation of oral contraceptive use may decrease the incidence of unintend...
Research Skills<br />Facing the challenges<br />		According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates from 2000, approx...
Research Skills<br />Summary<br />		Currently contraception is not free for women nor do all health insurance companies pa...
Research Skills<br />References<br /> <br />Alini, E. (2010). Contraception champions. Maclean's, 123(48/49), 29. Retrieve...
Research Skills<br />Halbreich, U., Borenstein, J., Terry, P., & Kahn, L. S. (2003). The prevalence, impairment, 	impact, ...
Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Group and Effective Communication<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />
Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />		Working in teams may be challenging for some and beneficial for others.  The...
Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Collaboration will also be addressed on the training plan.  This will allow me...
Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />References<br />Crow, K. A. (2002). Collaboration. DRM Associates. Retrieved f...
Ethics<br />Ethic<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br />
Ethics<br />Women in the Media<br />		Individuals are surrounded by stereotypes no matter the ethnic group, culture or rel...
Ethics<br />		With each show or magazine you have the positive and negative in it as I stated before magazines have been g...
Diversity Awareness<br />Racial Discrimination<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />
Diversity Awareness<br />Racial Discrimination<br /> <br />	Racial discrimination is reality in our society that affects a...
Diversity Awareness<br />Work Place<br />	Discrimination in the work place is an issue that goes on to often; when it come...
Foundations of Psychology<br />PSY 400<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />October 1, 2010<br />Argosy University <br />
Foundations of Psychology<br />Based on the reading Codrina’s can more then one cognitive distortions one thing that jumps...
Foundations of Psychology<br />		As a therapist some techniques she should incorporate into this session is building self-...
Foundations of Psychology<br />Reference:<br />Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook: Using the new mood therapy i...
Applied Psychology<br /> <br />PSY 400<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />October 22, 2010<br />Argosy University <br />
Applied Psychology<br />     		Each therapist is different as well as their clients are all different, if the entire thera...
Applied Psychology<br />		Integrative approach to things basically means to make things open to all, when things are open ...
Applied Psychology<br />		Some personal characteristics are having trust within your self, and what you believe in, being ...
Applied Psychology<br />		Behavior therapy is meant to be short term in duration. However, it can encompass as many as 25 ...
Applied Psychology<br />Reference:<br />Erskine, R. G., & Trautmann, R. L. (1993). The process of integrative psychotherap...
Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Moral Reasoning<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Professor Torok<br />January 10, 2011<br />
Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Moral Reasoning<br />		Making good moral decisions is difficult because as people, live i...
My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner?<br />	I ...
Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address...
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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Mcmillan S

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Psychology, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />
  4. 4. Reflection<br />
  5. 5. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above<br />
  6. 6. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Statistics for Psychology <br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University <br />
  7. 7. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Effect Size<br /> In psychology, effect size is a way in which to qualify the effectiveness of a particular intervention treatment relative to a selected comparison (Argosy 2010). My first research situation, which I would be concerned about the effect size in my research endeavor, would be for a weight loss program. A weight loss program may boast that it leads with an average weight loss of 20 pounds. In this case 20 pounds is an indicator of the claimed effect size. We would have to look at the factors that affect the effect size in this case the reliability of the measurement on which it is based. If the weight loss program results in an average weight loss of 20 pounds, we do not know if every participant losses 20 pounds of if half the participants lose 40 pounds and the other half do not lose any weight at all. Therefore any measure of a particular outcome may be considered to consist of the true underlying value, together with a component of error (Argosy 2010). <br /> Another factor that can influence the effect size is the restricted range. In this example the results from two classes of participants participating in the morning and evening may have different results. It would be expected that the morning participants have a high weight lose percentage that those of the evening class. This may be a result of the morning participants being more enthusiastic and energetic than those of the evening class depending on what activities they may have taken part in during the day.<br />My second example is a tutoring program that claims it raises the student performance by a letter grade. The grade increase is the claimed effect size of the program. In this case we would look at the results from the students grades based on those who participate in the program and those who don’t. Again we would also have to look at the factors that influence the effect size. <br />
  8. 8. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking<br />Effect Size<br />What is the restricted range? In this case do we find that the students who enrolled in the program are those who based on past statistics have performed poorly or are they the upper percentile students in terms of performance? This restriction would have an impact on the results from the program. We also have to look at the measurement reliability. If the participants are randomly selected how much difference do we have in the results from those who participated and those who did not? Individual grades may vary again in comparison to the average grade. We may have a case where half of those who participated improved by two letter grades and the other half had the same grade. This would significantly affect the average result.<br /> My final example is the student comprehension of students based on time. Students who are taught on the morning hour’s verses students who are taught in the afternoon hours. Here we are looking at how time of day affects comprehension. The factors that influence the effect size will be the same. The restricted range, in this case do we have a randomly selected sample or do we have the high achievers tested in the afternoon and a mixed population in the morning. The results may be the same on average however individually it may vary by a larger margin. We also look at the measurement reliability, how much materials do need the participants to comprehend. In most cases if we have a lot of material to cover verses less material the results will also vary.<br /> In conclusion if the test is conducted in the late afternoon with 30 items to comprehend, and another in the morning with 10 items to comprehend in the morning, and a final one with the same amount at both times. All these may yield similar results or results that vary with large margins. It is important to consider the factors that influence the effect size. The restricted range and measurement reliability can greatly affect the outcome of an experiment. <br />Reference<br />Argosy University (2010). Psychological Statistics. Methods of Sampling: Probability and Non – <br />Probability. Retrieved on June 27, 2010 from: http://myeclassonline.com<br />
  9. 9. Research Skills<br />Life without Contraception <br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> <br />
