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Grammar book


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  • 1. GRAMMAR BOOK Sarah Autry
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1) Nationalities 9) Reflexives2) Stem-changers 10) Affirmative Tú3) Para Commands + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement4) IOP 11) Negative Tú Commands5) Pronoun Placement + Irregulars + Pronoun6) Gustar Placement7) Affirmatives and 12) Sequencing Events Negatives8) Superlatives
  • 3. STEM-CHANGERS Dormir (o > ue) Preferir (e > ie)Yo duermo Nosotros Yo prefiero Nosotros dormimos preferimosTú duermes Tú prefieresEl/Ella/Ud. Ellos/Ellas/Uds. El/Ella/Ud. Ellos/Ellas/Uds.duerme duermen prefiere prefieren Jugar (u > ue) Pedir (e > i)Yo juego Nosotros jugamos Yo pido Nosotros pedimosTú juegas Tú pidesEl/Ella/Ud. juega Ellos/Ellas/Uds. El/Ella/Ud. pide Ellos/Ellas/Uds. juegan piden
  • 4. PARAUse para to indicate:- Recipient of items: Compro un regalo para mi mama.- Purpose: Vamos al café para comer.- Implied purpose: Tengo dinero para (comprar) algo.
  • 5. INDIRECT OBJECT PLACEMENT• Indirect object pronouns aregiven to represent who theaction is to. Me Nos - I gave flowers to her.• Indirect object pronouns aredifferent for who is receivingthe action. Te• Indirect objects pronouns areplaced before the verb. - Le doy los flores. Le Les
  • 6. OBJECT PRONOUN PLACEMENT1) Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2) Attach the pronoun to a progressive3) Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4) Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  • 7. GUSTAR Gustar is used to mean to like. However, instead of conjugating gustar as you would any other verb, it is in opposite proportion. For example:• Me gusta el alce. - This would translate to A moose is Me Nospleasing to me. Hence me.• Le gustan los alces. Te - This would translate to Multiplemoose are pleasing to him. Le Les - Notice how gustar alternatedendings based on object’s amount.
  • 8. AFFIRMATIVES AND NEGATIVES Algo Something Nada Nothing Alguien Someone Nadie No one None, not Alguno/a Some Ninguno/a any Either, También Also Tampoco Neither•When using the word nada, the verb must also be negative. This creates a double negative. - No quiero nada. This would mean I do not want nothing. This is grammatically correct.
  • 9. SUPERLATIVES• Added to adjectives and adverbs • Adjectives and adverbs ending in - Equivalent to extremely or very –n or –r form be adding –císimo ~ Malo > malísimo - Jovén > jovencísimo ~ Muchas > muchísimas - Trabajador > trabajadorcísimo ~Dificíl > dificilísimo• Adjectives and adverbs ending in c, g, or z change to qu, gu, and c - Rico > riquísimo - Larga > larguísima - Feliz > felicísimo
  • 10. REFLEXIVES• Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to indicate that the ME NOS subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb TO ME TO US• Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive pronouns. TE Without a reflexive pronoun, the person doing the action does not TO YOU receive the action.• When you use the infinitive form of a reflexive verb after a LE LES conjugated verb, be sure to use TO HIM TO THEM the correct reflexive pronoun - Quiero levantarme temprano. TO HER - Me quiero levantar temprano.
  • 11. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS + IRREGULARS+ PRONOUN PLACEMENT• Give instructions or Irregular • Remember that when youcommands to someone by Affirmative Tú use a pronoun with anusing the Affirmative Tú Commands affirmative command, theCommands of regular verbs pronoun attaches to the Di• It will be in the tú form. commandHowever, the ―s‖ will drop Haz - ¡Ponte otra camisa! (to• This makes it look like it is Ve you)in the 3rd person form • When using an object Pon pronoun, attach the pronoun• There are eight irregular Sal to the end of the commandaffirmative tú commands - ¡Hazla! (la tarea) Sé Ten Ven
  • 12. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS + IRREGULARS + PRONOUN PLACEMENT Irregular Negative Tú • When you tell someone what not to do, use Commands a negative command • Negative tú commands are formed by: Tener—no tengas - Take the YO form of the present tense Vener—no vengas - Drop the –o Dar/decir—no des/digas - Change to the opposite value Ir—no vayas ~ Replace –ar verbs with –es ~ Replace –er and –ir verbs with –as Ser—no seas • There are eight irregular negative tú Hacer—no hagas commands Estar—no estés • Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with otherSaber/salir—no sepas/salgas conjugated verbs. - ¡No lo uses!
  • 13. SEQUENCING EVENTS PRIMERO First ENTONCES Then LUEGO Later DESPUÉS After POR FIN Finally ANTES DE Before DESPUÉS DE After POR LA MAÑANA/ In/during the… TARDE /NOCHE (no specific time given) LOS LUNES, ETC. On Mondays, etc.*These words are commonly placed before the sentence begins in order to represent in whichsequence it is done. These words are usually used for a schedule or routine.