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Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development by shakir ullah

Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development by shakir ullah



Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development

Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development
by shakir ullah M.Phil sociology the university of agriculture peshawar pakistan



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  • The great bratien was in take-off stage from 1783-1883, France 1840-60, USA 1843-60
  • America, england,france,australia achieved the stage of high mass consumption after world war II and korea,china ,india ,pakistan are now struggling toward such stage

Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development by shakir ullah Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development by shakir ullah Presentation Transcript

  • NAME : SHAKIR ULLAH SUBJECT: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT TOPIC FOR PRESENTATION: Modernization the process of social change and development with reference to economic development By Shakir ullah
  • Development and social change are mostly dependent upon economic growth a country because man is social as well as economic being; man by his nature is mostly economic and less social. Man materialistic attitudes and further his economic activities make him is social being. He accepts those changes which are best suited to his selfish interest. Change is the law of nature man not only like change but he accepts change because he get bored in static environment and we can say that man is by nature very dynamic. By Shakir ullah
  • By Shakir ullah
  • There was mechanical solidarity( durkhiem) but latter on many factors compelled man to bring changed in his social as well as natural environment these changes led human social environment from simple to the most complex one. By Shakir ullah
  • 1.Spencer: Modernization is the process in which societies move from simple to complex , homogeneity to heterogeneity, incoherent to coherent and from agriculture to industrial. 2.Ward: Modernization is the application of modern science to human affairs. By Shakir ullah
  • The application of scientific knowledge and techniques to various fields. Agriculture subsistence forming change to commercial farming. Industrialization take place with great emphasis on inanimate forms of energy, human and animal power become less important. Urbanization became an accelerating process. By Shakir ullah
  • All institutions including economic change from simple to complex the competition on both sides consumption and production introduced. Modern marketing system brought changes in whole economic system. The agriculture system modernized with farm mechanization and cottage industries. By Shakir ullah
  • SOCIAL CHANGE It refers to the alteration and modification which take place in the life pattern of people in society. Social change occurs in all societies because no society is neither completely static nor changed.
  • 1.Horton and Hunt define social change change in the social structure and social relation of society. 2. J.B Chitambar define social change as social change involve a change in the structure and functions of societal forms. Examples of social change: changes in all social institutions e.g. family, economic, political etc.
  • I t is an addition to knowledge and finding new facts which are already present. Discovery become factor in social change when put into serious use such as the discovery of blood circulation system in human body.
  • it mean a new use of existing knowledge. It is the idea of combining elements of knowledge that produce something new. Such as automobile. Mobile cell etc.
  • It refer to the process whereby one culture trait and patterns spreads from one society to another. This process take place when societies came into contact like most of our cultural traits come from European societies. Our political system, our postal system, our construction designs, our daily fashions and dress styles etc all reflect western culture.
  • Without these things we can never imagine any development through discovery man is busy to enhance the process of development. Like discovery inventions are more important to bring development in every sector like through the invention of computer, automobile etc human have touch the climax of economic development through computer and internet we can control any business activity and can do business activities more easily further the invention of transportation and communication much facilitated any economic and business activity.
  • These are considered as the backbone of industries and factory system because raw materials are mostly carried by the means of transport. Further with means of transportation and communication the process of urbanization accelerated.
  • Scientific inventions further facilitated modern factory system and we can say that capitalism emerged due to industrialization and the application of scientific knowledge.
  • Diffusion is similarly played its role in economic development most of the economic policies have been diffused from one county to another our banking systems including other things have been came from westerns countries.
  • Development
  • A multi dimensional phenomena. Generally it is define as Growth plus change. Growth refers to an increase in gross or per capita income and change refer to structural and institutional changes. According to UN documents in developing countries development refer to an increase in production capacity but major transformation in their social and economic structure.
  • Mair and Baldwin: the process whereby an economy real national income increase over a long period of time and of the rate of development is greater than the population growth , then per capita income will increase and that real real development. Biddle and giddle: development is a socio economic process b y which human being can become more competent to live with a gain some control over the confronting socio economic problems and get a way of progress.
  • Two factors determine the process of socio- economic development 1.Economic factor 2.Non- economic factor
  • a. Natural resources: it is the principal factor affecting the process of development. A country enrich with resources develop rapidly. b. Capital accumulation: It is increase in the capital stock of the country e.g. domestic resources and external resources. C. Labor: the more educated , skilled , healthy and well nourished labor force and the greater will be productivity.
  • d. Power resources: it is the foundation of economic development. Include energy of different kinds.
  • e. Technological factor: Technology has brought tremendous changes in all aspects of human life. The pattern of life has got change due to advance technology. Technology enter into every sector and brought tremendous changes and development in every sector e.g. Farm mechanization, industrialization, transportation, comm unication, technical IT education, commercialization, construction and work technology. In short we can say that technology produce development and development enhance technology.
  • a. Educational factor: The most important factor in bringing change and economic development in the country. Provide specialized labour for market. Improved technical skills. Make attitudes favorable to accept changes. b. Social factor: social attitudes, value and institutions influence socio economic changes and development. Traditional attitudes, values and customs are consider great obstacles in socio economic change and development. c. Political factor : It is an important variable in socio economic change and development. A stable government can introduce for reaching reforms in all social as well as economic sectors for speeding up the economic development in a country.
  • Rostow - Stages of Growth 1. Traditional Society  Characterised by  subsistence economy – output not traded or recorded  high levels of agriculture and labour intensive agriculture  Wealth allocated to non- productive activities (religious, military  China, civilization of middle east
  • Rostow - Stages of Growth 2. Pre-conditions:  An elite group initiates development  Investments in technology and infrastructure  Commercialization of agriculture
  • Rostow - Stages of Growth At this stage, industrial growth may be linked to primary industries. The level of technology required will be low. 3. Take off:  Increasing industrialization in limited areas (food or textiles)  Foreign investment increases  Infrastructure improvements  Some regional growth  Economy still dominated by traditional practices  Value, traditional social structure are overcome
  • Rostow - Stages of Growth As the economy matures, technology plays an increasing role in developing high value added products. 4. Drive to Maturity:  Develops broad manufacturing and commercial base  Industry more diversified  Increase in levels of technology utilized
  • Rostow - Stages of Growth Service industry dominates the economy – banking, insurance, finance, marketing, entertain ment, leisure and so on. 5. High mass consumption  High output levels  Mass consumption of consumer durables  High proportion of employment in service sector
  • Stage 5: early 20th century Stage 4: late 19th century Stage 3: middle of 19th century Stage 2: first half of 19th century Stage 1: prior to independence