  10. 10. Research Skills<br /> Abstract<br /> The purpose of this paper is to explore why women should receive free contraception or reduced cost for contraception, in addition, the research question, should insurance companies pay for contraception, is also being explored. Contraception should not be labeled for just preventing childbirth because studies have shown that contraception can help prevent mood disorder, personality, and behavior issues, and depression among other things. The positive and negative effects of using contraception like weight gain, hair loss, and it may not help with their depression depending on how severe the case is (Vemuri&Williams 2011). When women are without contraception most women resort to an abortion or emergency contraception pill (ECP), which, has mental side effects on women. The more abortions that women have, the higher their chances of depression or mental problems. Currently there are only a few states that provide free contraception and only few insurance companies that pay for contraception. Thus, the hypothesis is whether providing free contraception to women will help with psychological problems reduce abortion rate, and emergency pill.<br /> <br />
  11. 11. Research Skills<br />Life without Contraception<br /> <br /> Contraception is the use of any practices, methods, or devices to prevent pregnancy from occurring in a sexually active woman, it may also be referred to as family planning, pregnancy prevention, fertility control, or contraception; birth control methods are designed either to prevent fertilization of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus (Vemuri&Williams 2011). The problem is contraception is not given out free to women for preventing pregnancy. Some insurance opt to pay for certain contraception. This topic was selected is that teen pregnancy is high and most people cannot afford health insurance. If preventative care were free, teen pregnancy would likely be lower than what it is today. Most insurance companies do pay for contraception, depending on whichstate women exist in and the type of contraception used. <br /> Most women work because they want to get preventative care from the insurance company. Currently there are only a few states that require insurance companies to pay for birth control. What insurance companies fail to understand is contraception can help with mental issues women may go through before they get their menstrual cycle. Insurance companies have no problem paying for Viagra for men but make a big deal for paying for contraception care for women. With the new health care reform, government allow mammograms, high blood pressure and obesity to be free without co-pay just to name a few, but does not provide for contraception. Planned Parenthood Federation of America is one foundation trying to get free contraception for women because Planned Parenthood sees the need for it. In this paper information will be provided to see why contraception plays a big part in women’s life as a mental standpoint and how psychologist have shown that women have behavioral changes when on or off contraception. Contraception has a big part in women’s life when trying to prevent unwanted pregnancy, abortion, and the overuse of ECP as well as behavior and personality issue womencan develop after using ECP, getting an abortion (Robinson, Stotland, Russo, Lang & Occhiogrosso, 2009). <br />
  12. 12. Research Skills<br /> In this paper the subject to discuss is the side effects of abortion and emergency pills. This issue can be resolved with just a sign of a pen with the new health care reform. Studies show that not all women are helped while using contraception due because of the side effects it has on them. Women with unwanted pregnancies are more likely to suffer from a number of co- occurring life stressors, including childhood adversity, relationship problems, exposure to violence, financial problems, and poor coping capacity, all of which contribute to emotional distress. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, whether or not a woman has an abortion (Robinson et al. 2009).<br />How it relates to psychology<br /> Studies have shown that association between an abortion and subsequent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Substance use, suicidal behavior, and prior behavioral difficulties (symptoms of conduct and oppositional defiant disorder) in childhood and adolescence have been found to be positively related with obtaining an abortion. A recent study (Hardy, 2011) in a nationally representative United States sample collected between 1990 and 1992 supported these findings by identifying a relation between abortion and mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders Outpatient mental health services use and hospital admission rates for psychiatric reasons are higher in women who have undergone abortion, compared with different samples of women who have not had abortions. The directionality of the relation between abortion and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder, mental illness remains unclear. Several studies have found pre-abortion symptomatology to be significantly associated with having an abortion and also with post-abortion mental problems (Mota, Burnett & Sareen, 2010). <br />
  13. 13. Research Skills<br /> The American psychological association task force on mental health and abortion reached a similar conclusion in recent reports, at least among women who have had only one abortion. Both depression symptoms and general anxiety have been found to be lower post-abortion than before the abortion occurred. Further, these rates were deemed comparable with those in general population samples (Mota et al. 2010). Null findings between abortion, depression, and anxiety have also been described. In line with these findings, major et al. found in their longitudinal study that only a very small percentage of women met DSM-III-R criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder two years after the abortion. Similarly, Steinberg and Russo found no relation between abortion, and PTSD, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder in two nationally representative datasets when several covariates were taken into account. One of these important covariates was violence, which was also found to render the relation between abortion and depression non-significant in a study by Taft and Watson." Finally, in a large sample of women experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, no association was found between abortion and non-psychotic mental illness based on diagnoses made with the ICD (Mota et al. 2010).<br /> Major depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, agoraphobia without panic, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, social phobia, specific phobia, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were investigated in this study. Summary variables were also created to form any mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, substance use, eating disorder, and mental disorder variables. Owing to the relatively small number of cases of individual eating disorders, psychologist examined only a summary variable consisting of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Agreement between the WMH-CIDI and diagnoses made by clinicians using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV ranged from moderate to good for most mental disorders (Mota et al. 2010).<br />
