An easy way to learn upper limb muscles
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An easy way to learn upper limb muscles

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A summary for learning the muscles of the upper limb including their attachments, innervation, etc., without having to have too many books open. Resources: "Gray’s Anatomy", "Taschenatlas der ...

A summary for learning the muscles of the upper limb including their attachments, innervation, etc., without having to have too many books open. Resources: "Gray’s Anatomy", "Taschenatlas der Anatomie" and Wikipedia. Awaiting further proof-reading!

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An easy way to learn upper limb muscles An easy way to learn upper limb muscles Document Transcript

  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn musclesMuscles of the arm layer / name meaning body part origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function location long head: supraglenoid  via common tendon into  tubercle of scapula  the bicipical tuberosity  supinator of forearm  (through sleeve of  of radius. Medial side:  when elbow is flexed,  synovial tissue in  anterior,  via bicipital  flexes elbow in fully biceps brachii biceps of the arm arm intertubercular /bicipital  musculocutaneous brachial artery superficial aponeurosis into deep  supinated position.  groove of humerus,  fascia of medial forearm  Shoulder: stabilises and  short head: coracoid  and subcutaneous  minor flexion process, joins long head  border of ulna midway down arm distal half of anterior  anterior,  via strong tendon into  humeral shaft and  radial recurrent brachialis muscle of the arm arm intermediat coronoid process of  musculocutaneous flexor of elbow medial intermuscular  artery e ulna septum adducts shoulder (to  tip of coracoid process  muscle of the arm  anterior,  medial aspect mid­shaft  hold things under arm), coracobrachialis arm of scapula (with short  musculocutaneous brachial artery and coracoid process deep of humerus weak flexor of shoulder  head of biceps) joint long head: infraglenoid  tubercle of scapula,  posterior,  muscle of arm with  lateral and medial head:  tendon to olecranon  deep brachial triceps brachii arm single  radial nerve extends elbow three heads posterior surface of  process of ulna artery muscle humerus, medial head  in lateral groove posterior aspect of  muscle attached to  forearm /  posterior,  assists extension of anconeous lateral epicondyle of  lateral side of olecranon radial nerve elbow arm superficial elbow humerusAnterior Posterior long head short head lateral head long head coracobrachialis biceps  brachii triceps brachii medial head brachialis anconeus(musculocutaneous nerve) (radial nerve)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles Muscles of the forearm (anterior side) layer /  name meaning body part origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function location maximum convexity of  CFO and distal part of  radius at midpoint of  the supradcondylar  lateral aspect of bone  anterior,  ridge of humerus, deep:  ulnar and radial  pronates the forearm,  pronator  teres cylindrical pronator forearm (I.e. halfway along  median nerve superficial medial aspect of  artery (also flexes elbow) forearm, mid­shaft,  coronoid process of  roughening of lateral  ulna surface) with FCU to flex wrist,  flexor of carpal  anterior,  bases of the 2nd and  with radial extensors to  flexor carpi radialis forearm CFO median nerve ulnar artery bones on radial side superficial 3rd metacarpals abduct the wrist,  stabilises wrist palmar aponeurosis,  anterior,  superficial tendon  tenses palmar fascia  palmaris longus long palmar muscle forearm CFO median nerve ulnar artery superficial adherent to flexor  and flexes the wrist retinaculum pisiform (=sesamoid  bone in its tendon!) with  extension to hook of  CFO and medial margin  hamate (pisohamate  flexor of carpal  anterior,  adducts and flexes the  flexor carpi ulnaris forearm of olecranon process of  ligament) and base of  ulnar nerve ulnar artery bones on ulnar side superficial wrist ulna 5th metacarpal  (pisometacarpal  ligament), and aspect of  flexor retinaculum 4 tendons through carpal  humeral head: ant aspect  tunnel for fingers 2­5.  of medial epicondyle of  Tendon inserts at base of  strong flexor of wrist  anterior,  humerus via CFO,                middle phalanx.  