  14. 14. Research Skills<br />Emergency Contraception Pill<br />Unintended pregnancy, particularly in young women, is an ongoing global problem (Cleland, 2009). Worldwide, nearly one fourth of all pregnancies end in abortion (WHO, 2007). The number of unintended pregnancies in the United States and Europe is highest among women 18 to 24 years old (International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2009). Several studies have documented the negative outcomes for young women associated with unintended pregnancies, including an increased number of abortions, depression, and decreased quality of life (Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2006). Emergency contraceptive pills are indicated to prevent undesired pregnancy after non-consensual sexual intercourse (ACOG, 2005). A large body of literature documents that ECPs are a safe and effective form of birth control (WHO, 1998), well suited to the developmental needs of many young people because advanced planning is not required (Gordon, 1990). Additionally, they are increasingly available worldwide (Weisberg & Fraser, 2009), including in most pharmacies in the United States (Harris, 2006) (Beaulieu, Kools, Kennedy & Humphreys 2011). <br /> The study that has explored couple dynamics in relation to ECP decision making included women of various reproductive ages, and it found that men's dominance in decision making, pressure for sex, and a strong desire by the man to avoid pregnancy were associated with ECP use (Harper, Minnis, ErPadian, 2003). However, this study, which makes good use of a secondary analysis of data, was limited by only one measure of ECPs ever used, and the data were collected at a time when access to ECPs was limited (1995-1998). A more recent study conducted in the United Kingdom (Bayley, Brown, & Wallace, 2009) explored teens' beliefs about ECPs and found that men wanted to communicate their wishes to their partners regarding ECP use, they were inhibited by the possibility of men perceived as applying pressure. Some women participants validated their concerns they construed a man's request to his partner for ECP use to be a display of selfishness. Additional influences of this nature, both explicit and alarming may also be significant to young adult couples' ECP decision-making (Beaulieu et al. 2011). <br />
  15. 15. Research Skills<br />Abortion <br />Improved continuation of oral contraceptive use may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancy. Therefore, identifying predictors of continuation is important to informing targeted interventions. Abortion is a fact in the lives of many women. The World Health Report 20051 estimates that approximately 211 million pregnancies occur worldwide each year; 46 million end in induced abortion. The 40% of these abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, resulting in 68,000 maternal deaths. In the United States, approximately 1.3 million of the six million pregnancies each year end in induced abortion. Approximately 20% of American women of child- bearing age have already had an abortion; it is estimated that one out of three American women will have had one by age 45.2 (Robinson et al. 2009).<br />If contraception is provided to women at childbearing age it is less likely women have to result in getting abortion. With the high number of women getting an abortion it should be a clear sign that women should be provided with some type of contraception. As years pass by it seems the young women are when having sex. Because of the pressure they are getting from television, friends, and life it is self. Getting an abortion can come with different effect to women which are never disclosed in January 1992, by a commentary by Nada Scotland entitled “The Myth of the Abortion Trauma Syndrome,” which, concluded that no scientific evidence supported the existence of a psychiatric diagnostic entity related to induced abortion. Since that time, the literature on the subject has grown; with articles variously concluding that abortion either does or does not cause mental health problems. The existence of an “abortion trauma syndrome” has again been postulated in addition to “post-abortion depression and psychosis.” These “syndromes” (not recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association) in addition to other claims about mental health effects, have been used as a rationale for changes in United States public policy, both nationally and in individual states—for example, by requiring physicians to inform patients about the increase their risk of depression and suicidal after having an abortion (Robinson et al. 2009).<br />
  16. 16. Research Skills<br />Facing the challenges<br /> According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates from 2000, approximately 530,000 women die each year from pregnancy-related causes, and >10 million suffer long-term disability. A recent publication, however; uses modeling to estimate maternal mortality from 1980 to 2008 and estimates 342,900 deaths in 2008, down from 526,300 in 1980.3 Although the exact number of maternal deaths is not known, by all accounts the figure is unacceptably high. The leading direct causes of maternal mortality are hemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, obstructed labor, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, and indirect causes include anemia, HIV, and malaria. The vast majority of these deaths take place in the developing world, where women suffer a high risk of death and disability with each pregnancy, and because of high fertility rates, are exposed to many pregnancies in their lifetime. Access to comprehensive family planning in the developing world could prevent 142,000 maternal deaths and save 1.4 million infants (Lester, Benfiel & Fathalla, 2011).<br /> Family planning can decrease the number of times a woman is exposed to the chance of death in pregnancy overall and prevent particularly high-risk pregnancies—those that happen too young, too close together, too old and those that are not desired and therefore, led to unsafe abortion or lack of care-seeking behavior in pregnancy (Lester et al. 2011). For individuals, access to family planning can help achieve the fundamental human right to choose the number and timing of children, overcome traditional gender roles, help girls stay in school longer, improve maternal health, and allow women to join the labor force. Family planning programs that include condoms, and family planning can decrease vertical transmission by preventing unwanted pregnancies in HIV-positive women. Family planning programs can also decrease infertility by offering dual protection to women who are at risk for pregnancy. Accessing family planning services. Family planning providers can be reluctant to provide services to young or unmarried women, and misinformation can lead to unwarranted fears and myths about contraceptive methods or side effects. There continues to be a large documented unmet need for family planning; however with 200 million women world- wide wishing to delay or avoid pregnancy but not using a reliable method of contraception (Lester et al. 2011).<br />
  17. 17. Research Skills<br />Summary<br /> Currently contraception is not free for women nor do all health insurance companies pay for contraception. In contrast, insurance companies pay for Viagra prescriptions and clinics/doctors’ offices provide free condoms. A certain percentage of women who work exclusively for access to health benefit simply because of the cost associated with contraception. Some women suffer severe symptoms when not taking some form of oral contraception. In some cases women can suffer from Premenstrual Dysphonic Disorder (PMDD), which is a condition that causes women, are known to have severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation (Halbreich, Williams & Leanne, 2003). <br /> It has come to doctors’ attention that 3% of women suffer from (PMDD) during the years when they are have menstrual periods; many of these women develop anxiety, majordepression, and seasonal affective disorder. Personally. The argument here is that it is not free because no one but women see the need for it or insurance companies do not want to pay for it because it is not a disease. Providing contraception to women can help prevent over-population, depression, lower abortion rates as well as lower the maternal deaths rates (Halbreich, et al. 2003).<br /> A high rate of mental issues after they get an abortion: many studies attribute post-abortion mental states to the abortion experience without providing adequate control for pre-abortion mental states even though the literature suggests that previous psychiatric history is the most consistent predictor of psychiatric disorders following abortion. Previous psychiatric history may itself be associated with the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy. Symptoms of depression can interfere with a woman’s ability to refuse intercourse, use contraception, or negotiate for a partner’s use of a condom. Psychotic disorders leave many sufferers vulnerable to sexual exploitation, as do alcohol and substance abuse (Robinson et al. 2009).<br />Conclusion<br /> Women’s health is closely linked to a nation’s level of development with the leading causes of death in women in resource-poor nations attributable to preventable causes. To do this, political will and financial resources must be dedicated to developing and evaluating a scalable approach to strengthen health systems, support community-based programs, and promote widespread campaigns to address gender inequality, including promoting girls’ education. The millennium development goals have highlighted the importance of addressing maternal health and promoting gender equality for the overall development strategy of a nation. We must capitalize on the momentum created by this and other international campaigns and continue to advocate for comprehensive strategies to improve global women’s health (Lester et al. 2010). <br /> <br />
  18. 18. Research Skills<br />References<br /> <br />Alini, E. (2010). Contraception champions. Maclean's, 123(48/49), 29. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Baird, D. A fifth freedom? British Medical Journal. (1965). 13; 2(5471):1141–1148.<br /> <br />Beaulieu, R., Kools, S., Kennedy, H., & Humphreys, J. (2011). Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1), 41-48. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2010.01381.x<br /> <br />Berger, M. (2010). Virtue, vice, and contraband: a history of contraception in America. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 84(2), 281. <br /> <br />Bull, M. (1982). Practicing prevention. Contraception. British Medical Journal. (Clin Res Ed) 22;284(6328):1535–1536.<br /> <br />Davies, G., Frankland, J., & Parkinson S. (1976). The first three months of free contraception in a market-town group practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practice. (168):547–550.<br /> <br />Dempsey, A., Johnson, S., & Westhoff, C. (2011). Predicting oral contraceptive continuation using the tran theoretical model of health behavior change. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 43(1), 23-29. doi:10.1363/4302311<br /> <br />
  19. 19. Research Skills<br />Halbreich, U., Borenstein, J., Terry, P., & Kahn, L. S. (2003). The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD).Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 1-23.<br /> <br />Herbert, L., Williams, D., & Leanne, L. (2011). Oral contraceptives: drugs-prescribing: drugs- side effects: menstruation: estrogen, physicians. Journal of Family Practice -0260:2, 76(8) ISSN: 00943509 <br /> <br />Lester, F., Benfield, N., & Fathalla, M. (2010). Global women's health in 2010: Facing the challenges. Journal of Women's Health (15409996), 19(11), 2081-2089. doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2083<br />Mota, N. P., Burnett, M., & Sareen, J. (2010). Associations between abortion, mental disorders, and suicidal behavior in a nationally representative sample. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(4), 239-247.<br /> <br />Robinson, G., Stotland, N. L., Russo, N., Lang, J. A., & Occhiogrosso, M. (2009). Is there an “ abortion trauma syndrome”? Citiquing the evidence. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17(4), 268-290. doi:10.1080/10673220903149119<br /> <br />Vemuri, M., & Williams, K. (2011). Update on estrogen and progesterone as treatments of mood disorders in women. Psychiatric Times, 28(3), 58<br /> <br /> <br />
  20. 20. Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Group and Effective Communication<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />
  21. 21. Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br /> Working in teams may be challenging for some and beneficial for others. The importance of teamwork is important in order for teams to work together to accomplish a common goal as well as ensure that each team member is product, efficient, and is a positive contributor of the team. Teams may face many challenges during their interactions, however; these challenges can also turn into team benefits if addressed and resolved appropriately. To ensure a positive and beneficial team experience, Learning Celia has designed a training plan that will assist with addressing challenges, and benefits of group communication, collaboration, and conflict management, which will contribute to the success of future projects. <br /> Celia designed a training plan that can be used to assist groups with identifying team challenges and benefits in the areas of communication, collaboration, and challenges. This training will quickly identify challenges within the group and share benefits, which will assist in creating a comfortable team environment, build cohesiveness within the team, and resolved differences among team members quickly. The training plan will be used as a guide and an ongoing refresher for groups to overcome challenges that may arise and expand on team benefits. The groups will also be able to eliminate misunderstandings, share best practices, build trust and confidence in each team member as well as shift perspectives as needed to understand each team member’s point of view. The training plan will outline the importance of team communication, collaboration, and conflict management. <br /> Communication provides control, motivation, emotional expression and information within a team or group environment (Robbins & Judge, 2007). The training plan will outline the effectiveness of open and honest communication, which can strengthen a team as well as how poor communication can weaken and destroy a team. The training plan will also review the use of interpersonal communication methods, which includes oral, written, and nonverbal communication. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be outlined and thoroughly reviewed. Some advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback, whereas, passing oral communication through a number of individuals is a disadvantage due to the possibility of the information being communicated incorrectly (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Written communications include but are limited to memos, fax transmissions, electronic mail, and instant messaging. Written communications are more likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear, however; written communications are time consuming, and may cause a delay or lack of feedback. Written communications can be perceived incorrectly, which is based on word choice and tone that may be displayed in the written message. Nonverbal communication, which is known as body language, which includes body movements, the intonations or emphasis individuals give to words, facial expression and the physical distance between the sender and receiver can add to or complicate verbal communication (Robbins & Judge, 2007). <br />
  22. 22. Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Collaboration will also be addressed on the training plan. This will allow members of the team or group to overcome competitiveness and cultural differences between members as well increase and maintain productivity, cohesiveness, and decision- making within a team or group. Collaboration will allow team or group members to understand the basis for bringing together knowledge, experience, and skills of multiple team or group members to contribute to a project more effectively (Crow, 2002). The training will also outline the requirements of effective collaboration, which are, early involvement, a culture that encourages teamwork, defined team member responsibilities as well as effective teamwork and team member cooperation (Crow, 2002). <br /> Conflict Management is an integral part of the training plan, which will be used to provide options to manage resolve and decrease conflict within a team or group. Conflict is a natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes, beliefs, values, needs or personality differences (Watershed Partners, 2009). This training will demonstrate how conflict can become healthy through the use of effective conflict management, which will lead to growth and innovation as well as new ways of thinking (Watershed Partners, 2009). Team or group members will learn how to use and apply conflict management appropriately to gain mutual benefits and strengthen the relationship of the team or group while focusing on the ultimate goal, which is for everyone to win by meeting some of their needs (Watershed Partners, 2009).<br /> In conclusion, the use of this training plan would have increased communication, collaboration, and conflict management skills of each team or group member, which would have contributed to a more successful project. Using this training plan would have allowed team or group members the ability to apply open, honest and, effective communication while working with other members, which would have created a healthy and comfortable team environment, build trust and confidence throughout the team. The team would have also been able to apply and gain a better understanding of the benefits of collaboration and how to overcome challenges in this area by using their competitiveness and cultural differences to strengthen the team. Individuals within the team or group would also be able to enhance their conflict management skills. Team members will be able to turn conflict into a healthy situation, which will assist the team with remaining positive, productive, and efficient. <br />