flexor digitorum  superficial flexor of  and fingers (not distal  forearm intermediat ulnar head: coronoid  Decussation on lateral  median nerve ulnar artery superficialis fingers interphalangeal joint),  e process of ulna, also:  and medial aspects of  weak flexor of elbow extended origin from  proximal phalanges for  radius FDP tendons to pass  through Superficial and intermediate layer LAT MED pronator teres head of ulna: olecranon trochlear notch coracoid  process of ulna brachioradials flexor digitorum superficials (FDS) (see post. forearm, radial nerve) ulnar head flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)flexor carpi radialis (FCR) (palmaris longus not drawn) (all median nerve but FCU which is ulnar nerve)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles Muscles of the forearm (anterior side ­ 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eep layer LAT MED flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)flexor pollicis  longus pronator quadratus (all median nerve but FDP, which is 1/2 ulnar nerve)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles Muscles of the forearm (posterior side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uperficial layer brachioradialis (radial nerve) MED LAT MED LAT (all me) Extensor digitorum communis (EDC)extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRl) Extensor digitiextensor carpi radialis Extensor carpi minimi (EDM) brevis (ECRb) ulnaris (ECU) (All post. interosseous branch of radial nerve, except brachioradialis which is radial nerve proper.)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles Muscles of the forearm (posterior side ­ 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eep layer MED LAT (all me) supinator abductor pollicis longusextensor pollicis longus extensor indicis extensor pollicis brevis (All post. interosseous branch of radial nerve)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn musclesMuscles of the hand (palmar/anterior side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dorsal expansion: EDC (all me) FDP tendon lumbricals (ulnar one nearly always multipennate,  others unipennate, depends on which nerve supplies them! dorsal interossei (DAB = abduct, bipennate) palmar interossei (PAD=adduct, unipennate)
  • C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles Muscles of the hand (palmar/anterior side, eminences) layer /  name meaning body part origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function location transverse: anterior body  of 3rd metacarpal,  thenar  medial side of the base  oblique: bases of 2nd  ulnar nerve (deep  adductor pollicis  adductor of  thumb hand eminence,  of the proximal phalanx  depp palmar arch adducts thumb and 3rd metacarpals  motor branch) deep of thumb  and adjacent trapezoid  and capitate bones thenar  transverse carpal  radial base of proximal  abductor pollicis  superficial palmar  abductor of thumb hand eminence,  ligament, scaphoid and  phalanx of thumb and  median nerve abducts thumb brevis arch lateral trapezium thumb extensors thenar  trapezoid, flexor  thumb, proximal  superficial palmar  flexor pollicis brevis short thumb flexor hand eminence,  median nerve flexes thumb retinaculum phalanx arch medial thenar  trapezium and  opposing muscle of  metacarpal bone of  superficial palmar  moves thumb against  opponens pollicis hand eminence,  transverse carpal  median nerve thumb thumb on its radial side arch little finger deep ligament hypo­ abductor of little  thenar  base of proximal  ulnar nerve (deep  abductor digiti minimi hand pisiform ulnar artery abducts little finger finger eminence,  phalanx of little finger motor branch) superficial hypo­ ulnar side of base of  flexor digiti minimi  ulnar nerve (deep  flexor of little finger hand thenar  hamate bone proximal phalanx of  ulnar artery flexes little finger (brevis) motor branch) eminence little finger opposing muscle of  hypothenar  hook of hamate and  medial border of 5th  ulnar nerve (deep  moves little finger  opponens digiti minimi little finger (places  hand ulnar artery eminence flexor retinaculum metacarpal motor branch) against thumb against sth else) Thenar eminence                                                               Hypothenar eminence: (all me)(whole muscles visible on hand:) Opponens pollicis Opponens digiti minimi Abductor pollicis brevis (always median) Abductor digiti minimi Flexor pollicis brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Adductor pollicis (does not need adductor since it has interossei)