  23. 23. Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />References<br />Crow, K. A. (2002). Collaboration. DRM Associates. Retrieved from http://www.npd-<br />solutions.com/collaboration.html<br />Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organization Behavior ~ Communication Chapter<br />11. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-Text]. : Prentice Hall, Inc. A <br /> Pearson Education Company. Retrieved from University of <br /> Phoenix, LDR531~Organizational Leadership website.<br />Watershed Partners. (2009). Managing Conflict. Retrieved from <br /> http://www2.ctic.purdue.edu/KYW/Brochures/ManageConflict.html<br />
  24. 24. Ethics<br />Ethic<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br />
  25. 25. Ethics<br />Women in the Media<br /> Individuals are surrounded by stereotypes no matter the ethnic group, culture or religion. The dictionary definition of a stereotype is “one that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.” When looking at magazines, advertisements on television and leading characters on television women of all ages are being portrayed but is it really the media’s fault is the question. If women stand up and say no what can the media do only thing that comes to mind is start-using a man. Since the media shows that having the best of everything, having the best physical assets will make you more appealing to men and have a better life some women go for that. Media has being doing this for years and will keep on happening until we set standards for the media. <br /> <br /> The advertisements seen in magazines are of half naked women that were a size two, with long hair and flawless. I am a big reader of Cosmopolitan, People and anything for women since I am into fashion and wanting to stay up on the latest and greatest. In most of these magazines they show runway models I have notice a little change in the way they advertise clothing for women by showing everyday women. In all magazines there are advertisements of weight loss, bigger breast, clothing to make you look smaller and how to enhance your sex life. When it comes to television shows they always depict women as if you are blond you are not as bright as the brunet women as well as women wearing glasses are smarter. <br /> <br /> As well as if he has any sense of fashion he must be gay, or if a women wear unappealing clothing she lesbian. When listening to women talk in the bar on different shows it seems to always aim towards men and how they are always doing something wrong or even about sex asall women are very sexual active. One of my favorite show is the Closer because it shows a women in power and running her depart how she see fits even when her boss comes around she makes him see things her way. Her clothing on this show is very professional as well as other women on the show one thing I did notice that she wears glasses and makes her sound southern. Another show is The Good Wife now this show has a woman earning her way to the top the right way even when others are thinking she is sleeping with her boss. She was a victim of a cheating husband that every man and women consistently throws in her face but she keeps her head up and keeps things moving. While dealing with her husband and the job she maintains her professionalism. <br />
  26. 26. Ethics<br /> With each show or magazine you have the positive and negative in it as I stated before magazines have been getting better with having everyday women advertised in them. As well as when showing some type of clothing, hand bag and shoes they show the high end one as well as the cheaper version for those who can afford them. Writes are seeing how they effect young women’s life’s by watching the news and seeing women staving themselves to fit into certain things or even selling themselves to buy that 1,000 handbag or shoes. Television shows have also step their type of advertising up by having women in leading positions, and men answering to them for a chance to have women see that they can hold high ranking jobs just like men and that whatever a man can do women can as well. <br /> <br /> Women and men have to understand that what is advertised on anything is not real not even reality television. As well as understand that stereotype is an overwhelming matter that media puts on someone because of the way they look, what gender they are, or countless other categories that we put people in. Many people fail to realize how the media influences the way they think about people of a different nationality, race, religion, or gender. People make assumptions on what they see and hear instead of analyze the situation. People have to learn how to put limits on the things they see and hear so they can create a better situation for the next generation. Women can be empowered if they are encouraged to develop an awareness of their own gender socialization process and examine how these might play into their own behavioral choices (Argosy 2011). <br /> <br />References<br />Argosy University. (2011). PSY312 Diversity. Module Four. Retrieved from http://myeclassonline.com<br />
  27. 27. Diversity Awareness<br />Racial Discrimination<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />
  28. 28. Diversity Awareness<br />Racial Discrimination<br /> <br /> Racial discrimination is reality in our society that affects all cultures. Racism destroys communities, families, friendships as well as workplaces. Racism does not an ongoing issue in just America but everywhere. What people fail to realize is racial discrimination is not about just color, but religion, class status, culture, sex, media and ethic background. Will racism every stop I would say no because it has to stop within it’s own race once individuals stop did liking them self and others like them then racism might come to an end. Discrimination is the unequal treatment of equals. <br />Family <br />Growing up in the north I never experienced racism because the way things were shown to me. Once I got on my own moving to the south racism was clear as day on a daily bases with family and the people. When arriving to Houston, Texas I was introduced to some extended family. Everyone was around the same age as me and very friendly so everyone was asking me question about where I was from and why did I come to the south. I advised when I came to visit before it seemed to be a very nice place as well as the cost of living was cheap which in the north it is not. After talking with them for a few hours one of my cousin asked me why do I sound like a white girl I did not know what to say because I do not think I speak like a white girl I think I talk very clear and concise as possible. After a few weeks of being there the same cousin and I were out eating with a few of her friends someone made a comment about the color of my skin stating your very light skin are both of my parents black or am I Creole I did not know what Creole was I assumed it was food not a nationality. <br /> I explained to them that yes both of parents are black and that I come from a mixed background, in the mix with all of that my cousin made a joke that I would be a house nigga. After this I felt very uncomfortable and did not want to be around them anymore if they are just going to talk about the color of my skin, which I feel that is not an issue for me. I also spoke to them about being rude, such racist to someone within the same ethic background and sit here and speak on someone skin color, hair type or the way they talk. I also asked where did they learn this type behavior from because I never had people talk so much about color. The reason I find this to be a racial issue is because for people of your own race or of other races. The way things could have went different was just not to talk about skin color or how someone speaks just let people be who they are this is why some people try and kill them self because others talk down to them. <br /> <br />
  29. 29. Diversity Awareness<br />Work Place<br /> Discrimination in the work place is an issue that goes on to often; when it comes to wage increase, job promotion and sex discrimination. There was a situation were I currently work where gentle man felt that he was being discriminated against when it came to doing project for our department because he was white. In the department I work for there is a mixture of people but as far as team there were only two Caucasian people the gentle man and a young lady. He went to the director and told him that he feels he is being discriminated against because he has not been given any projects and that all the other people have. The director looked into the matter to see why the man never was put on any projects. Our manager advised the director the reason why and that reason was he was not doing his current role correctly and developing as well. <br /> After the meeting was over he went back and told the Caucasian women that the meeting was a waste of time and he will be going to Human Resource because the manager was discriminating against him. The women advised him that she has gotten projects so how is she being discriminating. This to was not case of discrimination because he needs to find all the facts out before jumping to conclusion about being discriminated against. What I would have done was spoke with my manager first to see why I was not getting any projects then went to from there. This could have been avoided by plan old communication when doing a one on one with your team you need to keep them informed about what things they have access to and things they do not that way when a issue comes up it can be address right then and there. <br />Community <br /> I have seen many cases where a community has discriminated against a person for many reason. When living in Albuquerque, New Mexico I was renting a townhome in a subdivision I had received a new letter about a rapist living in the subdivision and how they wanted to get to him to move out because people were afraid. The man had been convicted for raping a under age girl which was his girlfriend so I can understand why they would want him out. My issue was what really happen with this case so I did some digging and what happen was he was 18 his girlfriend was 16 and the parents did not care for the young man and basically had him arrested for rape. If people do not read the whole case then they are discriminating against the wrong thing. Needless to I did not take part in trying to get the young man out of the community nor did he move out. <br /> They created a night watch team to watch over the community as well as watch every little thing the young man did. People would even shout at him when he would bring dates home and tell them he was a rapist. I think some things go a little to far I personally do not care for those who are out to hurt others in that way but I try to keep my personal feelings to my self until it is done in my face. This is a clear case of discrimination because they did not want a rapist living in the community. Can this be avoided really not because it is 2011 and this information is all online about what criminals are living in your community and what they were convicted for and how often crimes happen as well as when the most recent one was.<br />Conclusion <br /> Discrimination has been around for years and will continue to grow until we stand up as one. We have come a long way from how things use to be because they are still not where they should be with this being 2011. I have really grew up in a bubble because I never seen or be in situation like this until I moved to the south and west. I am sure we have those types of issue up north but it is not as open as other places. I hope and pray everyday that one day we will wake up to world peace but I am sure I am living in a fair tail or an after life. People need to understand what discrimination is because lots of them are blind to all forms. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  30. 30. Foundations of Psychology<br />PSY 400<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />October 1, 2010<br />Argosy University <br />
  31. 31. Foundations of Psychology<br />Based on the reading Codrina’s can more then one cognitive distortions one thing that jumps out to me is Jumping to conclusions: You make a negative interpretation even though there are no definite facts that convincingly support your conclusion (Burns, David D1989). The reason for this is when going to see the therapist she talks about the guy she is talking to and how she cant trust him because she feels he is being rude and insensitive to her. Which may be the case but this does not give you a reason not to trust someone it might just be that he is very blunt with her about her situation and how is she acting, and she doesn’t like that very much. Another cognitive distortion I feel she may have going on is Overgeneralization: You see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat. Which can go with the same situation she may base her current relationship of her last relationship. <br /> <br /> Cognitive distortionshas a way of playing havoc with our lives. If we let them, this kind of “stinkin’thinkin’” can be “undone,” but it takes effort and lots of practice — every day. If you want to stop the irrational thinking, you can start by trying out different exercises (Burns, D.D. 1989). Some goals that would help Codrina is learning to better communicate with the people she has contact with on a daily bases, the reason for this they may not know her whole situation and may not understand why she acts the way she do or why she cant sleep sometime. If she explains to them how she grew up and why she has certain issue they may be able to help her in certain ways and be able to talk to her so she can go to sleep at night. As well as get over the issue she had in the past.<br /> In Codrina’s therapy session things should go as followed the therapist should explain to her what type of cognitive distortion she has and why things are happening to her. The next thing she should explain is how they as a team can over come these things, and how Codrina can over come some the issues she having in her daily life. The therapist should function as normal because this client she a person who needs to feel she can trust someone, and that she has someone to come to when needing to vent or someone to listen to her and give her guidance. Codrina might be a person who might become co-dependent on the therapist because of her past being in an orphanage and the situation there, and then her husband ran off with her friend, she feels that everyone is against her and no one is here to stay because she has been alone and feels people always run away from her. <br />
  32. 32. Foundations of Psychology<br /> As a therapist some techniques she should incorporate into this session is building self-esteem, as well as trust with others because if a person doesn’t have trust in other they will always feel someone is out to use them or just negative things, as well as self-esteem with ones self once a person has self-esteem in themselves other things will follow the therapist can build this but asking question to the client like how do you feel today, and giving comments like you look very upbeat or you look like you had a great day or sound like you doing well. There are lots of things a therapist can do within a session with this type of client because she had issue from when she was younger and she has to work on that as well because this is more likely the reason she is not sleeping at night. <br /> The outcome for this kind of client can very because of her past, being an orphan, the tend to have more issue then a common person, mean growing up with no parents, and being mistreated in a place they call safe can put a bad taste in some ones mouth, because she has seen things that outsiders have not seen going on inside the orphanage. So her outcome be I would say in the middle because she is going to need therapy for the rest of her life because she never handled the issue when she was younger so that as she grows she can handle things different. If she would have went to see a therapist at the age of 16 when she left the orphanage she might not have never married the guy who ran off with her friend, with her past history she was looking for love maybe in the wrong place and not able to see the bad in people on the good because she feels they cant be as bad as the people who left me in a room to die. I would think she may be able to get over the trust issue she has with people once she learns how to trust but her self-esteem may take a long time because of all the things she been through. <br /> In conclusion this client has several issue going on self-esteem and trust issue because of her past, she will need a lot of therapy session because she waited so long to handle the issue she has going on. The therapist will have to show her client how to be independent on herself and not to look at the situation as its going to fail, but try to look at the bigger picture, as well as talk with her friends about her past so they can also help her get past her fears and not sleeping at night, this will help out in a big way because if people know they can help when therapist is not available. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  33. 33. Foundations of Psychology<br />Reference:<br />Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook: Using the new mood therapy in everyday life. New York: William Morrow. Retrieved October 1, 2010 http://psychcentral.com/lib/2009/fixing-cognitive-distortions/<br />Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook: Using the new mood therapy in everyday life. New York: William Morrow. Retrieved October 1, 2010 http://www.healthymind.com/s-distortions.html<br /> <br />
  34. 34. Applied Psychology<br /> <br />PSY 400<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />October 22, 2010<br />Argosy University <br />
  35. 35. Applied Psychology<br /> Each therapist is different as well as their clients are all different, if the entire therapist had the same approach to different issue their clients might stop coming. Meaning clients see more then one therapist until they find the right one and if that’s the case of everyone having the same approach, how would we as therapist help the client/ Someone could just write a book and everyone person with issue would be fixed and there would be no need for therapist. All therapists specialize in different things because every human is not the same nor are their issue. For example I have a friend that has issue with being alone and then I have another friend who has issue with stress, I don’t approach them the same way about their issue because its two different things. They also developed these issue from two different aspects in life not to mention they are very different from each other one is like a mom and thinks she know everything and the other is laid back listens to feedback more open minded. To handle both issues I would try different approaches to them and give different advice.<br /> The advantages and disadvantages of practicing from one specific theory can depend on the person. Each person who comes into the psychology world has their option to either focus on one aspect of things are learn about different options. There are some advantages to just focusing on one theory is that this individual will be a specialist in that theory only knowing the ins and outs of it which will allow them to have a better outcome with their clients, not saying someone who is open to more then one theory wont have good outcomes its just that if you focus on one thing you will become the best at that one things and see better results. The disadvantage of it is that you only know that one theory and can only help one type of group, and your client base might be very small. Also depending if you’re working for a company there might not be a need for your type of therapy. <br />
  36. 36. Applied Psychology<br /> Integrative approach to things basically means to make things open to all, when things are open to all has a better client base because it allows anyone and everyone come into your programs. Companies will be able to use you in different aspect of the company; this will also allow that individual to be universal within the psychology field. Some disadvantage the person wont be a specialist in any certain theory they will know about different theories but will need assist with helping the client meaning the will have to read up on things to have a better understanding or reach out to another therapist. Sometime they just might not be able to handle that client, because feel they just cant help them and the client will go seek out another therapist<br /> The term “integrative” as it is used in our approach to integrative psychotherapy has a number of meanings. Primarily it refers to the process of integrating the personality, which includes helping clients to become aware of and assimilate the contents of their fragmented and fixated ego states into an integrated neopsychic ego, to develop a sense of self that decreases the need for defense mechanisms and a life script, and to reengage the world and relationships with full contact. It is the process of making whole: taking disowned, unaware, unresolved aspects of the ego and making them part of a cohesive self (Erskine & Trautmann, 1993).<br /> The advantage of integrative is The four dimensions of human functioning—affective, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological—are an important guide in determining where someone is open or closed to contact and therefore to therapeutic support. A major goal of integrative psychotherapy is to use the therapist-client relationship—the ability to create contact in the present—as a stepping-stone to satisfying relationships with other people and a unified, fulfilled sense of self (Erskine & Trautmann, 1993). The disadvantage of this type of therapy is for the people who are not willing to open up to others and build a relationship, for people who are just starting out in therapy may not feel comfortable with it. <br />
  37. 37. Applied Psychology<br /> Some personal characteristics are having trust within your self, and what you believe in, being open minded. Therapist must have good communicate caring and empathy for the client, as well as being able to resolved (or at least are aware of) their own emotional issues. They’re able to handle the stress of helping others deal with psychological disorders, without letting their own issues cause problems. Therapists are always learning about new findings in therapy research and new ways to communicate with and help clients. The best therapists are always brushing up on their own therapeutic skills and people skills; they're also constantly expanding their knowledge base. Effective therapists understand the ethics in working with patients, and know the importance of keeping client sessions confidential. Psychologists must understand the difference between ethics and morals (L. Kienle2006).<br /> Motivation is a good thing with a therapist because as stated in the last paragraph a therapist should always learning about new findings in therapy research and new ways to communicate with and help clients. The best therapists are always brushing up on their own therapeutic skills and people skills; they're also constantly expanding their knowledge base. I think everything is a benefit for the therapist the only thing that will hinder them is not following the laws of ethic can hinder them as well as being racist, closed minded and allowing their personal life interfere with their client (L. Kienle2006).<br /> The type of therapy I see my self in is Behavior therapy because its based on the premise that you learn all behavior through interaction and experience, and therefore, you can solve some of life's problems by unlearning specific behaviors. For instance, clients with anger management problems may have learned angry and aggressive responses by observing such behavior in their parents or other caregivers. The aim of behavior therapy is to help such clients unlearn these dysfunctional violent behaviors According to the behavioral school of thought; behavior is neutral until the environment affects it. A person is not intrinsically good or bad but develops patterns of behavior by interacting with the environment and its components, whether they are parents, friends, peer groups, or role models. The origins of behavior therapy can be attributed to three learning theories: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning (Nystul, 2003). <br />
  38. 38. Applied Psychology<br /> Behavior therapy is meant to be short term in duration. However, it can encompass as many as 25 to 50 sessions. Some of the techniques of behavior therapy include self-management, self -efficacy, token economy, assertiveness training, and systematic desensitization. Let's explore them. Self-Management and Self-Control: These techniques assist clients to become advocates and spokespersons for their own change. Therapists provide only expertise in management of the clients' behavior. Kanfer and Goldstein (1986) identify the following skills involved in this method. Let's understand these skills with the example of Jim, who has anger management difficulties: Monitor their responses. For example, the therapist would ask Jim to monitor whether a response Jim made in anger was appropriate in that situation. Make contracts with clients about changes expected from them. The therapist would write up the changes that the clients should implement. For example, the next time Jim is angry, he could walk into another room for some time to control his anger. Rope in people in the clients' lives to support their attempts to change. For example, the therapist would have Jim talk to the people in Jim's life about what they could do to ensure that he fulfills his contract. Have clients evaluate their progress. For example, the therapist would ask Jim what he did well that worked and what he can do better to progress more. Help clients come up with a list of reinforcements for the consequences of those behaviors that promote growth. For example, Jim may like a wide range of reinforcements to continue behavior change. These could range from a cup of coffee in the morning to a trip abroad to reward him (Argosy 2010).<br /> In conclusion, there is not perfect therapist and will never be life is about making mistakes so that you learn from them. With people having personal issue they seek others for help which allows us to become better at being a therapist. People should also understand that it is a process and process takes time its not an over night success. There are always advantages and disadvantages of the therapy world but its up to the therapist to become better at their job, by keeping up with the latest studies, techniques and social skills we need to develop. <br />
  39. 39. Applied Psychology<br />Reference:<br />Erskine, R. G., & Trautmann, R. L. (1993). The process of integrative psychotherapy. In B. R. Loria (Ed.), The boardwalk papers: Selections from the 1993 Eastern Regional Transactional Analysis Association conference (pp. 1-26). Madison, WI: Omnipress.<br /> <br />Argosy University Online. (2010). Retrieved October 22, 2010, http://myeclassonline.com/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=4440778&userid<br />Laurie Pawlik-Kienlen (2006). The Top 10 Qualities of Good Psychologists. Retrieved October 22, 2010 http://www.suite101.com/content/the-top-10-qualities-of-good-psychologists-a154676<br />exemplifies each outcome–can incorporate pictures, video, audio, etc. <br />
  40. 40. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Moral Reasoning<br />Shalawn McMillan<br />Professor Torok<br />January 10, 2011<br />
  41. 41. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Moral Reasoning<br /> Making good moral decisions is difficult because as people, live in such a complex world where every day can be a challenge. The most important step is knowing the facts, the reason the facts are the most important is without the facts you can not move forward to the conclusion of things. When collecting facts people have to make sure they are facts meaning who is feeding you the information, as well as the evidence that was collected how does connect to the situation. <br /> Given any situation the facts will always be the most important, when dealing with a personal situation like a cheating boyfriend. People always want to have their facts lined up when you have friends saying he is cheating may not always be the evidence for you because they may be the type who do not like to see others happy so you have to weigh your options when collecting evidence there are some friends you can trust and some you can’t. With a cheating boyfriend some good evidence would be finding a phone number in his pocket. Over hearing him talk to the another person on the phone or text messages is hard evidence. <br /> After learning about the situation the next best option is looking over the facts from various perspectives. The reason for this is you cannot just go on how you should handle the situation. You have to play each part out from different prospective because you never know what reaction you might obtain from the other person. There for you have to think how will react to there reaction, so taking a step back and play things out might help everyone in the situation because someone can get hurt or anything. People should always look at situation from the other person shoes no matter the situation.<br /> Then think can this issue be resolved would be the next option. Because after getting the evidence and think about how others may react or how you, might react you need to think if this issue can be resolved no matter if it is good or bad. You have think if you want to resolve this issue with this person, or just leave it as is show the evidence and move on. As human you always want to try to resolve the issue so that when you look back on things you can say it is a closed chapter in your book. Make sure your happy with the way you will resolve it always sleep on it or take time to think about the bigger picture. <br /> The last step would be to choose the best moral reasoning for your given situation. When finding out your boyfriend cheated on you the first reaction is to, react in a negative way towards him. Sometime that might not be the best resolution because of how he might react. If you think back to the previous processes discussed you will see that just reacting is not the right step to take. You need figure out if you want to resolve the issue or just move on. But always keep a positive outcome in mind, is always the moral thing no matter the issue since you are looking at the bigger picture. The hardest step to follow will be looking at the situation from different perspectives. Because when things happen no one really wants to sit back think about things and try to figure out how should I go about this or should I sleep on this before I react. It is a learning process for people I know personally I had to learn to do this because of my harsh reaction to things after making one big mistake. I took the time to think about things and after doing that I learned to not over react to things and just let things play out in it is own way.<br />  References<br />Michael C. Brannigan. (2005) Ethics Across Cultures: An Introductory Text with Reading Retrieved 2011. <br />
  42. 42. My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner?<br /> I envision my future to be very successful by obtaining a MAIO, Industrial Organizational Psychology, and MA, Community Counseling if time allows me I would like to also get PhD in I/O while helping individuals any way I can. I also plan to allow myself to get a much education as possible from reading, certification, observation of other therapist and personal life experience. <br />
  43. 43. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br />shalawnmcmillan@gmail.com<br />
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